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by / / • prep. 1. identifying the agent performing an action: ∎  after a passive verb: the door was opened by my cousin Annie. ∎  after a noun denoting an action: further attacks by the mob a clear decision by the electorate. ∎  identifying the author of a text, idea, or work of art: a book by Ernest Hemingway. 2. indicating the means of achieving something: malaria can be controlled by attacking the parasite. ∎  indicating a term to which an interpretation is to be assigned: what is meant by “fair?” ∎  indicating a name according to which a person is known: she mostly calls me by my last name. ∎  indicating the means of transport selected for a journey: traveling by train to Boston. ∎  indicating the other parent of someone's child or children: Richard is his son by his third wife. ∎  indicating the sire of a pedigree animal, esp. a horse: a black filly by Goldfuerst. ∎  (followed by a noun without an adjective) in various phrases indicating how something happens: I heard by chance that she has married again. 3. indicating the amount or size of a margin: the shot missed her by miles. ∎  indicating a unit of measurement: billing is by the minute. ∎  in phrases indicating something happening repeatedly or progressively, typically with repetition of a unit of time: colors changing minute by minute. ∎  identifying a parameter: a breakdown of employment figures by age and occupation. ∎  expressing multiplication, often in dimensions: a map measuring 24 by 36 inches she multiplied it by 89. 4. indicating a deadline or the end of a particular time period: I've got to do this report by Monday. 5. indicating location of a physical object beside a place or object: remains were discovered by the roadside. ∎  past; beyond: I drove by our house. 6. indicating the period in which something happens: this animal always hunts by night. 7. concerning; according to: anything you do is all right by me she had done her duty by him. 8. used in mild oaths: it was the least he could do, by God. • adv. so as to go past: a car flashed by on the other side of the road he let only a moment go by. • n. (pl. byes ) variant spelling of bye1 . PHRASES: by and by before long; eventually. by the by (or bye) incidentally; parenthetically: where's Hector, by the by? by and large on the whole; everything considered: mammals have, by and large, bigger brains than reptiles. by oneself 1. alone: living in that big house by himself. 2. unaided: the patient often learns to undress by himself.

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by

by alongside; in the course of; according to; in relation to; marking the means or instrument (ult. superseding from, through, of) OE.; marking the agent (ult. superseding of, from) XIV. OE. , unstressed bi, be = OS., OHG. (Du. bij, G. bei), Goth. bi :- Gmc. *bi, prob. identical with the second syll. of Gr. amphi, L. ambi- (see AMBI-, AMPHI-), OE. ymb(e)- around. Cf. BE-, BEFORE, BEHIND, BESIDE, BETIMES, BY-, BY-AND-BY.

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by

byally, Altai, apply, assai, awry, ay, aye, Baha'i, belie, bi, Bligh, buy, by, bye, bye-bye, chi, Chiangmai, Ciskei, comply, cry, Cy, Dai, defy, deny, Di, die, do-or-die, dry, Dubai, dye, espy, eye, fie, fly, forbye, fry, Frye, goodbye (US goodby), guy, hereby, hi, hie, high, I, imply, I-spy, July, kai, lie, lye, Mackay, misapply, my, nearby, nigh, Nye, outfly, passer-by, phi, pi, pie, ply, pry, psi, Qinghai, rai, rely, rocaille, rye, scry, serai, shanghai, shy, sigh, sky, Skye, sky-high, sly, spin-dry, spry, spy, sty, Sukhotai, supply, Tai, Thai, thereby, thigh, thy, tie, Transkei, try, tumble-dry, underlie, Versailles, Vi, vie, whereby, why, wry, Wye, xi, Xingtai, Yantai

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