noninvasive ventilation (NIV) mechanical assistance with breathing that does not require the insertion of an endotracheal tube (see intubation). In noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) air is blown into the lungs through a close-fitting mask: designs range from helmet-like devices to nasal cushions and full-face or nasal masks (see also BiPAP, continuous positive airways pressure, Nippy). Negative-pressure ventilation involves the use of devices that draw air into and out of the lungs noninvasively by applying negative pressure in a cyclical way (see ventilator).
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