The Brazilian composer, guitarist, and singer Cartola—real name Angenor de Oliveira—is considered one of the greatest samba composers of the twentieth century. Born in Rio de Janeiro on October 11, 1908, he helped found the Mangueira samba school in 1928 and for many years was its principal composer. He experienced success as a songwriter in the 1930s, writing hits for Francisco Alves and Carmen Miranda, among others. During the 1940s Cartola disappeared from the musical scene, leading to speculation that he was dead until he was rediscovered in 1956 washing cars in Ipanema. During the 1960s he and his wife Zica ran Zicartola, a restaurant in downtown Rio that served as an important meeting place for both older samba singers and young bossa nova artists. Cartola recorded his first LP at the age of sixty-six in 1974 and made three more before his death on November 30, 1980. His many compositions include "As Rosas Não Falam," "O Sol Nascerá," "Acontece," "O Mundo é um Moinho," and "Alvorada."
Autran, Margarida. "Samba, artigo de consumo nacional." In Anos 70: Ainda sob a tempestade, ed. Adauto Novaes. Rio de Janeiro: Aeroplano, Editora Senac Rio, 2005.
Barboza da Silva, Marília T., and Arthur L. de Oliveira Filho. Cartola: Os Tempos Idos. Rio de Janeiro: FUNARTE/Instituto Nacional de Música, Divisão de Música Popular, 1983.
Marcondes, Marcos Antônio, ed. Enciclopédia da Música Brasileira: Popular, Erudita e Folclórica, 2nd edition. São Paulo: Art Editora, Publifolha, 1998.
Andrew M. Connell
"Cartola (1908–1980)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cartola-1908-1980
"Cartola (1908–1980)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved September 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cartola-1908-1980
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.