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Ingushetia

Ingushetia (Ĭng´gōōshĕt´ēə, –shē´shə) or Ingush Republic (Ĭngōōsh´), republic, c.1,240 sq mi (3,210 sq km), Russian Federation, in the N Caucasus. The capital (since 2003) is Magas, a new city in the suburbs of Nazran, the former capital. Ingushetia comprises roughly the western fifth of the former Chechen-Ingush Republic (see Chechnya). The republic of Georgia lies to the south, across the Caucasus, and North Ossetia-Alania lies to the north and west. Farming, cattle raising, and horticulture are key occupations. The Ingush are Sunni Muslims and speak a Caucasian language.

The Ingush migrated from the Caucasus Mts. into the plains from the 16th cent. Long grouped with the Chechens, they were granted autonomy as the Ingush Region in 1924 but joined in the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Region in 1934. Many Ingush, along with Chechens, were deported into Central Asia in 1944 after collaborating with invading German forces during World War II; in 1956 the deportees were repatriated.

After Chechnya declared independence (1991), Ingushetia gained de facto separate status as a republic (formalized in 1992). The republic has suffered from political violence arising from an Islamist-tinged insurgency and government repression; in 2009 there was an assassination attempt on the region's president. The fighting in Chechnya occasionally has spilled over into Ingushetia, and there have been tensions with Chechnya, including disputes over territory. Also in 1992, violence in an Ingush-dominated district of neighboring North Ossetia-Alania (see Ossetia) drove many refugees into Ingushetia; the Ossetian district involved was officially Ingush territory prior to World War II, and remains a source of tension between the two republics.

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Ingushetia

Ingushetia Autonomous Russian republic; the capital is Nazran. It lies on the n side of the Caucasus Mountains. The majority population (85%) are Ingush with a Chechen minority. The economy is based on oil and cattle. For much of the 20th century, Ingushetia's history was tied to Chechenia. In 1991, the Chechen-Ingush Republic declared independence from Russia. The Ingush desire to distance itself from the Chechen-dominated decision led to the deployment of Russian troops and formal separation from Chechenia (1992). In 1993, Ingushetia became part of the Russian Federation. Pop. (1996) 280,000.

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