The Tobacco Institute (TI) was a public relations and lobbying organization that represented the interests of the twelve companies that funded it. Over time the TI came to be perceived as a controversial organization. While the TI maintained that its mission was to increase awareness of the historic role of tobacco and its place in the national economy and to foster understanding of tobacco-related issues, tobacco industry critics charged it with using sophisticated propaganda techniques and high-powered lobbying to manipulate public opinion and public policy.
The Tobacco Institute was founded in 1958 by the major U.S. tobacco manufacturers and has an estimated annual budget of more than $20 million. It was headquartered in Washington, D.C., and had a staff of 50. The institute's publications included two annual reports, Tax Burden on Tobacco and Tobacco Industry Profile. It also published historic, economic, and topical material.
The TI was established in response to a growing public health movement in the 1950s against smoking. From its inception, the institute stressed the contribution of tobacco to the U.S. economy and the preservation of tobacco farms. It also stressed the inconclusiveness and inconsistency of antismoking findings and supported the rights of individual smokers to smoke in public places. The TI publicized the research findings of the Council for Tobacco Research, an organization funded by the tobacco companies, which disputed critics' claims that tobacco has harmful effects and addictive properties. Historically, the TI fought efforts to raise the federal cigarette tax and to label tobacco products as being hazardous to health.
For decades TI lobbying efforts in Washington, D.C., proved effective. Aside from informing legislators about tobacco-related issues, the TI made significant political contributions through its political action committee. In December 1997, it sponsored an all-expense-paid trip to Arizona for members of Congress and their staffs to discuss the proposed $368 billion national tobacco settlement that would compensate states that were suing the tobacco industry for smoking-related health care costs and fund antismoking programs.
As part of the November 1998 settlement between the tobacco companies and 46 states, the former agreed to disband the institute. On January 29, 1999, the Tobacco Institute ceased operations.
Glantz, Stanton A., and Edith D. Balbach. 2000. The Tobacco War: Inside the California Battles. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press.
Kessler, David. 2002. A Question of Intent: A Great American Battle with a Deadly Industry. New York: Public Affairs.
Kluger, Richard. 1996. Ashes to Ashes: America's Hundred-Year War, the Public Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris. New York: Knopf.
Tobacco Institute Document Site. Available online at <www.tobaccoinstitute.com> (accessed February 19, 2004).
"Tobacco Institute." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 15, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/law/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/tobacco-institute
"Tobacco Institute." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Retrieved November 15, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/law/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/tobacco-institute
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.