Mendelssohn (-Bartholdy), (Jacob Ludwig) Felix

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Mendelssohn (-Bartholdy), (Jacob Ludwig) Felix

Mendelssohn (-Bartholdy), (Jacob Ludwig) Felix, famous German composer, pianist; b. Hamburg, Feb. 3, 1809; d. Leipzig, Nov. 4, 1847. He was a grandson of the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn and the son of the banker Abraham Mendelssohn; his mother was Lea Salomon; the family was Jewish, but upon its settlement in Berlin the father decided to become a Protestant and added Bartholdy to his surname. Mendelssohn received his first piano lessons from his mother; subsequently studied piano with Ludwig Berger and violin with Carl Wilhelm Henning and Eduard Rietz; he also had regular lessons in foreign languages and in painting (he showed considerable talent in drawing with pastels); he also had piano lessons with Marie Bigot in Paris, where he went with his father for a brief stay in 1816. His most important teacher in his early youth was Carl Friedrich Zelter, who understood the magnitude of Mendelssohn’s talent; in 1821 Zelter took him to Weimar and introduced him to Goethe, who took considerable interest in the boy after hearing him play. Zelter arranged for Mendelssohn to become a member of the Singakademie in Berlin in 1819 as an alto singer; on Sept. 18, 1819, his 19th Psalm was performed by the Akademie. In 1825 Mendelssohn’s father took him again to Paris to consult Cherubini on Mendelssohn’s prospects in music; however, he returned to Berlin, where he had better opportunities for development. Mendelssohn was not only a precocious musician, both in performing and in composition; what is perhaps without a parallel in music history is the extraordinary perfection of his works written during adolescence. He played in public for the first time at the age of 9, on Oct. 28, 1818, in Berlin, performing the piano part of a trio by Wölffl. He wrote a remarkable octet at the age of 16; at 17 he composed the overture for the incidental music to Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, an extraordinary manifestation of his artistic maturity, showing a mastery of form equal to that of the remaining numbers of the work, which were composed 15 years later. He proved his great musicianship when he conducted Bach’s St. Matthew Passion in the Berlin Singakademie on March 11, 1829, an event that gave an impulse to the revival of Bach’s vocal music. In the spring of 1829 Mendelssohn made his first journey to England, where he conducted his Sym. in C minor (seated, after the fashion of the time, at the keyboard); later he performed in London the solo part in Beethoven’s Emperor Concerto; he then traveled through Scotland, where he found inspiration for the composition of his overture Fingal’s Cave (Hebrides), which he conducted for the first time during his second visit to London, on May 14, 1832; 10 days later he played in London the solo part of his G minor Concerto and his Capriccio brillante. He became a favorite of the English public; Queen Victoria was one of his most fervent admirers; altogether he made 10 trips to England as a pianist, conductor, and composer. From 1830 to 1832 he traveled in Germany, Austria, Italy, and Switzerland, and also went to Paris. In May 1833 he led the Lower-Rhine Music Festival in Düsseldorf; then conducted at Cologne in June 1835. He was still a very young man when, in 1835, he was offered the conduc-torship of the celebrated Gewandhaus Orch. in Leipzig; the Univ. of Leipzig bestowed upon him an honorary degree of Ph.D. Mendelssohn’s leadership of the Gewandhaus Orch. was of the greatest significance for the development of German musical culture; he engaged the violin virtuoso Ferdinand David as concert-master of the orch., which soon became the most prestigious symphonic organization in Germany. On March 28, 1837, he married Cécile Charlotte Sophie Jeanrenaud of Frankfurt am Main, the daughter of a French Protestant clergyman. Five children (Carl, Marie, Paul, Felix, and Elisabeth) were born to them, and their marriage was exceptionally happy. At the invitation of King Friedrich Wilhelm IV, Mendelssohn went in 1841 to Berlin to take charge of the music of the court and in the Cathedral; he received the title of Royal Generalmusikdirektor, but residence in Berlin was not required. Returning to Leipzig in 1842, he organized the famous “Conservatorium.” Its splendid faculty comprised, besides Mendelssohn (who taught piano, ensemble playing, and later composition), Schumann, who taught classes in piano and composition; Hauptmann, in music theory; David, in violin; Becker, in organ; and Plaidy and Wenzel, in piano. The Conservatorium was officially opened on April 3, 1843. The financial nucleus of the foundation was a bequest from Blumner of 20,000 thaler, left at the disposal of the King of Saxony for the promotion of the fine arts. Mendelssohn made a special journey to Dresden to petition the King on behalf of the Leipzig Cons. During his frequent absences, the Gewandhaus Concerts were conducted by Hiller (1843–44) and Gade (1844–45). In the summer of 1844 he conducted the Phil. Concerts in London; this was his 8th visit to England; during his 9th visit he conducted the first performance of his oratorio Elijah in Birmingham, on Aug. 26, 1846. It was in England that the “Wedding March” from Mendelssohn’s music to A Midsummer Night’s Dream began to be used to accompany the bridal procession; the performance of the work was for the marriage of Tom Daniel and Dorothy Carew at St. Peter’s Church, Tiverton, on June 2, 1847; the organist was Samuel Reay; it became particularly fashionable, however, when it was played at the wedding of the Princess Royal in 1858. He made his 10th and last visit to England in the spring of 1847; this was a sad period of his life, for his favorite sister, Fanny, died on May 14, 1847. Mendelssohn’s own health began to deteriorate, and he died at the age of 38. The exact cause of his early death is not determined; he suffered from severe migraines and chills before he died, but no evidence could be produced by the resident physicians for either a stroke or heart failure. The news of his death produced a profound shock in the world of music; not only in Germany and England, where he was personally known and beloved, but in distant America and Russia as well, there was genuine sorrow among musicians. Mendelssohn societies were formed all over the world; in America the Mendelssohn Quintette Club was founded in 1849. A Mendelssohn Scholarship was established in England in 1856; its first recipient was Arthur Sullivan. In 1967 the Mendelssohn-Gesellschaft was founded.

Mendelssohn’s influence on German, English, American, and Russian music was great and undimin-ishing through the years; his syms., concertos, chamber music, piano pieces, and songs became perennial favorites in concerts and at home, the most popular works being the overture Hebrides, the ubiquitously played Violin Concerto, the Songs without Words for Piano, and the “Wedding March” from incidental music to A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Professional music historians are apt to place Mendelssohn below the ranks of his great contemporaries Schumann, Chopin, and Liszt; in this exalted company Mendelssohn is often regarded as a phenomenon of Biedermeier culture. A barbaric ruling was made by the Nazi regime to forbid performances of Mendelssohn’s music as that of a Jew; his very name was removed from music history books and encyclopedias publ, in Germany during that time. This shameful episode was of but a transitory nature, however; if anything, it served to create a greater appreciation of Mendelssohn’s genius following the collapse of the infamous 3rd Reich.

Works

dramatic:Ich, J. Mendelssohn..., Lustspiel (1820); Die Soldatenliebschaft, comic opera (1820; Wittenberg, April 28, 1962); Die beiden Pädagogen, Singspiel (1821; Berlin, May 27, 1962); Die wandernden Komödianten, comic opera (1822; dialogue not extant); Der Onkel aus Boston oder Die beiden Neffen, comic opera (1823; Berlin, Feb. 3, 1824; dialogue not extant); Die Hochzeit des Camacho, op.lO, opera (1825; Berlin, April 29, 1827; dialogue not extant); Die Heimkehr aus der Fremde, op.89, Liederspiel (1829, written for the silver wedding anniversary of Mendelssohn’s parents, perf. at their home, Berlin, Dec. 26, 1829); Der standhafte, incidental music to Calderóni play (1833); Traia. A frischer Bua bin i (1833); Ruy Bias, incidental music to Hugo’s play (1839); Antigone, op.55, incidental music to Sopho-cles’s play (Potsdam, Oct. 28, 1841); A Midsummer Night’s Dream, op.61, incidental music to Shakespeare’s play (1842; Potsdam, Oct. 14, 1843); Oedipus at Colonos, op.93, incidental music to Sophocles’s play (Potsdam, Nov. 1, 1845); Athalie, op.74, incidental music to Racine’s play (Berlin- Charlotten-burg, Dec. 1, 1845); Lorelei, op.98, opera (begun in childhood but unfinished; Ave Maria, a vintage chorus, and finale to Act I only; Birmingham, Sept. 8, 1852). orch.: 13 sinfonias for Strings: No. 1, in C major (1821), No. 2, in D major (1821), No. 3, in E minor (1821), No. 4, in C minor (1821), No. 5, in B-flat major (1821), No. 6, in E-flat major (1821), No. 7, in D minor (1821–22), No. 8, in D major (1822), No. 9, in C major (1823), No. 10, in B minor (1823), No. 11, in F major (1823), No. 12, in G minor (1823), and No. 13, in C minor (1823; one movement only); syms.: No. 1, in C minor, op.11 (1824), No. 2, in B-flat major, a sym.-cantata for Solo Voices, Chorus, and Orch., Lobgesang or Hymn of Praise, op.52 (Leipzig, June 25, 1840, composer conducting), No. 3, in A minor, Scottish, op.56 (1830–42; Leipzig, March 3, 1842, composer conducting), No. 4, in A major, Italian, op.90 (London, May 13, 1833, composer conducting), and No. 5, in D major, Reformation, op.107 (1830–32; Berlin, Nov. 15, 1832, composer conducting); Violin Concerto in D minor for Strings (1822; N.Y., Feb. 4, 1952); Piano Concerto in A minor for Strings (1822); Concerto in D minor for Violin, Piano, and Strings (1823); Concerto in E major for 2 Pianos and Orch. (1823; Berlin, Nov. 14, 1824); Concerto in A-flat major for 2 Pianos and Orch. (1824; Stettin, Feb. 20, 1827); Overture in C major for Wind Instruments, op.24 (1824); Capriccio brillant in B minor for Piano and Orch., op.22 (1825–26; London, May 25, 1832); Overture (Trumpet Overture) in C major, op.101 (1826; rev. 1833); Ein Sommernachtstraum, overture for Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, op.21 (1826; Stettin, April 29, 1827); Meeresstille und glückliche Fahrt, overture after Goethe, op.27 (Berlin, April 18, 1828); Die Hebriden or Fingais Hohle, overture, op.26 (1830; London, May 14, 1832); Piano Concerto No. 1, in G minor, op.25 (Munich, Oct. 17, 1831, composer soloist); Die schöne Melusine, overture after Grillparzer, op.32 (1833; London, April 7, 1834); Rondo brillant in E-flat major for Piano and Orch., op.29 (1834); Trauermarsch in A minor for Wind, op.103 (1836); Piano Concerto No. 2, in D minor, op.40 (Birmingham, Sept. 1837, composer soloist); Serenade and Allegro giocoso, in B minor, for Piano and Orch., op.43 (1838); Ruy Bias, overture after Hugo, op.95 (Leipzig, March 1839); March in D major, op.108 (1841); Violin Concerto in E minor, op.64 (1844; Leipzig, March 13, 1845, Ferdinand David, soloist, Niels Gade conducting); also a recently discovered Concerto in E minor for Piano and Orch. (n.d.). chamber: Trio in C minor for Violin, Viola, and Piano (1820); Presto in F major for Violin and Piano (1820); Violin Sonata in F major (1820); 15 fugues for String Quartet (1821); Piano Quartet in D minor (1822); Piano Quartet No. 1, in C minor, op.l (1822); String Quartet in E-flat major (1823); Piano Quartet No. 2, in F minor, op.2 (1823); Viola Sonata in C minor (1824); Sextet in D major for Violin, 2 Violas, Cello, Double Bass, and Piano, op.110 (1824); Clarinet Sonata in E-flat major (1824); Piano Quartet No. 3, in B minor, op.3 (1825); Violin Sonata in F minor, op.4 (1825); Octet in E-flat major for 4 Violins, 2 Violas, and 2 Cellos, op.20 (1825); Quintet No. 1, in A major, for 2 Violins, 2 Violas, and Cello, op.18 (1826; rev. 1832); String Quartet No. 2, in A major, op.13 (1827); Fugue in E-flat major for String Quartet (1827); Fugue in E-flat major for String Quartet, op.81/4 (1827); Variations concertantes for Cello and Piano, op.17 (1829); String Quartet No. 1, in E-flat major, op.12 (1829); The Evening Bell for Harp and Piano (1829); Concert Piece in F major for Clarinet, Basset Horn, and Piano or Orch., op.113 (1833); Concert Piece in D minor for Clarinet and Basset Horn, op.114 (1833); string quartets, Nos. 3-5, op.44 (1837–38); Violin Sonata in F major (1838); Cello Sonata No. 1, in B- flat major, op.45 (1838); Piano Trio No. 1, in D minor, op.49 (1839); Capriccio in E minor for String Quartet, op.81/3 (1843); Cello Sonata No. 2, in D major, op.58 (1843); Quintet No. 2, in B-flat major, op.87 (1845); Piano Trio No. 2, in C minor, op.66 (1845); Lied ohne Worte in D major for Cello and Piano, op.109 (1845); String Quartet No. 6, in F minor, op.80 (1847); Andante in E major for String Quartet, op.81/1 (1847); Scherzo in A minor for String Quartet, op.81/2 (1847). keyboard: piano: Andante in F major (1820); piano piece in E minor (1820); 2 little pieces (1820); 2 little pieces (1820); 5 little pieces (1820); Largo-Allegro in C minor (1820); Recitativo (Largo) in D minor (1820); Sonata in F minor (1820); Sonata in A minor (1820); Presto in C minor (1820); Sonata in E minor (1820); 2 studies (1820); Allegro in A rninor (1821); Study in C major (1821); Sonata in G minor, op.105 (1821); Largo-Allegro molto in C minor/major (1821–22); 3 fugues: D minor, D minor, and B minor (1822); Allegro in D minor (1823); Fantasia (Adagio) in C minor (1823); Rondo capriccioso in E major, op.14 (1824); Capriccio in F-sharp minor, op.5 (1825); Fugue in C-sharp minor (1826); Sonata in E major, op.6 (1826); 7 charakteristische Stücke, op.7 (1827); Fantasia in E major, on “The Last Rose of Summer,” op.15 (1827); Sonata in B-flat major, op.106 (1827); Fugue in E minor (1827); Scherzo in B minor (1829); 3 fantaisies ou caprices, op.16 (1829); Andante in A major (1830); Lieder ohne Worte: 8 books, opp.l9 (1829–30), 30 (1833–34), 38 (1836–37), 53 (1839–41), 62 (1842–44), 67 (1843–45), 85 (1834–45), 102 (1842–45); Fantasia (Sonate écossaise) in F-sharp minor, op.28 (1833); 3 Caprices, op.33 (1833–35); Scherzo a capriccio in F-sharp minor (1835–36); Study in F minor (1836); Andante in A-flat major (1836); Lied in F-sharp minor (1836); Prelude in F minor (1836); 3 Preludes, op.l04a (1836); 6 Preludes and Fugues, op.35 (1832–37); Gondellied (Barcarole) in A major (1837); Capriccio in E major, op.118 (1837); Albumblatt (Lied ohne Worte) in E minor, op.117 (1837); Andante cantabile and Presto agitato, in B major (1838); 3 Studies, op.l04b (1834–38); Prelude and Fugue in E minor (1827–41); Variations sérieuses in D minor, op.54 (1841); Variations in E-flat major, op.82 (1841); Variations in B-flat major, op.83 (1841); Kinderstücke (Christmas Pieces), op.72 (1842–47); Perpetuum mobile in C major, op.119; etc. piano duets:Lento-Vivace in G minor (1820); Fantasia in D minor (1824); Allegro brillant in A major, op.92 (1841); Variations in B-flat major, op.83a (1841). two pianos:Duo concertant: Variations on the march from Weber’s Preciosa (1833; with Moscheles). organ: Several works, including 3 Preludes and Fugues, op.37 (1837), and 6 sonatas, op.65 (1844–45). vocal: oratorios: Si. Paul, op.36 (1834–36; Düsseldorf, May 22, 1836, composer conducting); Elijah, op.70 (1846; Birmingham, Aug. 26, 1846, composer conducting); Christus, op.97 (unfinished; Boston, May 7, 1874). other sacred:Die Himmel erzählen for 5 Voices (1820); Gott, du bist unsre Zuversicht for 5 Voices (1820); Ich will den Herrn nach seiner Gerechtigkeit preisen for 4 Voices (1820); Tag für Tag sei Gott gepriesen for 5 Voices (1820); Das Gesetz des Herrn ist ohne Wandel for 5 Voices (1821–22); Er hat der Sonne eine Hütte gemacht for 5 Voices (1821–22); Jube Domine for Solo Voices and Double Chorus (1822); Psalm LXVI for Double Women’s Chorus and Basso Continuo (1822); Magnificat in D major for Chorus and Orch. (1822); Kyrie in C minor for Solo Voices and Chorus (1823); Jesus, meine Zuversicht for Solo Voices and Chorus (1824); Salve Regina in E-flat major for Soprano and Strings (1824); 2 sacred pieces for Chorus:Wie gross ist des Allmächt’gen Güte (1824) and Allein Gott in der Höh’ sey Ehr (1824); Te Deum in D major for Double Chorus and Basso Continuo (1826); Jesu, meine Freude, chorale cantata for Double Chorus and Strings; Tu es Petrus for Chorus and Orch., op.lll (1827); Ave Maria Stella for Soprano and Orch. (1828); Hora est for 16 Voices and Organ (1828); 3 sacred pieces for Tenor, Chorus, and Organ, op.23:Aus tiefer Not, Ave Maria, and Mitten; Psalm CXV for Solo Voices, Chorus, and Orch., op.31 (1830); Zum Feste der Dreieinigkeit (O beata et benedicta) for 3 Sopranos and Organ (1830); 3 motets for Women’s Chorus and Organ, op.39 (1830):Hear my prayer, O Lord (Veni, Domine), O praise the Lord (Laudate pueri), and O Lord, thou hast searched me out (Surrexit Pastor); Verleih uns Frieden for Chorus and Orch. (1831); Te Deum in A major for Solo Voices, Chorus, and Organ (1832); Lord have mercy upon us for Chorus (1833); 2 sacred choruses for Men’s Chorus, op.115 (1833); Responsorium et hymnus for Men’s Voices, Cello, and Organ, op.121 (1833); Psalm XLII for Solo Voices, Chorus, and Orch., op.42 (1837); Psalm XCV for Tenor, Chorus, and Orch., op.46 (1838); Psalm V, Lord hear the voice for Chorus (1839); Psalm XXXI, Defend me, Lord for Chorus (1839); Hymn in A major for Solo Voice, Chorus, and Orch., op.96 (1840); Psalm CXIV for Double Chorus and Orch., op.51 (1839); Geistliches Lied in E-flat major for Solo Voice, Chorus, and Organ (1840); Psalm C, Jauchzet den Herrn for Chorus (1842); Herr Gott, dich loben wir for Solo Voices, Chorus, Organ, and Orch. (1843); Psalm XCVIII for Double Chorus and Orch., op.91 (1843); Ehre sei dem Vater for 8 Voices (1844); Hear my prayer, hymn for Soprano, Chorus, and Organ (1844); Ehre sei dem Vater in C major for 4 Voices (1845); Er kommt aus dem kindlichen Alter der Welt for 6 Voices (1846); Lauda Sion for Chorus and Orch., op.73 (Liège, June 11, 1846); Die deutsche Liturgie for 8 Voices (1846); 3 English Church Pieces for Solo Voices and Chorus, op.69 (1847):Nunc dimittis, Jubilate, and Magnificat; 3 Psalms for Solo Voices and Double Chorus, op.78:Psalm II (1843), Psalm XLIII (1844), and Psalm XXII (1844); 6 Anthems for Double Chorus, op.79:Rejoice, O ye people; Thou, Lord, our refuge hast been (1843); Above all praises (1846); Lord, on our offences (1844); Let our hearts be joyful (1846); For our offences (1844). Other works include:Ach Gott vom Himmel sieh darein, chorale cantata for Solo Voices, Chorus, and Orch.; Cantique pour l’Eglise wallonne de Francfort (Venez chantez) for 4 Voices; Christe, du Lamm Gottes, chorale cantata for Chorus and Orch.; Gloria patri (Ehre sei dem Vater) for 4 Voices; Glory be to the Father for 4 Voices; Gloria in E-flat major for Solo Voices, Chorus, and Orch. (unfinished); Kyrie for Chorus and Orch.; Kyrie in A major for 8 Voices; Vom Himmel hoch, chorale cantata for Solo Voices, Chorus, and Orch.; etc. secular cantatas: in feierlichen Tönen, wedding cantata for Soprano, Alto, Tenor, Chorus, and Piano (1820); Grosse Festmusik zum Dürerfest for Solo Voices, Chorus, and Orch. (Berlin, April 18, 1828); Begrüssung (Humboldt Cantata), festival music for Solo Men’s Voices, Men’s Chorus, and Winds (Berlin, Sept. 18, 1828); Die erste Walpurgisnacht for Chorus and Orch., op.60 (1832; Berlin, Jan. 1833; rev. 1843; Leipzig, Feb. 2, 1843); Gott segne Sachsenland for Men’s Voices and Winds (Dresden, June 7, 1843); An die Künstler, festival song for Men’s Voices and Brass, op.68 (Cologne, June 1846). choral songs:Einst ins Schlaraffenland zogen for 4 Men’s Voices (1820); Lieb und Hoffnung for Men’s Voices (1820); Jägerlied (Kein bess’re Lust in dieser Zeit) for 4 Men’s Voices (1822); Lob des Weines (Seht, Freunde, die Gläser) for Solo Men’s Voices and Men’s Chorus (1822); Lass es heut am edlen Ort for 4 Men’s Voices (1828); Worauf kommt es überall an for 4 Men’s Voices (1837); Im Freien zu singen for Mixed Voices, op.41: 1, Im Walde (1838); 2, Entflieh mit mir (1838); 3, Es fiel ein Reif (1838); 4, Auf ihrem Grab (1834); 5, Mailied (1838); 6, Auf dem See (1838); Der erste Frühlingstag for Mixed Voices, op.48 (1839): 1, Frühlingsahnung; 2, Die Primel; 3, Frühlingsfeier; 4, Lerchengesang; 5, Morgengebet; 6, Herbstlied; Ersatz für Unbestand for 4 Men’s Voices (1839); Festgesang for Men’s Voices (Leipzig, June 25, 1840; No. 2 adapted by W.H. Cummings for Hark! the Herald Angels Sing); 6 men’s choruses, op.50: 1, Türkisches Schenkenlied (1839–40); 2, Der Jäger Abschied (1840); 3, Sommerlied (1839–40); 4, Wasserfahrt (1839–40); 5, Liebe und Wein (1839); 6, Wanderlied (1842); Nachtgesang for 4 Men’s Voices (1842); Die Stiftungsfeier for 4 Men’s Voices (1842); Im Grünen for Mixed Voices, op.59: 1, Im Grünen (1837); 2, Frühzeitiger Frühling (1843); 3, Abschied vom Wald (1843); 4, Die Nachtigall (1843); 5, Ruhetal (1843); 6, Jagdlied (1843); Sahst du ihn hernieder schweben, funeral song for Mixed Voices, op.116 (1845); Der Sänger (1845; Leipzig, Nov. 10, 1846); Wandersmann for Men’s Voices, op.75:1, Der frohe Wandersmann (1844); 2, Abendständchen (1839); 3, Trinklied; 4, Abschiedstafel (1844); 4 men’s choruses, op.76: 1, Das Lied vom braven Mann; 2, Rheinweinlied (1844); 3, Lied für die Deutschen in Lyon (1846); 4, Comitat; 6 choruses for Mixed Voices, op.88: 1, Neujahrslied (1844); 2, Der Glückliche (1843); 3, Hirtenlied (1839); 4, Die Waldvögelein (1843); 5, Deutschland (1839–43); 6, Der wandernde Musikant (1840); 4 choruses for Mixed Voices, op.100: 1, Andenken (1844); 2, Lob des Frühlings (1843); 3, Frühlingslied (1843–44); 4, Im Wald (1839); 4 men’s choruses, op.l20: 1, Jagdlied (1837); 2, Morgengruss des Thüringischen Sängerbundes (1847); 3, Im Süden;4, Zigeunerlied; Lob der Trunkenheit (Trunken müssen wir alle sein) for 4 Men’s Voices; Musikantenprugelei (Seht doch diese Fiedlerbanden) for 2 Men’s Voices. Also concert arias:Che vuoi mio cor? for Mezzo-soprano and Strings, and Infelice for Soprano and Orch., op.94 (1834; rev. 1843). songs:Ave Maria (1820); Raste Krieger, Krieg ist aus (1820); Die Nachtigall (Da ging ich hin) (1821–22); Der Verlassene (Nacht ist um mich her) (1821–22); Von allen deinen zarten Gaben (1822); Wiegenlied (Schlummre sanft) (1822); Sanft weh’n im Hauch der Abendluft (1822); Der Wasserfall (Rieselt hernieder) (1823); 12 songs, op.8 (1828): 1, Minnelied; 2, Das Heimweh (by Fanny Mendelssohn); 3, Italien (by Fanny Mendelssohn); 4, Erntelied; 5, Pilgerspruch; 6, Frühlingslied; 7, Maienlied; 8, Andres Maienlied (Hexenlied); 9, Abendlied; 10, Romanze; 11, Im Grünen; 12, Suleika und Hatem (by Fanny Mendelssohn); The Garland (Der Blumenkranz) (1829); 12 songs, op.9 (1829–30): 1, Frage; 2, Geständnis; 3, Wartend; 4, Im Frühling; 5, Im Herbst; 6, Scheidend; 7, Sehnsucht (by Fanny Mendelssohn); 8, Frühlingsglaube; 9, Ferne; 10, Verlust (by Fanny Mendelssohn); 11, Entsagung; 12, Die Nonne (by Fanny Mendelssohn); 4 songs (1830): 1, Der Tag (Sanft entschwanden mir); 2, Reiterlied (Immer fort); 3, Abschied (Leb wohl mein Lieb); 4, Der Bei £ 1er (Ich danke Gott dir); Seemanns Scheidelied (1831); Weihnachtslied (Auf schicke dich recht feierlich) (1832); 6 songs, op.l9a (1830–34): 1, Frühlingslied; 2, Das erste Veilchen; 3, Winterlied; 4, Newe Lzefre; 5, Grwss; 6, Reiselied; Mailied (Ich weiss mir’n Mädchen) (1834); 2 romances:There be none of beauty’s daughters (1833) and Sun of the Sleepless (1834); 2 songs:Das Waldschloss (1835) and Pagenlied (1835); 6 songs, op.34 (1834–36): 1, Minnelied; 2, Auf Flügeln des Gesanges; 3, Frühlingslied; 4, Suleika; 5, Sonntagslied; 6, Reiselied; Lied einer Freundin (Zarter Blumen leicht Gewinde) (1837); Im Ka/m (1837); O fccmnf ich zt/ dir fliegen (1838); 6 songs, op.47 (1832–39): 1, Minnelied; 2, Morgengruss; 3, Frühlingslied; 4, Volkslied; 5, Der Blumenstrauss; 6, Bei der Wiege; 2 songs:Todeslied der Bojaren (1840) and ich hör em Vög/ezn (1841); 6 songs, op.57 (1839–43): 1, Altdeutsches Lied; 2, Hirtenlied; 3, Suleika; 4, O Jugend; 5, Vene- tianisches Gondellied; 6, Wanderlied; 6 songs, op.71 (1842–47): 1, Tröstung; 2, Frühlingslied; 3, An dze Entfernte; 4, Schilflied; 5, Auf der Wanderschaft; 6, Nachtlied; 3 songs, op.84 (1831–39): 1, Da h’eg’ zch wnfer den Bäumen; 2, Herbstlied; 3, Jagdlied; 6 songs, op.86 (1831–51): 1, Es lauschte des Laub; 2, Morgenlied; 3, Dze Liebende schreibt; 4, Allnächtlich im Traume; 5, Der Mond; 6, Altdeutsches Frühlingslied; 6 songs, op.99: 1, Erster Verlust; 2, Dze Sterne schau’n; 3, Lieblingsplätzchen; 4, Das Schifflein; 5, Wenn sicch zwez Herzen scheiden; 6, Es wezss wnd rät es doch keiner; 2 sacred songs, op.112: Doch der Herr, er leziei die Irrenden recht and Der du die Menschen lässest sterben; also Des Mädchens Klage; Warnung vor dem Rhein; Der Abendsegen (The Evening Service); Gretschen (Meine Ruh ist hin); Lieben und Schweigen (Ich flocht ein Kränzlein schöner Lieder); Es rauscht der Wald; Vier trübe Monden sind entfloh’n; Weinend seh’ ich in die Nacht; Weiter, rastlos atemlos vorüber. vocal duets: Em Tag sagt es dem andern for Soprano and Alto (1821); 6 duets, op.63 (1836–45): 1, Ich wollt’ meine Lieb’; 2, Abschiedslied der Zugvögel; 3, Gruss; 4, Herbstlied; 5, Volkslied; 6, Maiglöckchen und die Blümelein; 3 duets, op.77 (1836–47): 1, Sonntagsmorgen; 2, Das Aehrenfeld; 3, Lzed aus “Ruy Blas”; 3 folk songs: 1, Wie kann ich froh und lustig sein; 2, Abendlied; 3, Wasserfahrt; also various canons.

Bibliography

collected editions, source material: The 1st collected ed. of his works, F. M.-B.: Werke: Kritisch durchgesehene Ausgabe, was ed. by Julius Rietz and publ, by Breitkopf & Härtel (Leipzig, 1874–77); this ed. omits a number of works, however. A new ed. of the complete works, the Leipziger Ausgabe der Werke F. M.-B.s, began publication in Leipzig in 1960 by the Internationale Felix-Mendelssohn- Gesellschaft. Breitkopf & Härtel publ, a Thematisches Verzeichnis im Druck erschienener Compositionen von F. M.-B. (Leipzig, 1846; 2nded., 1853; 3rd ed., 1882). Other sources include the following:M.-Festwoche aus Anlass der 150. Wiederkehr des Geburtstages am 3. Februar 1959 (Leipzig, 1959); M. Schneider, M.-Archiv der Staatsbibliothek Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz (Berlin, 1965); R. Elvers, F. M.-B.: Dokumente seines Lebens: Ausstellung zum 125. Todestag (Berlin, 1972); P. Krause, Autographen, Erstausgaben und Frühdrucke der Werke von F. M.-B. in Leipziger Bibliotheken und Archiven (Leipzig, 1972); K. Schultz, ed., F. M.B.: “Der schöne Zwischenfall in der deutschen Musik” (Vienna, 1981); E. Kiessmann, Die M.s: Bilder aus einer deutschen Familie (Zürich, 1990); R. Todd, ed., M. Studies (Cambridge, 1992); C. Schmidt, ed., F.M. B.: Kongress-Bericht Berlin 1994 (Wiesbaden, 1997). biographical: W. Lampadius, F. M.-B.: Ein Denkmal für seine Freunde (Leipzig, 1848; Eng. tr., with additional articles by others, N.Y., 1865; 2nd greatly aug. Ger. ed., as F. M.-B.: Ein Gesammtbild seines Lebens und Wirkens, Leipzig, 1886); L. Stierlin, Biographie von F. M.-B. (Zürich, 1849); J. Benedict, A Sketch of the Life and Works of the Late F. M.-B. (London, 1850; 2nd ed., 1853); W. Neumann, F. M.-B.: Eine Biographie (Kassel, 1854); A. Reissmann, F. M.-B.: Sein Leben und seine Werke (Berlin, 1867; 3rd ed., rev., 1893); H. Barbedette, F. M.-B.: Sa vie et ses oeuvres (Paris, 1868); C. Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Goethe und F. M.-B. (Leipzig, 1871; Eng. tr., London, 1872; 2nd ed., 1874); S. Hensel, Dze Familie M. 1729–1847, nach Briefen und Tagebüchern (3 vols., Berlin, 1879; 18th ed., 1924; Eng. tr., 2 vols., London, 1881); J. Sittard, F. M.-B. (Leipzig, 1881); W. Rockstro, M. (London, 1884; rev. ed., 1911); E. David, Les M.-B. et Robert Schumann (Paris, 1886); J. Eckardt, Ferdinand David und die Familie M.-B. (Leipzig, 1888); J. Hadden, M. (London, 1888; 2nd ed., 1904); S. Stratton, M. (London, 1901; 6th ed., 1934); V Blackburn, M. (London, 1904); E. Wolff, F. M.-B. (Berlin, 1906; 2nd ed., rev., 1909); C. Bellaigue, M. (Paris, 1907; 4thed., 1920); J. Hartog, F. M.-B. en zijne werken (Leyden, 1908); P. de Stoecklin, M. (Paris, 1908; 2nd ed., 1927); M. Jacobi, F. M.-B. (Bielefeld, 1915); W. Dahms, M. (Berlin, 1919; 9th ed., 1922); J. Esser, F. M.-B. und die Rheinlande (diss., Univ. of Bonn, 1923); C. Winn, M. (London, 1927); J. Cooke, F. M.-B. (Philadelphia, 1929); E. Vuillermoz, Une Heure de musique avec M. (Paris, 1930); S. Kaufmann, M.; A Second Elijah (N.Y., 1934; 2nd ed., 1936); J. Petitpierre, Le Mariage de M. 1837–1847 (Lausanne, 1937; Eng. tr. as The Romance of the M.s, London, 1947); B. Bartels, M.-B.: Mensch und Werk (Bremen, 1947); K. Wörner, F. M.-B.: Leben und Werk (Leipzig, 1947); M. Schneider, M. im Bildnis (Basel, 1953); P. Radcliffe, M. (London, 1954; 2nd ed., rev., 1967); H. Worbs, F. M.- B. (Leipzig, 1956; 2nd ed., 1957); idem, F. M.-B.: Wesen und Wirken im Spiegel von Selbstzeugnissen und Berichten der Zeitgenossen (Leipzig, 1958); H. Jacob, F. M. und sez’ne Zez’i; Bildnis und Schicksal eines Meisters (Frankfurt am Main, 1959–60; Eng. tr., 1963); E. Werner, M.:A New Image of the Composer and His Age (N.Y., 1963; 2nd ed., rev. and aug., Zürich, 1980); E. Rudolph, Der junge F. M.: Ein Beitrag zur Musikgeschichte des Stadt Berlin (diss., Humboldt Univ., Berlin, 1964); K.-H. Köhler, F. M.-B. (Leipzig, 1966; 2nd ed., rev., 1972); S. Grossmann-Vendrey, F. M.-B. und die Musik der Vergangenheit (Regensburg, 1969); M. Hurd, M. (London, 1970); W. Reich, F. M. im Spiegel eigener Aussagen und zeitgenossischer Dokumente (Zürich, 1970); H. Kupferberg, The M.s: Three Generations of Genius (N.Y., 1972); G. Marek, Gentle Genius: The Story of F. M. (N.Y, 1972); P. Ranft, F. M.B.: Eine Lebenschronik (Leipzig, 1972); Y. Tiénot, M.:Musicien complet (Paris, 1972); W. Blunt, On Wings of Song: A Biography of F M. (N.Y, 1974); H. Worbs, M.-B. (Hamburg, 1974); D. Jenkins and M. Visocchi, M. in Scotland (London, 1978); M. Moshansky, M. (Tunbridge Wells, 1982); G. Schuhmacher, ed., F. M.-B. (Darmstadt, 1982); W. Konoid, F. M.B. und seine Zeit (Laaber, 1984); R. Elvers, ed., F. M.: A Life in Letters (London, 1989); R. Todd, ed., M. and His World (Princeton, 1991); E. Donner, F. M B.:Aus der Partitur eines Musikerlebens (Düsseldorf, 1992); A. Richter, M.: Leben, Werke, Dokumente (Mainz, 1994); B. Richter, Frauen um F. M. B. (Frankfurt am Main, 1997). CRITICAL, ANALYTICAL: F. Zander, Über M.s Walpurgisnacht (Königsberg, 1862); C. Seidon, La Musique en Allemagne: M. (Paris, 1867); F. Edwards, The History of M’s Oratorio “Elijah” (London, 1896; 2nded., 1900); J. Hathaway, An Analysis of M’s Organ Works: A Study of Their Structural Features (London, 1898); O. Mansfield, Organ Parts of M’s Oratorios and Other Choral Works Analytically Considered (London, 1907); H. Waltershausen, M.s Lieder ohne Worte (Munich, 1920); J. Koffler, Die orchestrale Koloristik in den symphonischen Werken von M. (diss., Univ. of Vienna, 1923); H. Mandt, Die Entwicklung des Romantischen in der Instrumentalmusik F. M.-B.s (diss., Univ. of Cologne, 1927); R. Werner, F M.-B. als Kirchenmusiker (Frankfurt am Main, 1930); C. Wilkinson, How to Interpret M’s “Songs without Words” (London, 1930); T. Armstrong, M’s “Elijah” (London, 1931); G. Wilcke, Tonalität und Modulation im Streichquartett M.s und Schumanns (Leipzig, 1933); L. Hochdorf, M.s “Lieder ohne Worte” und der “Lieder ohne Worte”-Stil in seinen übrigen Instrumentalwerken (diss., Univ. of Vienna, 1938); J. Horton, The Chamber Music of M. (London, 1946); P. Young, Introduction to the Music of M. (London, 1949); D. Mintz, The Sketches and Drafts of Three of M’s Major Works (Elijah, Sym. No. 4, and D-minor Trio; diss., Cornell Univ., 1960); S. Vendrey, Die Orgelwerke von F. M.-B. (diss., Univ. of Vienna, 1964); J. Werner, M’s “Elijah”: A Historical and Analytical Guide to the Oratorio (London, 1965); G. Friedrich, Die Fugenkomposition in M.s Instrumentalwerk (Bonn, 1969); F. Krummacher, M. der Komponist: Studien zur Kompositionsweise am Beispiel der Kammermusik für Streicher (Habilitationsschrift, Univ. of Erlangen, 1972); M. Thomas, Das Instrumentalwerk F. M.-B.s: Eine systematisch-theoretische Untersuchung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der zeitgenössischen Musiktheorie (Kassel, 1972); C. Dahlhaus, ed., Das Problem M. (Regensburg, 1974); D. Seaton, A Study of a Collection of M’s Sketches and Other Autograph Material, Deutsche Staatsbibliothek Berlin “Mus. Ms. Autogr. M. 19” (diss., Columbia Univ., 1977); F. Krummacher, M.—der Komponist: Studien zur Kammermusik für Streicher (Munich, 1978); A. Kurzhals-Reuter, Die Oratorien F. M.B.s: Untersuchungen zur Quellenlage, Entstehung, Gestaltung und Überlieferung (Tutzing, 1978); R. Todd, The Instrumental Music of F.M.B. : Selected Studies Based on Primary Studies (diss., Yale Univ., 1979); T. Ehrle, Die Instrumentation in den Symphonien und Ouvertüren von F. M.B. (Wiesbaden, 1983); R. Todd, M’s Musical Education: A Study and Edition of His Exercises in Composition (Cambridge, 1982); J. Finson and R. Todd, eds., M. and Schumann: Essays on Their Music and Its Context (Durham, 1984); C. Jost, M.s Lieder ohne Worte (Tutzing, 1988); M. Pape, M.s Leipziger Orgelkonzert 1840: Ein Beitrag zur Bach-Pflege im 19. Jahrhundert (Wiesbaden, 1988); W. Konoid, Symphonien F. M. B.s (Laaber, 1992); G. Vitercik, The Early Works of F. M.: A Study in the Romantic Sonata Style (Philadelphia, 1992); W. Dinglinger, Studien zu den Psalmen mit Orchester F. M. B. (Cologne, 1993); R. Todd, AI:The Hebrides and Other Overtures (Cambridge, 1993); T. Schmidt, Die äesthetischen Grundlagen der Instrumentalmusik F. M. B.s (Stuttgart, 1996); R. Wehner, Studien zum geistlichen Chorschaffen des jungen F. M. B. (Sinzig, 1996); W. Wüster, F M. B.s Choralkanten: Gestalt und Idee: Versuch einer historisch-kritischen Interpretation (Frankfurt am Main, 1996); A. Eicchorn, F M.-B.: Die Hebriden, Ouvertüre für Orchester, op.26 (Munich, 1998). correspondence: P. Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Reisebrief e...aus den Jahren 1830–32 (Leipzig, 1861; 5th ed., 1882; Eng. tr. by Lady Wallace as Letters from Italy and Switzerland, London, 1862); idem, Briefe aus den Jahren 1833–47 (Leipzig, 1863; 8th ed., 1915; Eng. tr. by Lady Wallace, London, 1863); L. Nohl, Musiker-briefe (Leipzig, 1867); E. Polko, Erinnerungen an F. M.-B. (Leipzig, 1868; Eng. tr. by Lady Wallace, London, 1869); E. Devrient, Meine Erinnerungen an F. M.- B. und seine Briefe an mich (Leipzig, 1869; Eng. tr. by Lady Macfarren, London, 1869); Acht Briefe und ein Faksimile (Leipzig, 1871; Eng. tr. in Macmillan’s Magazine, June 1871); F. Hiller, F. M.:Briefe und Erinnerungen (Cologne, 1874; Eng. tr. by M.E. von Glehn, London, 1874); S. Hensel, The M. Family, 1729–1847, from Letters and Journals (2 vols., 1882; reprint, N.Y., 1969); F. Moscheies, Brief von F. M. an Ignaz und Charlotte Moscheies (Leipzig, 1888; Eng. tr. as Letters of F. M., London, 1888); E. Wolff, F. M.-B.: Meisterbriefe (Berlin, 1907; 2nd aug. ed., 1909); K. Klingemann, F. M.-B.s Briefwechsel mit Legationsrat Karl Klingemann (Essen, 1909); G. Selden-Goth, M/s Letters (N.Y., 1945); R. Sietz, ed., F. M.-B.: Sein Leben in Briefen (Cologne, 1948); R. Elvers, ed., M.B.: Briefe (Frankfurt am Main, 1984); M. Citron, ed., The Letters of Fanny Hensel to F. M. (Stuyvesant, N.Y., 1987); P. Jones, ed. and tr., The M.s on Honeymoon: The 1837 Diary of F. and Cécile M. B. Together With Letters to Their Families (Oxford, 1997).

—Nicolas Slonimsky/Laura Kuhn/Dennis McIntire