Skip to main content
Select Source:

Alphand, Jean-Charles-Adolphe

Alphand, Jean-Charles-Adolphe (1817–91). French landscape-architect and civil engineer. Under Haussmann Alphand, with Jean-Pierre Barillet-Deschamps (1824–75), carried out numerous schemes for laying out straight avenues, and designed many public gardens and parks, including those of the Bois de Boulogne (1854), Bois de Vincennes (1860), Monceau (1862), Buttes-Chaumont (1864–9), and Montsouris (1869). Of these, Buttes-Chaumont was the most elaborate, with a lake, streams, a waterfall, and artificial grottoes. With Barillet-Deschamps and É. -F. André, he created the botanic gardens at La Muette (1860—moved to Boulogne in 1895), and in 1867 became supervisor of the public ways of Paris. After 1871 he was put in charge of all public works, which included the cemeteries (e.g. Bagneux of 1886). He oversaw the layouts and landscaping of the International Exhibitions in Paris in 1867, 1878, and 1889.

Bibliography

W. Robinson (1869);
Jane Turner (1996)

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Alphand, Jean-Charles-Adolphe." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Feb. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Alphand, Jean-Charles-Adolphe." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 23, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/alphand-jean-charles-adolphe

"Alphand, Jean-Charles-Adolphe." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Retrieved February 23, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/alphand-jean-charles-adolphe

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Wurtz, Charles Adolphe

Charles Adolphe Wurtz (shärl ädôlf´ vürts), 1817–84, French chemist. He was professor at the Sorbonne (1852–75), at the Faculty of Medicine, Paris (1853–75), and at the Faculty of Sciences, Paris (from 1875). Noted for his research in organic chemistry, he discovered methyl and ethyl amines (1849), glycol (1856), and aldol condensation (1872). He developed (1855) a method of synthesizing hydrocarbons by treating alkyl halides with sodium (Wurtz reaction) that was adapted by the German chemist Rudolf Fittig to the preparation of mixed aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (Wurtz-Fittig reaction). Wurtz also invented a bulbed fractionating column known as the Wurtz column. He wrote influential works in support of the atomic theory and on medical and biological chemistry and the noted Dictionaire de chimie pure et appliquée (3 vol., 1868–78; supplement, 1880–86).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Wurtz, Charles Adolphe." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Feb. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Wurtz, Charles Adolphe." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (February 23, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/wurtz-charles-adolphe

"Wurtz, Charles Adolphe." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved February 23, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/wurtz-charles-adolphe

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.