## Integers

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## Integers

# Integers

The integers are the positive and negative whole numbers. . . -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2,. . . . The name “integer” comes directly from the Latin word for “whole.” The set of integers can be generated from the set of natural numbers by adding zero and the negatives of the natural numbers. To do this, one defines zero to be a number which, added to any number, equals the same number. One defines a negative of a given number to be a number which, plus the given number, equals zero. Symbolically, for any number n: 0 + n = n (additive identity law) and -n + n = 0 (additive inverse law). Because arithmetic is done with natural numbers, one needs rules that will convert integer arithmetic into natural-number arithmetic. This is true even with a calculator. Most simple four-function calculators have no easy way of entering negative numbers, and the user has to apply the rules. Rules are often stated using the concept of absolute value. The absolute value of a number is the number itself if it is positive and its opposite if it is negative. For example, the absolute value of +5 is +5, or 5, while the absolute value of -3 is +3, or 3. Absolute values are always positive or zero.

There are two basic rules for addition: 1) To add two numbers with like signs, add their absolute values and give the answer the common sign. 2) To add two numbers with opposite signs, subtract the smaller absolute value from the larger and give the answer the sign of the larger.

For example: -4 + (-7) is -11, and -8 + 3 is -5.

There is a single rule for subtraction. It does not give the result directly but converts a difference into a sum: To subtract a number, add its opposite. For example, -8 - 9 becomes -8 + (-9), and 4 - (-2) becomes 4 + 2. This latter example uses the fact that the negative (or opposite) of a negative number is positive.

(Thomson Gale.) | ||
---|---|---|

Facts about integers | ||

Multiplication | Addition | Law |

ab is a unique integer. | a + b is a unique integer. | Closure law |

ab = ba | a + b = b + a | Commutative law |

a(bc) = (ab)c | a +(b+c) = (a + b) + c | Associative law |

(1)(a) = a | 0 + a = a | Identity law |

- a + a = 0 | Inverse law | |

If ac = bc (c = 0), | If a + c = b + c, | Cancellation law |

then a = b. | then a = b | |

a(b + c) = ab + ac | Distributive law |

Division and multiplication have two simple rules: 1) The product or quotient of two numbers with like signs is positive. 2) The product or quotient of two numbers with unlike signs is negative. For example, (-30)(18) is -540; (-6)/(-3) is 2; and 20/(-4) is -5.

Because the integers include negative numbers, it is possible for every subtraction, as well as every addition and multiplication, to be completed using only integers. The set of integers is therefore “closed” with respect to subtraction, addition, and multiplication. It is not closed with respect to division, however. Three divided by seven is not an integer.

The set of integers form an “integral domain.” This is a mathematical system governed by these laws for all integers a, b, and c. Notice that there is no inverse law for multiplication. Integral domains do not necessarily have multiplicative inverses, and, consequently, division is not always possible.

Integers are useful in business, where an amount of money can be a loss as well as a gain. They are useful in science when a quantity can be negative or positive, as in the charge borne by electrons, protons and other elementary particles, or in temperatures above and below zero. They show up in games, even, where one can be a number of points ahead or “in the hole.” And they are absolutely necessary in mathematics, which would otherwise be incomplete and of little interest.

*See also* Irrational number; Rational number.

## Resources

### BOOKS

Gelfond, A.O. *Transcendental and Algebraic Numbers.* Dover Publications, 2003.

Klein, Felix. “Arithmetic,” in *Elementary Mathematics from an Advanced Standpoint.* New York: Dover, 1948.

Rosen, Kenneth. *Elementary Number Theory and Its Applications.* 4th ed. Boston: Addison-Wesley, 2000.

Stopple, Jeffrey. *A Primer of Analytic Number Theory: From Pythagoras to Riemann.* Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Van Niven, I. *Numbers: Rational and Irrational.* New Mathematical Library, Washington, DC: The Mathematical Association of America, 1975.

Weisstein, Eric W. *The CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics.* New York: CRC Press, 1998.

## Integers

# Integers

The integers are the positive and **negative** whole numbers... -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2,.... The name "integer" comes directly from the Latin word for "whole." The set of integers can be generated from the set of **natural numbers** by adding **zero** and the negatives of the natural numbers. To do this, one defines zero to be a number which, added to any number, equals the same number. One defines a negative of a given number to be a number which, plus the given number, equals zero. Symbolically, for any number n: 0 + n = n (additive identity law) and -n + n = 0 (additive inverse law). Because **arithmetic** is done with natural numbers, one needs rules which will convert integer arithmetic into natural-number arithmetic. This is true even with a **calculator** . Most simple four-function calculators have no easy way of entering negative numbers, and the user has to apply the rules for

Multiplication | Addition | Law |

ab is a unique integer. | a + b is a unique integer. | Closure law |

ab = ba | a + b = b + a | Commutative law |

a(bc) = (ab)c | a +(b + c)= (a + b) + c | Associative law |

(1)(a) = a | 0 + a = a | Identity law |

-a + a = 0 | Inverse law | |

If ac = bc (c = 0), then a = b. | If a + c = b + c, then a = b | Cancellation law |

a(b + c) = ab + ac | Distributive law |

himself. Rules are often stated using the concept of absolute value. The absolute value of a number is the number itself if it is positive and its opposite if it is negative. For example, the absolute value of +5 is +5, or 5, while the absolute value of -3 is +3, or 3. Absolute values are always positive or zero.

There are two basic rules for **addition** : 1) To add two numbers with like signs, add their absolute values and give the answer the common sign. 2) To add two numbers with opposite signs, subtract the smaller absolute value from the larger and give the answer the sign of the larger.

For example: -4 + (-7) is -11, and -8 + 3 is -5.

There is a single rule for **subtraction** . It does not give the result directly but converts a difference into a sum: To subtract a number, add its opposite. For example, -8 - 9 becomes -8 + (-9), and 4 - (-2) becomes 4 + 2. This latter example uses the fact that the negative (or opposite) of a negative number is positive.

**Division** and **multiplication** have two simple rules: 1) The product or quotient of two numbers with like signs is positive. 2) The product or quotient of two numbers with unlike signs is negative. For example. (-30)(18) is -540; (-6)/(-3) is 2; and 20/(-4) is -5.

Because the integers include negative numbers, it is possible for every subtraction, as well as every addition and multiplication, to be completed using only integers. The set of integers is therefore "closed" with respect to subtraction, addition, and multiplication. It is not closed with respect to division, however. Three divided by seven is not an integer.

The set of integers form an "integral domain." This is a mathematical system governed by these laws for all integers a, b, and c. Notice that there is no inverse law for multiplication. **Integral** domains do not necessarily have multiplicative inverses, and, consequently, division is not always possible.

Integers are useful in business, where an amount of money can be a loss as well as a gain. They are useful in science when a quantity can be negative or positive, as in the charge borne by electrons, protons and other elementary particles, or in temperatures above and below zero. They show up in games, even, where one can be a number of points ahead or "in the hole." And they are absolutely necessary in **mathematics** , which would otherwise be incomplete and of little interest.

See also Irrational number; Rational number.

## Resources

### books

Gelfond, A.O. *Transcendental and Algebraic Numbers.* Dover Publications, 2003.

Klein, Felix. "Arithmetic." In *Elementary Mathematics from an Advanced Standpoint.* New York: Dover, 1948.

Rosen, Kenneth. *Elementary Number Theory and Its Applications.* 4th ed. Boston: Addison-Wesley, 2000.

Stopple, Jeffrey. *A Primer of Analytic Number Theory: From Pythagoras to Riemann.* Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Van Niven, I. *Numbers: Rational and Irrational.* New Mathematical Library, Washington, DC: The Mathematical Association of America, 1975.

Weisstein, Eric W. *The CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics.* New York: CRC Press, 1998.

## Integers

# Integers

Integers are the set of numbers {…, −4, −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, …} that encompass the counting numbers, {1, 2, 3, …}, the negative of the counting numbers, {… −3, −2, −1} and zero. Integers can be shown on a simple number line.

The integers on the left side of zero (0) are called negative numbers, and are represented by a negative sign (−) placed before them, as in −5, −10, and −15.* The integers on the right side of 0 are called positive numbers. Examples include 5, 10, and 15. The positive integers are known as counting numbers or natural numbers. The positive integers and 0 are called whole numbers. Zero is an integer but it is neither positive nor negative.

***Some historians believe the first evidence of the use of negative numbers was around 300 b.c.e. in China.**

Integers are used in everyday life. A debt or a loss is often expressed with a negative integer. A gain is usually expressed with a positive integer. When the temperature is warmer than the zero point of the temperature scale, it is represented with a positive sign; when it is colder than the zero point, it is represented with a negative sign.

see also Numbers, Real; Numbers, Whole; Zero.

*Marzieh Thomasian*

## Bibliography

Aufmann, Richard N., and Vernon C. Baker. *Basic College Mathematics,* 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991.

## integer

**integer** •**badger**, cadger
•**Alger**, neuralgia
•**ganja**, grandeur, phalanger
•**charger**, enlarger, maharaja, raja
•slàinte • turbocharger
•**dredger**, edger, hedger, ledger, pledger, St Leger
•**avenger**, revenger
•**gauger**, golden-ager, major, old-stager, pager, rampager, sergeant major, stager, wager
•**arranger**, changer, danger, endanger, exchanger, Grainger, hydrangea, manger, ranger, stranger
•moneychanger • teenager
•bushranger
•**besieger**, paraplegia, procedure
•abridger
•**cringer**, ginger, impinger, infringer, injure, ninja, whinger, winger
•dowager • voyager • harbinger
•bondager • wharfinger • packager
•Scaliger
•**challenger**, Salinger
•**pillager**, villager
•armiger • scrimmager
•**rummager**, scrummager
•manager • derringer • forager
•porringer • encourager
•**Massinger**, passenger
•presager • messenger • Kissinger
•**integer**, vintager
•cottager • frontager • ravager
•salvager • scavenger
•**Elijah**, Niger, obliger
•**codger**, dodger, lodger, roger, todger
•**forger**, Georgia, gorger
•gouger
•**lounger**, scrounger
•sunlounger • soldier
•**Abuja**, puja

## integer

in·te·ger / ˈintijər/ • n. 1. a whole number; a number that is not a fraction. 2. a thing complete in itself.

## integer

**integer** A whole number, as opposed to a rational or real number. The concept of integer type is used for computer representation of a finite subset of the integers.

## integer

**integer** Any negative or positive whole number or zero, e.g. … −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3 … There are a limitless (infinite) number of integers. The positive integers are the natural numbers. The existence of negative integers and zero allow any integer to be subtracted from any other integer to give an integer result.

## integer

**integer** XVI. — L. *integer* intact, ENTIRE.

So **integral** making up a whole, made up of parts XVI; (math.) XVIII. — late L. *integrālis*. **integrate** XVII. f. pp. stem of L. *integrāre*. **integration** XVII. — L. **integrity** XV. — F. or L.

## integer

**integer** a whole number; a number which is not a fraction. The word is recorded from the early 16th century, as an adjective meaning ‘entire, whole’, and comes from Latin, ‘intact, whole’.

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