IPSWICH PROTEST. In March 1687, Edmund Andros, governor of the newly formed Dominion of New England, moved to increase colonial revenue. Although Andros's tax was small in comparison to those levied both prior and subsequent to the Dominion, it placed a special burden on the colony's poorer farmers: tax laws abolished the discount for cash payment, and set at an artificially low level the price for produce acceptable for payment. Resistance to the direct tax imposed by Andros—a single "country rate" of twenty pence per poll and one penny on the pound on estates—was, according to John Wise, leader of a group of protestors from Ipswich, Massachusetts, a matter of principle. The government, however, quickly prevailed. Wise and other protestors were arrested, imprisoned, tried, and fined.
Craven, Wesley Frank. The Colonies in Transition, 1660–1713. New York: Harper and Row, 1968.
Kammen, Michael. Empire and Interest: The American Colonies and the Politics of Mercantilism. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1970.
See alsoTaxation .