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Limoges

Limoges (lēmôzh´), city (1990 pop. 136,407), capital of Haute-Vienne dept., W central France, on the Vienne River. It is famous for its ceramics industry, which uses the abundant kaolin in the area; the city's porcelain workshops employ more than 10,000 people. The shoe industry is also large. Uranium is mined, and automobiles and electrical equipment are manufactured. An ancient town, Limoges became (12th cent.) the seat of the viscounty of Limoges and (1589) the capital of Limousin prov. It was often visited by war, pestilence, and famine. Richard Coeur de Lion (Richard I of England) was killed in battle near Limoges (1199). In 1370, Edward the Black Prince burned the city and massacred its inhabitants. The famous Limoges enamel industry was fully developed by the 13th cent. and culminated in the work of Léonard Limousin, but it declined when Limoges was once more devastated in the Wars of Religion. Turgot, who was intendant from 1761 to 1764, brought back prosperity by introducing (1771) the china manufactures. Limoges has a cathedral (chiefly 13th–16th cent.), a notable ceramics museum, and an art gallery containing many works by Renoir, who was born there. Limoges Univ. is there.

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Limoges

Limoges City on the River Vienne; capital of Haute-Vienne department, w central France. A Roman settlement, it was later a tribal capital of the Gauls. In 1199, Richard I (the Lionheart) died in battle on the city outskirts. In 1370, Edward the Black Prince sacked the city. Its enamel industry culminated in the 16th-century craftsmanship of Léonard Limousin, but was devastated by the Thirty Years' War. In the late 18th century, porcelain manufacturing flourished once more. Since 1945, the exploitation of its uranium mines encouraged economic expansion. Pop. (1999) 137,502.

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Limoges

LimogesLimoges, loge, Vosges

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Limoges

LIMOGES

LIMOGES , capital of the Haute-Vienne department, central France. A Jewish source, Sefer Yeshu'at Elohim (in A.M. Habermann, Gezerot Ashkenaz ve-Zarefat (1945), 11–15) contains an account of a semi-legendary anti-Jewish persecution in Limoges in 992 resulting from the activities of an apostate from Blois. The Christian writer Adhémar of Chabannes relates that in 1010 Bishop Alduin of Limoges gave the Jewish community the choice of expulsion or conversion. It is possible that both sources refer to the local manifestation of the general anti-Jewish persecutions which occurred around 1009 and which were followed by baptisms and expulsions. At any rate, whether or not the Jews were expelled from Limoges, the expulsion order was no longer in force from the middle of the 11th century; a certain Petrus Judaeus is mentioned in a local document between 1152 and 1173 and Gentianus Judaeus in 1081. Around the middle of the 11th century R. Joseph b. Samuel *Bonfils (Tov Elem) headed the Jewish community of Limoges and Anjou. The beginnings of the modern Jewish community in Limoges date from 1775. During World War ii, Limoges became the largest center of refuge for Alsatian Jews; about 1,500 families and many institutions were transferred to the town. The present community, which was formed in 1949, grew to more than 650 by 1970 and possessed a synagogue and community center.

bibliography:

Gross, Gal Jud (1897), 308–9; J. de Font-Reaulx (ed.), Cartulaire du Chapître de St.-Etienne de Limoges (1919), passim; La Vie Juive, 51 (1959), 15; B. Blumenkranz, Juifs et Chrétiens… (1960), index; Z. Szajkowski, Analytical FrancoJewish Gazetteer (1966), 286; Roth, Dark Ages, index.

[Bernhard Blumenkranz]

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