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Treinta y Tres (33) Orientales

Treinta y tres (33) Orientales, group of patriots of the Banda Oriental (i.e., Uruguay) who in 1825 initiated the final struggle against Brazilian rule. They were led by Juan Antonio Lavalleja, a former collaborator of the Uruguayan independence leader José Gervasio Artigas, who had already led one unsuccessful uprising. Lavalleja took refuge in Argentina, where he gathered other disaffected Uruguayans into a liberation movement and courted Argentine private assistance.

On 19 April 1825 Lavalleja made landing on the Uruguayan coast at La Agraciada, near Colonia. Though his group became known as the "Thirty-three Orientals," several of them were Argentine and one was a French volunteer. They quickly expanded their beachhead, obtaining recruits and supplies. At the end of April, Lavalleja was joined by Fructuoso Rivera, another former lieutenant of Artigas who had lately been serving the Brazilians and had a wide network of followers in the Uruguayan interior. Initial successes, together with the decision of the insurgents to seek incorporation into the United Provinces of the Río De La Plata, led the authorities at Buenos Aires to give them open support. The result was the Argentine-Brazilian war of 1825–1828, into which the struggle of the Treinta y Tres was subsumed.

See alsoBrazil, Independence Movements; Uruguay, Congress of 1825; Wars of Independence, South America.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

John Street, Artigas and the Emancipation of Uruguay (1959).

Alfredo Castellanos, La Cisplatina, la independencia y la repú blica caudillesca (1974).

Additional Bibliography

Barrios Pintos, Aníbal. Historia de los pueblos orientales: Sus orígenes, procesos fundacionales, sus primeros años. Montevideo, Uruguay: Academia Nacional de Letras, 2000.

Golletti Wilkinson, Alberto. Guerra contra el empresario del Brasil: A la luz de sus protagonistas. Buenos Aires: Editorial Dunken, 2003.

Narancio, Edmundo M. La independencia de Uruguay. Montevideo, Uruguay: Editorial Ayer, 2001.

                                 David Bushnell

Treinta y Tres (33) Orientales

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