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Scythia

Scythia (sĬth´ēə), ancient region of Eurasia, extending from the Danube on the west to the borders of China on the east. The Scythians flourished from the 8th to the 4th cent. BC They spoke an Indo-Iranian language but had no system of writing. They were nomadic conquerors and skilled horsemen. They seem to be related to the Saka, another nomadic tribe that roamed the steppes of central Asia at about the same time. The so-called Royal Scyths established a kingdom in the E Crimea before the 9th cent. BC They seem to have maintained themselves as a ruling class while others (probably native inhabitants) worked the grain fields. The Scythians are traditionally associated with the area between the Danube and the Don, but modern excavations in the Altai Mts., particularly at the site of Pazyryk, suggest that their origins were in W Siberia before they moved E into S Russia in the early 1st millennium BC Scythian power was maintained in the 8th cent. BC in obscure warfare with the Cimmerians. The Scythians, considered barbarians by the Greeks, traded (7th cent. BC) grain and their service as mercenaries for Greek wine and luxury items. They invaded (7th cent. BC) upper Mesopotamia and Syria. They threatened Judah but never actually occupied Palestine. They also made incursions into the Balkan Peninsula, and a century later the mysterious campaign of Darius I against them (c.512 BC) may have checked their expansion, although it was no conquest. They destroyed (c.325 BC) an expedition sent against them by Alexander the Great. After 300 BC they were driven out of the Balkans by the invading Celts. In S Russia they were displaced by the 2d cent. BC by the related Sarmatians, and part of their empire became Sarmatia.

See E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks (1913, repr. 1976); T. Rice, The Scythians (1957); H. W. Bailey, Indo-Scythian Studies (1985).

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Scythia

Scythia

Type of Government

The government of the Scythians, a seminomadic people based north of the Black Sea between the Danube and Volga rivers, was a mixture of tribal confederation and hereditary monarchy. Beneath the king was a powerful aristocracy known as the Royal Scyths. Though there is little evidence of a professional bureaucracy, archaeological remains of substantial fortifications suggest a high level of social and political organization.

Background

Because the Scythians left no written records of their own, historians must rely on archaeology and the historical writings of their neighbors, primarily the Greeks. Neither is a perfect witness; the Greeks, particularly those living in trading settlements on the coast of the Black Sea, were often at odds with the Scythians, while archaeology, by its nature, can offer only a partial picture. A few points are clear nevertheless. The few Scythian words quoted by Greek authors identify it as an Iranian language, and the most accepted theory posits a Scythian migration to the Black Sea area from Central Asia (north of modern Iran) about 700 BC. Even though most Scythians were herdsmen and horse breeders, grain was grown wherever conditions permitted, and permanent fortified settlements of various sizes existed. The largest of these was probably Kamenka, on the Dnieper River in what is now the Ukraine.

Government Structure

At the top of Scythian society were the Royal Scyths, professional warriors and horse breeders whose wealth is apparent in the extravagance of their burials. Even though this group was undoubtedly important in the leadership of the individual tribes, the precise nature of their relationship to the king is unclear. It is likely that some served as advisers, both informally and in the more structured setting of a war council. Because large bureaucracies are difficult to manage without the use of writing, the structure of the Scythian government was probably flexible and streamlined, with lines of command leading directly to the king. Some kings, such as Ateas (c. 429–339 BC), were quite forceful in the assertion of royal prerogatives, whereas others, preferring a more decentralized approach, may have delegated considerable authority to the tribal chiefs. Still others may have been forced to do so through weakness or circumstance. With these shifts in royal temperament came adjustments to the imperial frontiers, as outlying clans left and rejoined the confederacy. The overwhelming impression is one of flexibility and adaptability. It is no surprise, therefore, that the Scythians survived for at least four centuries as an independent people.

Political Parties and Factions

Not much is known of Scythia’s internal politics. Historians believe that there were rivalries, even feuds, between tribes, with water and pasture rights being a constant source of disagreement. Furthermore, they think there were some divisions along occupational lines as well, both between herdsmen and grain farmers and between the professional warriors of the Royal Scyths and the common soldiers paid only with food, clothing, and occasional booty. The name of one priestly organization is known, the Enarees, but because it was associated with the Scythian equivalent of Aphrodite (goddess of love), its influence over war and politics was likely quite limited.

Major Events

In 513 BC the Persian king Darius I (550–486 BC) marched north, crossed the Danube at its mouth, and advanced into Scythian territory. If the goal of the campaign was conquest, it failed, but it may have been intended as a simple show of force to dissuade the Scythians from aiding Persia’s enemies or venturing southward themselves.

Aftermath

There is wide disagreement among historians regarding the date of Scythia’s decline. It was a gradual process, and declines in one region were sometimes offset by gains in another. By the end of the fourth century BC, however, it was clear that Scythia was weakening, as neighboring peoples began to descend on the Scythians from all directions. Chief among these invaders were the Sarmatians, who started moving west into Scythian territory. The newcomers absorbed most of the Scythians, a process made easier by linguistic ties between the two groups.

Braund, David, ed. Scythians and Greeks: Cultural Interactions in Scythia, Athens, and the Early Roman Empire (Sixth Century BC–First Century AD) . Exeter, UK: University of Exeter Press, 2005.

Minns, Ellis H. Scythians and Greeks: A Survey of Ancient History and Archaeology on the North Coast of the Euxine from the Danube to the Caucasus . New York: Biblo and Tannen, 1965.

Reeder, Ellen D., ed. Scythian Gold: Treasures from Ancient Ukraine . New York: Harry Abrams in association with the Walters Art Gallery and the San Antonio Museum of Art, 1999.

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