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covenanters

covenanters. As supporters of the Scottish National Covenant (1638) they sought to preserve presbyterianism in Scotland and oppose royal interference, in particular imposition of the ‘Laudian’ Prayer Book (1637). After defeating Charles I in the Bishops' wars (1639–40), they forced him to accept presbyterianism in Scotland. The New Model Army's sectarianism thwarted their attempt by the Solemn League and Covenant with Parliament (1643) to impose it on England. Though after Charles I's execution Charles II signed the covenant (1650), Cromwell's victorious army forced the Scots unwillingly to tolerate sectarianism. Revival of Scottish episcopacy (1662) was unpopular and short-lived; presbyterianism was restored (1690).

Revd Dr William M. Marshall

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Covenanters

Covenanters Scottish Presbyterians pledged by the National Covenant (1638) to uphold their religion. They opposed Charles I's efforts to impose an Anglican episcopal system and supported Parliament in the English Civil War, in exchange for a promise to introduce Presbyterianism in England and Ireland. The Scots changed sides when this promise was broken, but were defeated by Oliver Cromwell. Covenanter revolts against Charles II were suppressed, but Presbyterianism was restored in Scotland in 1688.

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Covenanters

Covenanters. Scottish Presbyterians who expressed their convictions through the signing of covenants. In particular they signed the National Covenant of 1638 and the Solemn League and Covenant of 1643, defending the Reformed faith and in effect rejecting the imposition of episcopacy.

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Covenanter

Covenanter an adherent of the National Covenant (1638) or the Solemn League and Covenant (1643), upholding the organization of the Scottish Presbyterian Church.

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covenanter

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