Ectoprocta (ĕk´təprŏk´tə), phylum of sessile, colonial aquatic animals (commonly known as moss animals or oryonzoans). The zooids, or individual members of a colony, are microscopic, but colonies may grow up to 1 ft (30 cm) or more in diameter. Some colonies are erect and branching; others are thin, flat encrustations on rocks, seaweed, or water plants. The body wall of each zooid forms a tubular or boxlike case from which a circular or U-shaped crown of ciliated tentacles, the lophophore, is extended for feeding. Tentacle cilia generate water currents that sweep small organisms and organic particles toward the mouth, located within the lophophore. They reproduce sexually via a planktonic larval stage which settles and attaches to start a new colony. They also reproduce asexually by fission, fragmentation, or encapsulated resting stages. They were formerly placed in the phylum Bryozoa along with the Entoprocta, which they superficially resemble. Ectoprocts are a large and ancient group (dating from the Ordovician). There are about 5,000 living species.
Exclusively freshwater animals having chitinous or gelatinous zooids with circular or horseshoe-shaped lophophores and well-developed body wall musculature. They produce characteristic resting bodies called statoblasts, which can survive cold and drying and germinate to found a new colony.
Fossil and recent marine animals that have tubular zooids, calcified walls, and circular orifices. Protrusion of the circular lophophore does not depend on muscular deformation of body walls. They reproduce sexually by embryonic fission (polyembrony).
Fossil and recent primarily marine animals with cylindrical or boxlike chitinous or calcified zooids. Their colonies are often polymorphic, with zooids specialized for feeding, defense, support, and reproduction. The lophophore is circular and protrusion depends on body wall deformation.
1. (phylum Bryozoa) The major subphylum of bryozoans, in which the lophophore surrounds the mouth but not the anus (in contrast to the Entoprocta). Many possess a calcite skeleton. Ectoprocts are mostly, but not exclusively, marine, and have an extensive fossil record from the Ordovician to the present.
2. See BRYOZOA.
1. (phylum Bryozoa) The major subphylum of bryozoans, in which the lophophore (feeding and respiratory organ) surrounds the mouth but not the anus (in contrast to the Entoprocta). Many possess a calcite skeleton. Ectoprocts are mostly, but not exclusively, marine, and have an extensive fossil record from the Ordovician to the present.
2. Alternative name for Bryozoa.