Skip to main content

1850-1877: Science and Medicine

1850-1877: Chapter Eleven: Science and Medicine






Changes in Specific Sciences, 1850-1877 361

Great Adventurer 362

Competition Among Fossil Hunters 363

Darwin in America 364

Reviewing Darwin 365

The Organization of American Medicine 366

Rise of Women Physicians 366

The Social Sciences 368

Proslavery Theory and Sociology 368

Technological Change 370

The United States Sanitary Commission 372


William Alexander Hammond 375

Joseph Henry 376

Josiah Nott 377

Abby Woolsey 377

Marie Zakrzewska 378


Sidebars and tables are listed in italics.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"1850-1877: Science and Medicine." American Eras. . 15 Jan. 2019 <>.

"1850-1877: Science and Medicine." American Eras. . (January 15, 2019).

"1850-1877: Science and Medicine." American Eras. . Retrieved January 15, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.