optimization
optimization The process of finding the best solution to some problem, where “best” accords to prestated criteria. The word is used in a number of contexts.
1 In mathematics the word is generally used to describe the theory and practice of maximizing, or minimizing, a function (known as an objective function) of several variables that may be subject to a set of constraints. The special case of a linear objective function is the subject of linear programming. The case of nonlinear objective functions, with or without constraints, is treated in a quite welldeveloped field. The unconstrained optimization problem (usually expressed as minimization) is: minimize f(x)
where f(x) is the given objective function of n real variables, x = (x_{1},x_{2},…,x_{n})^{T}
A necessary condition for a minimum is that f/x_{i} = 0, i = 1,2,…,n
which is a system of nonlinear equations. Newton's method can be applied, but in practice this technique has been extensively modified to improve computational efficiency. Matrixupdating methods are a broad class of methods that involve a sophisticated means of computing approximations to the matrices required in Newton's method.
For constrained problems, x must also satisfy a system (possibly nonlinear) of equations or inequalities. Some of the ideas and methods for unconstrained problems can be suitably modified to handle the constraints. A successful technique is sequential quadratic programming.
Optimization problems are widespread in control theory, chemical engineering, and many other fields.
2 In programming the word is usually applied to part of the codegeneration phase of a compiler, denoting production of object code that is in some sense optimal, i.e. making best use of the resources provided by the target machine, or at least using these resources in a manner that is not blatantly wasteful. Programs can be spaceefficient in the sense of occupying minimal storage, or timeefficient in the sense of executing in the minimum time.
Compiler optimization is usually directed toward generating timeefficient programs, and takes three forms. Global optimization seeks to reorder the sequencing of a program so as to eliminate redundant computations (moving invariant operations outside loop bodies, coalescing loops, etc.). Register optimization adjusts the allocation of machine registers to variables and intermediate quantities in such a way as to minimize the number of occasions on which a register has to be stored and later reloaded. Local (peephole) optimization seeks to adapt the code to exploit particular features of the machine architecture and to remove local mishandling such as loading a register with a value that it already contains.
Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

MLA

Chicago

APA
"optimization." A Dictionary of Computing. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.
"optimization." A Dictionary of Computing. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 16, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/computing/dictionariesthesaurusespicturesandpressreleases/optimization
"optimization." A Dictionary of Computing. . Retrieved October 16, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/computing/dictionariesthesaurusespicturesandpressreleases/optimization
Citation styles
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the mostrecent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
American Psychological Association
Notes:
 Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
 In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.