Skip to main content
Select Source:

Ectoprocta

Ectoprocta (ĕk´təprŏk´tə), phylum of sessile, colonial aquatic animals (commonly known as moss animals or oryonzoans). The zooids, or individual members of a colony, are microscopic, but colonies may grow up to 1 ft (30 cm) or more in diameter. Some colonies are erect and branching; others are thin, flat encrustations on rocks, seaweed, or water plants. The body wall of each zooid forms a tubular or boxlike case from which a circular or U-shaped crown of ciliated tentacles, the lophophore, is extended for feeding. Tentacle cilia generate water currents that sweep small organisms and organic particles toward the mouth, located within the lophophore. They reproduce sexually via a planktonic larval stage which settles and attaches to start a new colony. They also reproduce asexually by fission, fragmentation, or encapsulated resting stages. They were formerly placed in the phylum Bryozoa along with the Entoprocta, which they superficially resemble. Ectoprocts are a large and ancient group (dating from the Ordovician). There are about 5,000 living species.

Class Phylactolaemata

Exclusively freshwater animals having chitinous or gelatinous zooids with circular or horseshoe-shaped lophophores and well-developed body wall musculature. They produce characteristic resting bodies called statoblasts, which can survive cold and drying and germinate to found a new colony.

Class Stenolaemata

Fossil and recent marine animals that have tubular zooids, calcified walls, and circular orifices. Protrusion of the circular lophophore does not depend on muscular deformation of body walls. They reproduce sexually by embryonic fission (polyembrony).

Class Gymnolaemata

Fossil and recent primarily marine animals with cylindrical or boxlike chitinous or calcified zooids. Their colonies are often polymorphic, with zooids specialized for feeding, defense, support, and reproduction. The lophophore is circular and protrusion depends on body wall deformation.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Ectoprocta." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Ectoprocta." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 24, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ectoprocta

"Ectoprocta." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 24, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ectoprocta

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Ectoprocta

Ectoprocta
1. (phylum Bryozoa) The major subphylum of bryozoans, in which the lophophore (feeding and respiratory organ) surrounds the mouth but not the anus (in contrast to the Entoprocta). Many possess a calcite skeleton. Ectoprocts are mostly, but not exclusively, marine, and have an extensive fossil record from the Ordovician to the present.

2. Alternative name for Bryozoa.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Ectoprocta." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Ectoprocta." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 24, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ectoprocta

"Ectoprocta." A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. . Retrieved April 24, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ectoprocta

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Ectoprocta

Ectoprocta
1. (phylum Bryozoa) The major subphylum of bryozoans, in which the lophophore surrounds the mouth but not the anus (in contrast to the Entoprocta). Many possess a calcite skeleton. Ectoprocts are mostly, but not exclusively, marine, and have an extensive fossil record from the Ordovician to the present.

2. See BRYOZOA.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Ectoprocta." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Ectoprocta." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 24, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ectoprocta-1

"Ectoprocta." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Retrieved April 24, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ectoprocta-1

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Ectoprocta

Ectoprocta See Bryozoa.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Ectoprocta." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Ectoprocta." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 24, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ectoprocta-0

"Ectoprocta." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Retrieved April 24, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ectoprocta-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Ectoprocta

Ectoprocta See Bryozoa.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Ectoprocta." A Dictionary of Biology. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Apr. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Ectoprocta." A Dictionary of Biology. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 24, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ectoprocta-2

"Ectoprocta." A Dictionary of Biology. . Retrieved April 24, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ectoprocta-2

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.