American evangelist Oral Roberts (born 1918) was an early pioneer in televangelism, or using television to preach the gospel. Roberts, a stutterer-turnedpreacher who survived a bout of deadly tuberculosis as an adolescent, has been a successful businessman, author, and educator. “There was no doubting his charisma—or his results,” David van Biema wrote in Time magazine.
He was born Granville Oral Roberts on January 24, 1918, in Pontotoc County, Oklahoma, near Bebee. David Edwin Harrell, Jr., in his book Oral Roberts: An American Life, called his birth “the most portentous event in the Roberts family history.” He was the third and last child of Ellis and Claudius Roberts, born on the farm of his grandfather, Pleasant Roberts. Oral's cousin, Minnie Lewis, who traditionally named the babies in the family, called him Oral, adding to the succession of “O” names in the family. “In later years, reporters were fascinated by the theatrical sound of Oral's name, but cousin Minnie had no such designs,” Harrell wrote. “When asked in the 1950s if she knew the meaning of Oral's name, she replied, 'So far as I know, I had never even heard of the word before.”
Roberts grew up poor, living first on the family farm, then in Bebee. His family was deeply religious. Poverty restricted him, and for years he recalled one stinging incident that happened after he was named “king of his class” in elementary school. When he appeared to escort the queen, who came from an affluent family, his teacher told him he still had time to go home and change into his good clothes. Roberts matter-of-factly said he was wearing his best clothes. “To his friends Oral appeared unperturbed, but the incident scarred him,” Harrell wrote. “It awakened him to the debasing stench of poverty.”
Roberts emerged from his shyness that was triggered in no small part by a stuttering problem, and became what Harrell called “a consummate salesman.” He drew on that survival skill over the years. He was good in sports, and at times found his parents' emphasis on religious instruction stifling.
Survived Brush with Death
In February of 1935, Roberts collapsed while competing in a basketball tournament. His coach, Herman Hamilton, drove him to Ada, where the family lived at the time. “A pall of death settled around the house,” Harrell wrote. Claudius Roberts's father and two older sisters had died of tuberculosis (TB), a highly contagious bacterium. Roberts was bedridden, subsisting on raw eggs and milk.
One day his family brought Roberts to a preaching tent in Ada set up by roving evangelist George W. Moncey. They encircled Roberts in his rocking chair and told him he would be saved. Roberts survived his brush with TB.
Roberts, through his father, joined the ministry of the Pentacostal Holiness Church and wrote for its publication. He married Evelyn Lutman in 1938; they would have four children, 13 grandchildren and several great-grandchildren. She died in 2005. During the 1940s Roberts traveled extensively and published books. He also studied at Oklahoma Baptist and Phillips Universities. Roberts resigned his pastorate in 1947 and purchased his own tent one year later. It began a career that would eventually include more than 300 crusades on 6 continents.
Television Era Commenced in 1950s
During the 1950s, Roberts turned to a new medium, television, filming revival crusades under his mobile tent. Money came in, and Roberts published more books—he has published about 120 overall. He published his biography, The Oral Roberts Story, in 1952. “Oral Roberts insists that far more than mere mortal ambitions are involved,” Landrum R. Bolling wrote in the Saturday Evening Post. “These are clear visions to him, unmistakable commands that God has communicated to him, Anyone who talks in such simple, assured terms in this unbelieving age is bound to be greeted with doubts and derision.”
Controversy engulfed Roberts as his ministry flourished. “The very nature of his ministry, its emphasis upon healing by faith, brought countless reports of physical miracles,” Bolling wrote. “It also brought charges of deception, fraud, and cruel exploitation of the sick, the crippled, and the dying. The media had a field day with him, as they have had with many others who combine preaching, praying, and healing.”
Founded Oral Roberts University
Roberts, who had long harbored the notion of a namesake university, raised $500 million to build it on farmland on the edge of Tulsa, Oklahoma, and an adjoining medical center, City of Faith, which he opened in 1981. The two institutions consumed 500 acres and consisted of “surrealistic buildings dominated by a prayer tower,” Muriel Dobbin wrote in U.S. News & World Report. Oral Roberts University received its charter in 1963 and accepted students beginning in 1965. The North Central Association of Colleges and Schools granted it full accreditation in 1971.
By 2007 the campus had expanded to 22 major buildings whose value exceeded $250 million. Roberts also founded a retirement complex, University Village. “Roberts's most important credentials are a quick mind, a passion for learning, great curiosity, and great powers of communication—and enormous dedication, faith, and will,” wrote Bolling.
Throughout the 1970s, television was still Roberts's primary medium, and it made him a household name in the United States. As the 1970s wound down, Roberts found himself experimenting with various TV formats and discontinuing others. Cable television stations, which focused on narrowcasting, or targeting viewers in smaller, more intense audiences, crowded the landscape.
“The spread of cable systems complicated the religious programming market, as did the proliferation of programs modeled on Robert's innovative techniques,” Harrell wrote. Television specials, often on prime time, replaced the healing crusades, which critics called antiquated. “But to Oral they remained honored memories, and in the 1980s crusading reappeared in the ministry, primarily because of the metamorphosis of Richard Roberts [his son] as an evangelist,” Harrell wrote.
“God Will Call Me Home”
In 1987 Roberts implored his television audience to send $8 million worth of donations within three months, or God would “call me home,” implying that death loomed if his 1.6 million viewers did not respond accordingly. Roberts received more than $9 million, and “God did not call him home,” van Biema wrote. Dobbin added: “Also rising is the sound of snickering.” Critics pounced on Roberts. “The time has come to laugh,” Jenkin Lloyd Jones, the conservative editor of the Tulsa Tribune, told Dobbin. His newspaper ran a series of investigative pieces on Roberts, parodied the minister in cartoons and lambasted him in editorials.
The Roberts cash flow prospered. His direct mail mechanism at the time was sending out 27 million letters and magazines annually, urging what he called “faith partners” to buy such trinkets as prayer handkerchiefs, carved angels, and even jigsaw puzzles of Roberts riding his horse, Sonny. The ministry even needed its own ZIP code because it handled so much mail. Roberts stretched his meetings into three-day crusades in the early 1980s, with Richard Roberts often at their center. “Although Richard's crusades by no means attracted the same attention from the press that his father's had three decades earlier, they usually were attended by curious, and often respectful, reporters,” Harrell wrote. While the crusades still included their share of conversion and healing testimonials, Richard put his own stamp on them; he was a much better singer than his father, for example. Oral Roberts, meanwhile, wavered between cutting back on his traveling schedule and continuing to do the preaching he loved.
Roberts's organizational structure became more complex after Oral broadened its reach in the mid-1970s. The City of Faith operated under three management boards. Some executives held titles for both the City of Faith and Oral Roberts University. There was also the Oral Roberts Evangelistic Association, which Harrell called “the cockpit of the entire Roberts empire.” He added: “The lines of real power within the Oral Roberts organization were not always easy to follow (they were obscured by a maze of titles and powerless sinecures), but there was one ultimate source of all authority—the seventh-floor office of Oral Roberts …. All titles aside, power was firmly in Oral's grip, and it trickled down to those in the organization who were closest to him.”
Use of Funds Under Glare
The Roberts empire came under scrutiny again in 2007, when the university said it was $52.5 million in debt. Three weeks earlier, three former professors had announced a wrongful termination suit, claiming they were fired after reporting to the school's Board of Regents what they considered to be “moral and ethical lapses” by Richard Roberts, according to van Biema. Richard had inherited the presidency from his father, who had assumed the title of chancellor. The former professors alleged that Richard and his wife, Lindsay, had used university funds to remodel their home 11 times in 14 years and had spent more than $29,000 to send their daughter on a Bahamas vacation. They also alleged that Lindsay Roberts had several times spent the night at a school guest house with an underaged male.
Harry McNevin said he resigned from the Board of Regents over the alleged misuse of funds, according to the Associated Press (AP). “We were dealing in millions,” McNevin told Justin Juozapavicius of the AP. McNevin, in the AP interview, said the board virtually “rubber-stamped” the use of millions in endowment money to buy a Beverly Hills, California, mansion and provide Oral Roberts a West Coast office and home.
The investigative groundswell snowballed. Charles Grassley of Iowa, the ranking Republican on the U.S. Senate Finance Committee, announced an investigation into the use of funds by celebrity preachers, which included Oral Roberts University Board of Regents members Creflo Dollar, Kenneth Copeland, and Benny Hinn. Grassley was seeking from ministries such financial records as salaries, spending practices, and perks such as private jets.
Oral Roberts himself, who was semi-retired and living in California, agreed late in 2007 to return and help run the university while Richard took a leave of absence from his annual $228,000 job, pending an investigation. Richard Roberts denied the overspending allegations and said he pays for personal expenses himself. While the university, which charges students $17,580 in annual tuition, is in damage-control mode, the campus is showing its age and construction of a student center, long in the works, is still in question.
Van Biema reported that the school's expensive ventures often bordered on recklessness, citing the buildup of its men's basketball team, which made the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) tournaments in 2006 and 2007. “But its big-ticket failures in the end have been more telling,” van Biema wrote. The school eventually sold its law program to rival preacher Pat Robertson.
Oral Roberts, in an interview with Cable News Network host Larry King on his Larry King Live show, said he supported an investigation. “If there is anything out of line, we will bring it into order, like we have always done,” Roberts told King, in an article posted on CNN's Web site. Lindsay Roberts, in the same article, called the charges “preposterous.” Bishop Carlton Pearson, a Roberts protégé, said Richard Roberts's privileged upbringing may have contributed to the mess. “These kinds of things are common among family-owned and operated businesses and ministries. They don't cross every T and dot every I,” Pearson said on CNN.com.
Controversy and Legacy
Oral Roberts University's struggles cast a pall on Roberts as he approached his ninetieth birthday. According to van Biema, Charisma magazine editor J. Lee Grady wrote, “I don't know about you, but I'm having flashbacks to 1987.” He was referring to scandals that year that were linked to Jimmy Swaggert and Jim Bakker. But John Schmalzbauer of Missouri State University told van Biema that ineffective management may be the issue. “I think the causes must be deeper and more structural,” he said.
“The whole affair is a sad denouement for one of the pioneers of televangelism, van Biema wrote. He quoted Randall Palmer, chairman of the religion department at Barnard College in New York, as saying: “I feel badly for him. This must be a blow.”
Harrell, David Edwin Jr., Oral Roberts: An American Life, Indiana University Press, 1985.
Saturday Evening Post, September 1983.
U.S. News & World Report, March 9, 1987.
“Oral Roberts' Son Accused of Misspending,” Associated Press, http://www.wtop.com/index.php?nid=104&sid=1288797 (November 21, 2007).
“Oral Roberts' son denies he misspent school funds,” CNN.com, http://www.cnn.com/2007/US/law/10/10/oru.suit/index.html (November 21, 2007).
“Oral Roberts to the Rescue?,” Time, http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1677098,00.html (November 21, 2007).
"Roberts, Oral." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 14, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/roberts-oral
"Roberts, Oral." Encyclopedia of World Biography. . Retrieved June 14, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/roberts-oral
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.