ALTERNATE NAMES: Myanmar
LOCATION: Myanmar (Burma)
POPULATION: 30 million
1 • INTRODUCTION
The country, Union of Myanmar, is known by two names: Myanmar and Burma. The Burman people pronounce the name of their country as "Bamah." In 1990, the military government of the Union of Burma named the country "Myanmar" (which the people pronounce as "Myanmah"). Outside Myanmar, people refer to the country as both Burma and Myanmar, mainly depending on whether they support the military government or not.
In 1885, the British annexed Burma and colonized the region. In 1947, the Burmese leaders negotiated with the British for Burma's independence. The neighboring areas of Chin, Kachin, and Shan became part of independent Burma. Burma functioned as a democracy until 1962, when a military dictatorship took over. This started a decline in the country's economy. By the late 1990s, Myanmar had become one of the ten poorest countries in the world.
2 • LOCATION
3 • LANGUAGE
Burman people have only a first name, and all names have meanings. Burmans have no family names. It is impossible to trace one's ancestors by name. For example, U Nu means "uncle young" or "uncle tender." U means "uncle" but is used in the same way as "Mr." in English. Ma is equivalent to "Miss." Daw means "aunt" and is used to refer to women in the same was as "Mrs." or "Miss."
|how are you?||nei kaun ye la?|
|how do you do?||ma-ye la?|
The Burmans stress age in social and human relations. An elder must be addressed as "uncle." If the ages are not far apart, as with an elder brother, then ako is used; for an elder sister, ama is used. Most Burman names consist of two or three words (for example, Ne Win or Khin Maung Gyi ).
4 • FOLKLORE
The Burman revere spiritual beings called the Nat, which they celebrate in their ceremonial plays, prayers, sacrifices, and dances. The Nat or Nathami (female) are believed to be very clever and possess immense power. They inhabit human bodies and exist in the trees, on top of mountains, in the ocean, and everywhere else. The Burman cannot imagine what the Nat look like, but they fear them. The people give offerings to the Nat so that they will protect them. Thagyamin, a Nat considered to be a god, hears all and knows all, and is usually honored during the New Year Festival.
The Burman also honor the Naga, spirits that live at the bottom of rivers, seas, and oceans in places built from precious stones and pearls. They are the protectors of the water and land. The Naga have the advantage of being able to take the form of human beings, whereby the female Naga become beautiful women and marry powerful men in order to influence them. The Burman also believe in Bilus, the loner cannibals who are said to live in hidden places.
5 • RELIGION
The Burman people are almost all Buddhists. To promote Buddhism, Burman kings invaded their neighboring countries and brought back slaves to build pagodas or temples. They also brought back religious teachers. Myanmar has over one million Buddhist temples. Despite being devoted Buddhists, the Burmans still believe in their traditional spirit beings.
6 • MAJOR HOLIDAYS
The Burman have two major religious holidays. The Burman New Year, combined with the Thakyan (Water Festival) takes place April 13 to 16; April 17 is the New Year. During the Water Festival, loved ones splash each other with water from cups or buckets. Young Burmans take this opportunity to express their secret love to girls or boys by throwing water on them.
Another Burman holiday takes place on the full moon in November and is called the Light Festival, which is celebrated like Christmas in the Western world. The Burman decorate their houses with lights (mostly candles because electricity is not widely available). Wearing their best clothing, young men and women walk the town streets which are filled with people.
The Burman celebrate Independence Day on January 4 with military parades, speeches, and gun salutes. Union Day, observed on February 12, celebrates the signing of the Panglong agreement, in which the Shan, Kachin, and Chin agreed to join the Burman to form the Union of Burma in 1947. Union Day is usually celebrated with sporting competitions among the ethnic nationalities. Each ethnic group has its own costumes, making the Union Day celebrations very colorful. Arjani nih or Martyr's Day (August 12) commemorates Aung San (1914?–47), the father of the Union of Burma, who was assassinated.
Myanmar has many more holidays, far outnumbering the usual holidays celebrated in the United States.
7 • RITES OF PASSAGE
The birth of a child is not a particularly important event because the Burman usually have many children. As soon as a baby is born, the mother avoids eating meat and fish. She also does not use soap. From birth, boys and girls are treated differently. Names are usually given immediately after birth, but it is not out of the ordinary for the baby to be unnamed for many months. When a boy is born, a learned man is invited to wash his hair. The learned man places gold and silver coins in the cup that is used to wash the baby's hair so that he will grow up rich. Girls consider ear-piercing an important event to make themselves more beautiful.
One of the most important duties of the parents of a boy is to send him to the Buddhist temple to train as a novice monk. Although it costs money, a parent who sends his child to monkhood is believed to have secured a place in paradise after death. The boy can enter the temple anytime between the ages of nine and thirteen, depending on when he feels ready to go without food from noon until night. The celebration marking the beginning of Buddhist training starts with the boy's dressing up as a prince and being carried on a platform to the temple. He may not touch ground. On reaching the temple, the boy's head is shaved and the parents bring out a special cloth to catch his hair before it drops to the ground. He then officially becomes a novice monk. Prayers and Buddhist chanting celebrate the moment. The duration of a boy's Buddhist training is usually from three days to a week. Some novices stay on to become monks for the rest of their lives.
At death, it is believed the deceased will travel in the afterlife. Therefore, the corpse is buried with a quarter in its mouth to pay for boat and bus fares. The family brings dirt from the funeral ground back home so that the dead know the way home. Seven days after death, a monk is called to tell the deceased that he can go any place he or she wishes to go from that day on.
8 • RELATIONSHIPS
Burman greet each other by asking "Have you eaten?" They do not have a "good morning" or "good evening" greeting. If the person is visiting and replies in the negative, the host is obligated to serve food. If the answer is in the positive, then the next question will be, "What did you have for your meal?" Meeting on the street, they tend to ask, "Where did you go?" or "From where did you come?" These greetings are more a formality than they are actual questions. In the morning they may say to each other, "Are you up already?"
Burman men and women seldom touch each other in public. They hold hands in public only if they are already engaged or married. However, men often hold hands with each other, and women may hold hands with each other. Burman do not traditionally shake hands. A young man may touch the head of a girl without holding it to express his closeness to her. Hugging is not practiced, although people may hug each other in private. Kissing is regarded as a Western custom, and kissing in public places is not allowed. As in the United States, nodding the head means "yes," and shaking the head means "no." If a Burman is hungry, he may touch his stomach.
Because telephones are rare, people visit each other in their homes whenever they have time. They visit each other in the very early morning or at night, usually unannounced. The Burman are very friendly and are always open to receiving visitors.
Parents play a role arranging their children's marriages. Because the Burman traditionally do not date, it is difficult for young boys and girls to meet. Nowadays, though, a boy and a girl might go to see a movie or have dinner together. Before a boy and a girl go together, they match their birth day of the week according to Burmese superstitions. For example, Burmans believe two people are a good match if they were born on a Wednesday and a Saturday. If a boy likes a girl, he may walk in front of the girl's house a thousand times until the girl and her family notice him. He may also give her a love letter. The girl might refuse the letter or reluctantly accept it. A girl's acceptance of admiration is a serious commitment and indicates that a wedding is not far off.
9 • LIVING CONDITIONS
Sanitation is very poor because there are no sewer systems and therefore most houses do not have bathrooms. Sewage washes down into streams and rivers, which also serve as the drinking water supply. Therefore, many diseases are common. Malnutrition is also widespread among children.
People have very few material goods. They have only necessities, such as two or three cooking pots, a few plates, wooden spoons, and very few articles of clothing. Because it is a warm climate, they rarely have blankets.
Myanmar is agricultural and about 80 percent of the population lives in the country. Most farmers have two oxen or buffalo for wet rice cultivation, a hoe, and a cart. Burman farmers do not have horses. Rural houses, including the floors and walls, are made mostly of bamboo. The houses are actually small huts and have two partitions; one side is for cooking and storage, and the other half is used for sitting and sleeping. There is no furniture in the houses. In urban areas, brick and concrete buildings offer very small living spaces.
For most Burmans, the only means of transportation is the cart. Public transportation systems are hopelessly overcrowded and are often unsafe and dirty.
10 • FAMILY LIFE
Usually a Burman family has about five children. The family also consists of grandparents and the extended family members.
Under Buddhism there is no limitation on the number of spouses one can have at the same time. A person can marry as many women or men as they want to, although this practice is rare today.
When a young Burman man marries a young woman, they will live with the wife's family. The brothers and sisters of the wife might also live in the house. The man goes to live with his in-laws because he is expected to go to work all day and be absent from the home. He has very little contact with his mother-in-law. On the other hand, if the couple went to live with the husband's family, the young wife would be in constant contact with her mother-in-law, and they may experience difficulties. In the family, the man is expected to earn a living and the wife's duty is to look after what her husband earns. Thus the man delivers all his paychecks to the wife and she administers the household budget. Grandparents also help the young couple take care of any babies that are born. If a farmer has only a son, the son must stay in the parents' household to take over the farm. Thus the bride must live in the groom's home. Burman are expected to look after their elderly, so it possible that parents may stay with their children their whole lives.
Dogs are the most common pets of the house. Cats are also a common pet. Many families keep cows and buffalo.
11 • CLOTHING
Both Burman women and men wear htami or longyi, a long tube of cloth that is wrapped around and tucked in at the waist. No matter how poor a Burman may be, he or she will still own a Burmese jacket and a silk longyi or htami to wear on important occasions. The designs on the longyi and htami are different according to personal tastes. Men wear collarless shirts with their longyis and women wear short, fitted tops. For special occasions they wear silk shirts or blouses. They may own only one or two shirts or blouses. Burmans do not wear underclothing.
12 • FOOD
The staple of the Burman diet is usually rice, eaten with a lot of curry (but not as much as in Indian food), garlic, and ginger. Fish sauce and dried shrimp are used for flavor. Ngapi, a stong-flavored pickled-fish paste, is eaten at almost every meal. Burman do not eat meat in large quantities. Meat is usually cut into small pieces and fried with oil. Onions, garlic, and spices such as curry and salt are mixed and slowly cooked. The two most common Burman dishes are Mohinga and Ohnnukhaukswe. Mohinga is slightly fermented rice noodles mixed in a thick, fish soup. Ohnnukhaukswe is a chicken stew cooked in coconut milk, also served with noodles. Underripe mangoes and limes are typically served with meals. Burman eat hot, sour, sweet, salty, bitter, and spicy snacks. The Burman commonly eat with their fingers. Soup is eaten with a spoon shared by two or more people.
Green tea is one of the most common drinks, next to water. Alcohol is frowned upon and very few people drink it regularly. Food is a favorite topic of conversation among the Burman. That is why they greet each other by saying, "Have you eaten?" or "What did you have for lunch?" The Burman normally eat two times a day, once in the morning, which could be considered brunch, and the other meal in the afternoon.
13 • EDUCATION
The literacy rate (ability to read and write) among the Burman is usually quite high because Buddhist monasteries serve as the center of learning, where the monks function as teachers. Since the introduction of schools by the British, learning in the monasteries is becoming less popular since the British schools offer more subjects. Monastery education only consists of reading and writing. Because Burma was a colony, people looked at the colonial officers with envy, so they encouraged their children to get a good education and become civil servants. Students are, however, allowed to quit public schools at any time.
14 • CULTURAL HERITAGE
There are different types of Burman music, classical and modern. Classical music is performed at Pwes, or concerts, in open-air theaters. A traditional Burmese instrument is the saung gauk, a harp-like stringed instrument. Modern Burman music shows strong Western influence, especially from country music.
Burmese dances are very graceful movements of the whole body. Hand gestures are combined with skilled footwork. It is said that Burman dances were copied from Thailand, and indeed, they have many similarities. Burmese dances are performed by learned professionals, and therefore do not offer the average Burman a chance to participate in the dancing.
15 • EMPLOYMENT
Most Burman are farmers, who go to work early in the morning, long before dawn. When the sun becomes hot they go back to their huts to rest, eat, and possibly sleep. They return to the fields when it cools down and work until dark. People with education are likely to work for the government.
16 • SPORTS
A typical Burman sport is the chinlon, a cane ball that is kicked by people standing in a circle, passing the ball from one to the other. This sport can be played by two or more. There are no losers or winners. This sport can be played on flat ground anywhere—on the streets or in the yards. Soccer is the favorite spectator sport of the Burman, attracting large crowds.
17 • RECREATION
The most common entertainment for the Burman is the Pwe, a comedy drama with music and dance. Puppet shows are also popular. There are no plays in established theaters, as there are in the West. Pwes and puppet shows are street theaters. Movies have become the most popular entertainment.
Television was introduced to Myanmar recently. Videotaped Burman plays are becoming very popular. The most popular recreation is, perhaps, gossiping.
18 • CRAFTS AND HOBBIES
The dry zone of Myanmar is full of pagodas and monasteries. Prayer pavilions of the pagodas are decorated with elaborate wood carvings. Almost all Burman homes have a Buddhist shrine with beautiful wood carvings of Buddha sitting on an elaborate throne. Lacquerware is a popular Burman craft. Bowls, trays, betelnut and cigarette containers are the most commonly made lacquerware.
News in the papers or on radio or television is controlled by the government. People gossip to such an extent that news about people, especially the ruling elite, reaches everyone.
19 • SOCIAL PROBLEMS
Myanmar's social problems are the result of political and economic isolation, which have been brought on by the government during the last thirty years. Myanmar is one of the ten poorest countries of the world. Crime is growing, and public corruption and theft are prevalent. Myanmar is also the largest opium producer in the world. Opium and heroin are available on every corner of Myanmar and affect a large section of the population, especially young people. Many people are unemployed and seek relief from drugs to forget their daily miseries.
The government demands that each household or family supply laborers to work in the construction of railroads, roads, government buildings, and the like, calling it voluntary work. These people are never paid and must bring their own food for the duration of their assignment, usually two weeks. If a household is unable to supply a laborer, the household is fined a large sum of money, which is impossible for most families to pay. The military also forces villages to supply porters to carry army supplies to their operations. According to the government, these are voluntary works that were common under the colonial administration.
The United Nations has declared Myanmar as among the worst human rights abuses in the world. People are often arrested without any reason and jailed without trial for many years. There is fear in the mind of every citizen. There are no civil or human rights in Myanmar—only the government has rights. Because the Burman are the majority in a multi-ethnic society, they control every branch of the administration and oppress the smaller minority groups.
20 • BIBLIOGRAPHY
American University. Burma: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1983.
Herbert, Patricia M. Burma. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Clio Press, 1991.
Orwell, George. Burmese Days. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1935.
Silverstein, Josef. The Political Legacy of Aung San. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University, 1993.
Steinberg, David J. The Future of Burma: Crisis and Choice in Myanmar. New York: Asia Society, 1990.
Wright, D. Burma. Chicago: Children's Press, 1991.
Interknowledge Corp. Myanmar. [Online] Available http://www.interknowledge.com/myanmar/, 1998.
World Travel Guide. Myanmar. [Online] Available http://www.wtgonline.com/country/mm/gen.html, 1998.
"Burman." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cultures. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 22, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/burman
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