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Schism

Schism (Gk., schisma, ‘tear, rent’). A formal division of a religious body into separate parties. In Christian usage the word refers to sects or churches separating from communion with one another where heresy is not involved. Early schismatic bodies (i.e. from the Catholic Church) included the Novatianists and Donatists. The Orthodox and Catholic churches have been divided by schism (the ‘East–West schism’) since 1054. See also GREAT SCHISM. Schism appeared early in the history of Buddhism, due in part to the Buddha's refusal to appoint a successor as leader of the Order and his reluctance to impose a rigid discipline in matters of monastic practice.

A schism (saṃghabheda) is defined as occurring when nine fully ordained monks leave a community together, as a result of dissent, and perform their own communal services apart. If the number is less than nine, there is ‘dissent’ rather than schism. To cause a schism maliciously or from selfish motives is considered a grave offence and one destined for swift retribution (anantārya).

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schism

schism Split or division within a Church, sect, or other religious organization, or a breakaway from a Church. Before the Protestant Reformation, there were two other important schisms within Christianity. The first was the split between the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Western (Roman Catholic) Church, brought about by the two churches drifting apart over centuries, and by an escalating series of disputes culminating in a complete break in 1054. The so-called Great Schism occurred in the 14th and 15th centuries, and involved a split within the Roman Catholic Church itself. Various reasons, including civil war in Italy, led to the papacy transferring to Avignon, France, from 1309 to 1377. Rivalry grew between Avignon and Rome, with rival popes elected from 1378 to 1417. The schism was eventually resolved by the Council of Constance (1417).

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schism

schism / ˈs(k)izəm/ • n. a split or division between strongly opposed sections or parties, caused by differences in opinion or belief. ∎  the formal separation of a church into two churches or the secession of a group owing to doctrinal and other differences. ORIGIN: late Middle English: from Old French scisme, via ecclesiastical Latin from Greek skhisma ‘cleft,’ from skhizein ‘to split.’

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schism

schism breach of the unity of the visible Church XIV; offence of promoting this XV; sect so formed XVI. ME. s(c)isme — OF. s(c)isme (mod. schisme) — ecclL. schisma — Gr. skhisma rent, cleft, in N.T. division in the Church, f. base of skhizein split, cleave. The sp. was assim. XVI to the L. form.
So schismatic XIV (sb.) — (O)F. — ecclL. — ecclGr. schismatical XVI.

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schism

schism A break or division in a social group, especially in a church or a sect. Schisms are common in evangelical Christian movements, where there is a special emphasis on conformity to orthodox belief and practice. Schism is also a common organizational problem in radical political movements.

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schism

schism the formal separation of a Church into two Churches or the secession of a group owing to doctrinal and other differences. The word comes ultimately from Greek skhizein ‘to split’.

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schism

schism, in religion: see heresy; Schism, Great.

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schism

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