ADULLAM (Heb. עֲדֻלָּם), city in Judah in biblical times. It was originally a Canaanite town, the seat of Hirah the Adullamite (friend and father-in-law of Judah (Gen. 38:1, 12, 20)). Adullam's king was defeated by Joshua and the city is mentioned together with 13 others as belonging to the second district of Judah (Josh. 12:15; 5:35). This region contained many caves which could offer refuge to outlaws. In one of these, David hid after fleeing from Saul, and it served as his headquarters for a time during his war with the Philistines (i Sam. 22:1). It was there that the three "mighty men" brought David water from the well at Beth-Lehem (ii Sam. 23:13; i Chron. 11:15 ff.; Jos., Ant., 6:247). Rehoboam included Adullam in his line of fortifications beside Soco in the valley of Elah (ii Chron. 11:7). After the return from Babylonian exile it is mentioned in Nehemiah 11:30 among the places inhabited by Jews. It remained a Jewish town in Hasmonean times (ii Macc. 12:38, cf. i Macc. 5:59–60); Judah the Maccabee withdrew to Adullam after his battle against Gorgias near Marissa (Mareshah) in 163 b.c.e. Eusebius (Onom., 24:21) describes fourth-century Adullam as a large village, 10 Roman mi. east of Eleutheropolis (Bet Guvrin). It has been identified with al-Sheikh Madhkūr, 9 mi. (15 km.) northeast of Bet Guvrin. The name Adulam may have survived in Khirbat ʾId al-Māʾ (or Miyeh) in the vicinity of that tell.
Clermont-Ganneau, Arch, 2 (1899), 429 ff.; Dalman, in: pjb, 9 (1913), 33 ff.; Albright, in: basor, 15 (1924), 3 ff.; Abel, in: rb, 33 (1924), 22; Beyer, in: zdpv, 54 (1931), 115; Abel, Geog, 2 (1938), 239; Press, Ereẓ, 4 (1955), 686; Aharoni, Land, index. add. bibliography: S. Japhet, i & ii Chronicles (1993), 665–66.
J. A. Cannon