Alan Simon Esmonde Cleary
"Antonine Wall." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 23, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/antonine-wall
"Antonine Wall." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved February 23, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/antonine-wall
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Antoninus, Wall of
Wall of Antoninus, ancient Roman wall extending across N Britain from the Firth of Forth to the Firth of Clyde. It was built by the Roman governor Lollius Urbicus in the reign of Emperor Antoninus Pius—probably in AD 140–42. Intended as a defense against the peoples to the north, it was built out of turf, with a ditch on the north and 19 forts along its southern side. The wall was 37 mi (60 km) long. It was abandoned c.185 when the Romans retreated to Hadrian's Wall.
"Antoninus, Wall of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 23, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/antoninus-wall
"Antoninus, Wall of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved February 23, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/antoninus-wall