PRO-LIFE MOVEMENT. The pro-life movement is the movement to block women's access to legal abortion and to recriminalize the procedure. Abortion rights opponents coined the term "pro-life" after the Supreme Court ruled in 1973's Roe v. Wade that the Constitution of the United States protects abortion rights. Its members term themselves "pro-life" in contrast to supporters of women's right to the option of abortion, whom they call "pro-abortion." Some participants use direct action and the language of the civil rights movement to obstruct abortion clinics and harass personnel and clients. Since Randall Terry and Joseph Scheidler launched Operation Rescue in 1987, violence against clinics has escalated to the extent that the 1990s witnessed murders of doctors performing abortions and of clinic personnel.
Colker, Ruth. Abortion and Dialogue: Pro-choice, Pro-life, and American Law. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.
Craig, Barbara Hinkson, and David M. O'Brien. Abortion and American Politics. Chatham, N.J.: Chatham House, 1993.
Ginsburg, Faye D. Contested Lives: The Abortion Debate in an American Community. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
Gorney, Cynthia. Articles of Faith: A Frontline History of the Abortion Wars. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1998.
Nancy B.Palmer/d. b.
"Pro-Life Movement." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 13, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/pro-life-movement
"Pro-Life Movement." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved May 13, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/pro-life-movement
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.