Indianismo, a term used in studies of Brazilian literature to refer to the use of Indian characters and themes. In this type of literature, writers have combined aesthetic and ideological goals. In chronological order, the most significant examples are found in the mid-1800s with José de Alencar's romantic representation of an idealized inhabitant of the New World (e.g., Iracema, 1865); in the 1920s with the modernist Mário de Andrade's humorous fictional view of Brazilian national identity (e.g., Macunaíma, 1928; Eng. trans. 1976); and in the late twentieth century with Darcy Ribeiro, whose novels incorporate an anthropological approach (e.g, Maíra, 1976). Subsequent critiques have emphasized the theme of indianismo within Brazilian music during the Romantic period as an important element in the process of national identity formation.
See alsoLiterature: Brazil .
An all-encompassing study is David Brookshaw, Paradise Betrayed: Brazilian Literature of the Indian (1988).
Cuccagna, Claudio. "Utupismo modernista o índio no ser-não-ser da brasilidade (1920–1930)." Ph.D. diss. São Paulo, 2005.
Volpe, Maria Alice. "Indianismo and Landscape in the Brazilian Age of Progress Art Music from Carlos Gomes to Villa-Lobos, 1870s–1930s." Ph.D. diss. University of Texas at Austin, 2001.