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milling

milling, mechanical grinding of wheat or other grains to produce flour. Milling separates the fine, mealy parts of grain from the fibrous bran covering. In prehistoric times grain was crushed between two flat stones. Later a stone with a rounded end was used to grind grain in a cup-shaped stone; this led to the development of the mortar and pestle. The more advanced peoples began to use the quern, a primitive mill in which the grain is placed on a flat, circular lower millstone and ground by revolving a similar upper millstone to which a handle is attached. Such a device, operated at first by hand, was adapted to the use of animal, water, or wind power. The Greeks probably used water power c.450 BC; the Romans used gears to connect several sets of millstones with one waterwheel. Windmills are said to have become widespread in Europe following the Crusades and were probably introduced from Asia Minor. The Industrial Revolution initiated the use of steam power and of transportation facilities that resulted in the rise of large-scale milling centers. Machinery was improved, with metal replacing wood and steel rollers replacing millstones. The invention of the middlings purifier, by which, after preliminary grinding, the flour is separated from bran particles by strong air currents, improved the quality of flour prepared from hard spring wheat and, in the United States, led to the development of great milling centers in the spring-wheat areas of Minnesota (notably Minneapolis), the Dakotas, and Montana. In Europe modern rolling methods were developed during the 19th cent. in Hungary, and Budapest became one of the chief milling centers. In modern processing, grain is usually blended, cleaned, scrubbed to remove wheat hairs, tempered by heat and moisture (to prevent brittleness in the bran and consequent pulverization resulting in speckled flour), passed through sets of steel rolls with successively finer corrugations, and sifted after each grinding. It is then blown in a middlings purifier, ground between sets of smooth rolls, and bolted through a very fine mesh sieve. The entire, highly automated process takes about an hour and comprises some 180 operations. The term milling is applied also to the processing of other materials, e.g., soap, textiles, and metals; processing establishments are often called mills, e.g., lumber mill or sawmill, cotton mill, and sugar mill.

See M. and M. Zimilies, Early American Mills (1973).

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mill

mill1 / mil/ • n. 1. a building equipped with machinery for grinding grain into flour. ∎  a piece of machinery of this type. ∎  a domestic device for grinding a solid substance to powder or pulp: a coffee mill. ∎  a building fitted with machinery for a manufacturing process: a steel mill | [as adj.] a mill town. ∎  a piece of manufacturing machinery. ∎  a place that processes things or people in a mechanical way: a correspondence school that was just a diploma mill. 2. inf. an engine. 3. inf., dated a boxing match or a fistfight. • v. 1. [tr.] grind or crush (something) in a mill: hard wheats are easily milled into white flour | [as adj.] (milled) freshly milled black pepper. ∎  cut or shape (metal) with a rotating tool: [as adj.] (milling) lathes and milling machines. ∎  [usu. as adj.] (milled) produce regular ribbed markings on the edge of (a coin) as a protection against illegal clipping. 2. [intr.] (mill about/around) (of people or animals) move around in a confused mass: people milled about the room, shaking hands | [as adj.] (milling) the milling crowds of guests. PHRASES: go (or put someone) through the mill undergo (or cause someone to undergo) an unpleasant experience.DERIVATIVES: mill·a·ble adj. mill2 • n. a monetary unit used only in calculations, worth one thousandth of a dollar.

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mill

mill go (or put someone) through the mill undergo (or cause someone to undergo) an unpleasant experience.
the mill cannot grind with the water that is past an opportunity that has been missed cannot then be used; proverbial saying, early 17th century. (Compare opportunity never knocks twice at any man's door.)
the mills of God grind slowly, yet they grind exceeding small proverbial saying, mid 17th century; ultimately from an anonymous verse in Sextus Empiricus Adversus Mathematicos, ‘the mills of the gods are late to grind, but they grind small.’ The exact wording of the current form of the proverb is a quotation from Longfellow's ‘Retribution’.

See also millstone.

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milling

milling The term usually refers to the conversion of cereal grain into its derivative, e.g. wheat into flour, brown rice to white rice.

Flour milling involves two types of rollers: (1)break rollers are corrugated and exert shear pressure and forces which break up the wheat grain and permit sieving into fractions containing varying proportions of germ, bran, and endosperm;(2)reducing rollers are smooth and subdivide the endosperm into fine particles. See also flour, extraction rate.

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Mill

MILL

One-tenth of one cent: $0.001. A mill rate is used by many localities to compute property taxes. For example, some states levy a one-time nonrecurringtax of two mills per dollar (0.2%) on the fair market value of all notes, bonds, and other obligations for payment of money that are secured by mortgage, deed of trust, or other lien on real property in lieu of all other taxes on such property.

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mill

mill building fitted with apparatus for grinding corn OE.; the apparatus itself XVI; building in which an industry or manufacture is carried on XVI. OE. mylen m. and fem.:- *mulino, -ina, for late L. molīnus, -īna, -inum, f. and repl. L. mola grindstone, mill (see MEAL1).
Hence millstone late OE. mill vb. XVI.

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mill

mill: see milling.

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mill

millbill, Brazil, brill, Camille, chill, cookchill, dill, distil (US distill), downhill, drill, Edgehill, Estoril, fill, freewill, frill, fulfil (US fulfill), Gill, goodwill, grill, grille, hill, ill, instil, kill, krill, mil, mill, nil, Phil, pill, quadrille, quill, rill, Seville, shill, shrill, sill, skill, spadille, spill, squill, still, stock-still, swill, thill, thrill, till, trill, twill, until, uphill, will •hwyl • bank bill • handbill • waxbill •playbill, waybill •cranesbill • sibyl • crossbill • sawbill •hornbill • storksbill • shoebill •spoonbill • duckbill • razorbill •gerbil • wind chill • Churchill • idyll •daffodil • back-fill • landfill • monofil •fibrefill (US fiberfill) • chlorophyll •bluegill

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