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Clostridium

Clostridium (klo-strid-iŭm) n. a genus of mostly Gram-positive anaerobic spore-forming rodlike bacteria commonly found in soil and in the intestinal tract of humans and animals. C. botulinum a species that grows freely in badly preserved canned foods, producing a toxin causing serious food poisoning (see botulism). C. difficile (C. diff.) a species found in the intestine that causes pseudomembranous colitis, an increasingly common hospital-acquired infection. C. tetani a species that causes tetanus on contamination of wounds. C. perfringens (Welch's bacillus) a species that causes blood poisoning, food poisoning, and gas gangrene.
www.dh.gov.uk/en/Policyandguidance/Healthandsocialcaretopics/Healthcareacquiredinfection/Healthcareacquiredgeneralinformation/DH_4115800 A guide to Clostridium difficile from the Department of Health, including the ways in which it can cause infection

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Clostridium

Clostridium A genus of bacteria, of which C. botulinum is responsible for botulism, a rare but often fatal form of food poisoning. It is found widely distributed in soil; during growth on favourable food materials, the organism synthesizes an extremely potent neurotoxin which is released into the food when the cell dies. The spores are extremely heat‐resistant and their thermal death time is used as a minimum standard for processing foods with pH values higher than 4.5.

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Clostridium

Clostridium A genus of endospore-forming, typically Gram-positive bacteria in which the cells are rod-shaped and usually motile. They are chemo-organotrophic, and most species can grow only in the absence of air. There are many species, found in soil, in aquatic habitats, in animal intestines, etc. The genus includes some important pathogens, e.g. the causal agents of botulism, tetanus, and gas gangrene.

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Clostridium

Clostridium, genus of gram-positive bacteria (see Gram's stain), several species of which cause significant, potentially deadly diseases in humans as a result of the toxins that each produces. Clostridium bacteria are rod-shaped and anaerobic, that is, they live in the absence of oxygen; they are common in the soil. C. botulinum, which grows in improperly canned food, produces neurotoxins that when ingested cause the form of food poisoning known as botulism. C. difficile, commonly known as C. diff, is usually transmitted in hospitals and nursing homes as a result of poor personal hygiene and insufficient disinfection; a person taking antibiotics, which kills normal intestinal bacteria, is more susceptible to the bacterium. Infection may cause fever, nausea and abdominal pain, diarrhea, and, in more severe cases, colitis. Infection is most deadly in those over 65 years of age. Since 2001 a more virulent and drug-resistant strain has of C. difficile has developed, making infection increasingly difficult to treat. Treatment typically involves stopping the antibiotic that promoted the infection and taking the antibiotics metronidazole (Flagyl; in milder cases) or vancomycin (in more severe cases); in the most extreme cases, the colon may be surgically removed. C. perfringens infection causes gas gangrene; it generally occurs in the body where trauma, surgery, or another cause has resulted in diminished blood supply. Within a week, fever and pain at the infection site results as the toxins released by the bacteria kill muscle cells; if untreated, muscle necrosis rapidly develops and spreads, leading to death. Tetanus results when C. tetani infects body tissues through a puncture wound or trauma. C. tetani is common in the digestive tract, but its toxins are destroyed digestive enzymes.

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