views updated May 18 2018


Grains are seeds of grasses. More particularly, the term "grains" usually refers to the cereal grains, those that are used as food or fodder by humans. Three grainsrice, wheat, and cornare the major source of calories in the human diet throughout the world, both through direct consumption or by providing animal feed. In addition, corn is a significant source of raw materials for some segments of the chemical industry.

Like other seeds of flowering plants, grain contains both the embryo and endosperm . The diploid embryo, often called the germ, contains the tissues that develop into the new individual after germination. The triploid endosperm is a rich nutritive tissue formed by the fusion of a second sperm and the two nuclei of the central cell in the embryo sac. Surrounding both endosperm and embryo is the protein - and oil-rich aleurone layer. This layer plus several thin outer coverings and the remains of the seed coat make up the bran.


Rice (Oryza sativa ) is grown throughout the world, but principally in the countries of Asia, where it forms the basis of the diet. Most rice is grown under flooded conditions, with fields drained two to three weeks before harvest. Removal of the hull (remnant floral parts) leaves brown rice. Further milling removes the bran and embryo to give white rice, by far the most popular form of rice. White rice is high in carbohydrates but low in protein or vitamins.

Both traditional breeding and genetic engineering have been used to improve the qualities of rice. In the 1960s, shorter semidwarf varieties were bred. This allowed farmers to increase yields with fertilizers without having the long thin stems of full-height rice fall over before harvest. This development was a major part of the "green revolution" in the 1960s, in which grain yields kept pace with a skyrocketing world population, preventing widespread famine. More recently, genetic engineering techniques have been used to introduce a gene for a precursor of vitamin A, lacking in white rice. This so-called "golden rice" may help prevent blindness due to vitamin deficiencies, although the quantity of vitamin A available from the rice alone is insufficient by itself for this purpose.


Wheat (Triticum sativum ) is the top food crop consumed directly by humans. Wheat consumption is supplementing or even replacing rice and corn consumption for many people in developing countries. Wheat is grown as a cool-weather annual, with some varieties even requiring a cold period to produce grain. Wheat is less profitable on a per-acre basis than other grains, but requires comparatively little labor and fewer inputs of fertilizer and pesticide. Wheat is milled to remove the hull to give "whole wheat," which can be ground into flour. Removal of the germ and bran before grinding gives white flour. Wheat is unique among the major grains in having a high level of the protein gluten in the endosperm. The elastic gluten protein allows dough to stretch. As yeasts added to dough release gas, the gluten expands, trapping the gas bubbles and allowing the bread to rise.


Corn or maize (Zea mays ) is a native of the New World and is grown primarily in South, Central, and North America. It still provides the major source of calories for most people south of the United States. Ancient corn was similar to modern popcorn, with a hard seed coat that trapped heated steam until the coat burst suddenly, exposing the puffy white endosperm. Traditionally, corn has been dried and ground into meal, using the entire kernel. The meal is then used for tortillas, tamales, and other foods. The entire kernel of sweet corn is also consumed, but the harvest occurs before seed maturity and before the sugars in the endosperm have been converted to starches. Removal of the seed coat leaves primarily endosperm, which is boiled to make grits, or rolled and baked to make corn flakes. Corn is a major feed for livestock, and provides the starting materials for a number of chemical products, including a variety of alcohols, acetone, polyurethane, and acetic acid.

Other Grains

Several other grains are consumed in small quantities. The handful of species of millet are consumed mainly in Africa and Asia, with U.S. use primarily for birdseed. Rye (Secale cereale ) is used in rye breads mainly in temperate areas in the Northern Hemisphere, and oats (Avena sativa ) are grown for breads, breakfast cereals, and animal feed in these same regions. Barley (Hordeum vulgare ) provides the source of carbohydrate for fermentation in beer.

see also Agriculture; Grasses

Richard Robinson


Leonard, Warren H., and John H. Martin. Cereal Crops. New York: Macmillan, 1963.


views updated May 14 2018

grain / grān/ • n. 1. wheat or any other cultivated cereal crop used as food. ∎  the seeds of such cereals: [as adj.] grain exports. 2. a single fruit or seed of a cereal: a few grains of corn. ∎  a small hard particle of a substance such as salt or sand: a grain of salt. ∎  the smallest possible quantity or amount of a quality: there wasn't a grain of truth in what he said. ∎  a discrete particle or crystal in a metal, igneous rock, etc., typically visible only when a surface is magnified. ∎  a piece of solid propellant for use in a rocket engine.3. (abbr.: gr.) the smallest unit of weight in the troy and avoirdupois systems, equal to 1/5760 of a pound troy and 1/7000 of a pound avoirdupois (approx. 0.0648 grams).4. the longitudinal arrangement or pattern of fibers in wood, paper, etc.: he scored along the grain of the table with the knife. ∎  roughness in texture of wood, stone, etc.; the arrangement and size of constituent particles: the lighter, finer grain of the wood is attractive. ∎  the rough or textured outer surface of leather, or of a similar artificial material. ∎ Mining lamination or planes of cleavage in materials such as stone and coal. ∎ Photog. a granular appearance of a photograph or negative, which is in proportion to the size of the emulsion particles composing it.5. archaic a person's character or natural tendency.6. hist. kermes or cochineal, or dye made from either of these.• v. [tr.] 1. (usu. be grained) give a rough surface or texture to: her fingers were grained with chalk dust. ∎  [intr.] form into grains: if the sugar does grain up, add more water.2. [usu. as n.] (graining) paint (esp. furniture or interior surfaces) in imitation of the grain of wood or marble: the art of graining and marbling.3. remove hair from (a hide): [as adj.] (grained) the boots were of best grained leather. 4. feed (a horse) on grain.PHRASES: against the grain contrary to the natural inclination or feeling of someone or something: it goes against the grain to tell outright grain thorough, genuine, by nature, or downright; indelible.DERIVATIVES: grained adj. [usu. in comb.] coarse-grained sandstone.grain·er n.grain·less adj.


views updated May 23 2018

A. small hard particle XIII; granular texture; †berry, grape; seed, spec. of corn or cereal XIV; smallest Eng. unit of weight XVI.

B. kermes, which was thought to consist of seeds or berries (phr. in grain; cf. INGRAINED); (fast) dye XIV. In A — (O)F. grain :- L. grānum CORN1; in B — (O)F. graine :- Rom. *grāna fem., orig. pl. of grānum n.


views updated May 29 2018

grain Fruits of various cereal plants, or the plants themselves. The main kinds of grain are wheat, maize, and rice. It is an important food, rich in carbohydrates and also containing proteins and vitamins.


views updated May 08 2018

1. A detrital mineral or rock fragment (particle), of sand size.

2. Quarrying term, for the parting fabric of a rock (i.e. the direction in which a rock is most easily split by a quarry worker).


views updated Jun 11 2018

grain against the grain contrary to the natural inclination or feeling of someone or something (from the fact that wood is easier to cut along the line of the grain).

See also a grain of mustard seed.


views updated May 29 2018

grain (grayn) n. a unit of mass equal to 1/7000 of a pound (avoirdupois). 1 grain = 0.0648 gram.