The U.S. model M3 man‐portable flamethrower weighed about 65 pounds fully loaded, and projected a burning stream of semiliquid fuel about 40 yards with a duration of less than ten seconds. Its storage tanks for fuel and compressed air connected by hose to a gun and igniter held with both hands by the operator. Triggers released the jellylike fuel, propelled by air pressure and ignited as it streamed past the nozzle. The United States also fielded an armored flamethrower with greater range and duration mounted inside the Sherman tank chassis.
The U.S. Army and Marine Corps made wide use of flamethrowers in World War II, especially in the Pacific theater as part of a systematic tactical technique for attacking Japanese pillboxes, dugouts, and caves like those at Iwo Jima and Okinawa. Attackers suppressed the objective with small‐arms fire, allowing flamethrower operators to get close enough to put fire into apertures and openings.
The U.S. military continued to use flamethrowers in Korea and Vietnam, but also fielded new flame weapons during the Vietnam War, including the M202 Flash, which was much lighter than the M3 and could hit point targets at over 100 yards and area targets out to 275 yards. The M202 is man‐portable and weighs about 25 pounds fully loaded, with four rocket‐propelled charges fired independently from the operator's shoulder.
George Feifer , Tennozan: The Battle of Okinawa and the Atomic Bomb, 1992.
"Flamethrowers." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 19, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/flamethrowers
"Flamethrowers." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Retrieved December 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/flamethrowers
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.