Skip to main content

Frank, Johann Peter

FRANK, JOHANN PETER

The German physician, Johann Peter Frank (17451821) studied at Heidelberg and Strasburg, was a professor at Göttingen and Pavia, and eventually became director of the Allegemeines Krankenhaus and a professor of medicine in Vienna. He also taught in many other European cities, including St. Petersburg, and was physician to Czar Alexander I from 1805 to 1808. Early in his career he began working on a massive treatise, System einer vollständigen medicinischen Polizey (A complete system of medical policy). This occupied him throughout his life and was published in nine volumes from 1779 to 1827. It was the first thorough treatise on all aspects of public health and hygiene, covering in detail the principals and practice of an orderly method to keep human settlements clean. In addition, the treatise documented existing laws and proposed further regulations regarding conduct that affected people's health.

Frank's System dealt with water supply and sanitation, food safety, school health, sexual hygiene, maternal and child welfare, regulation of aspects of public behavior such as the conduct of teachers and prostitutes, and the compiling of statistical records of hospitals. Hospital records that were compiled using Frank's methods enabled the Hungarian obstetrician Ignaz Semmelweiss (18181865) to demonstrate the relationship of puerperal sepsis to a lack of adequate personal hygiene by birth attendants.

Frank is without doubt one of the most influential figures in the early history of public health and community medicine. In addition to his System, Frank wrote a seven-volume textbook of internal medicine and made important clinical discoveries, including the distinction between diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.

John M. Last

(see also: Community Health; History of Public Health; Social Medicine )

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Frank, Johann Peter." Encyclopedia of Public Health. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Frank, Johann Peter." Encyclopedia of Public Health. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/frank-johann-peter

"Frank, Johann Peter." Encyclopedia of Public Health. . Retrieved October 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/frank-johann-peter

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.