Hoyle, Sir Fred
Sir Fred Hoyle (hoil), 1915–2001, British astrophysicist and mathematician, b. Bingley, Yorkshire. During the years of World War II, Hoyle primarily worked on technical problems related to radar. As a diversion, he discussed astronomy with Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold, and the three formulated the steady-state cosmology (1948). Best known for his theories concerning the structure of stars and the origin of the chemical elements in stars, Hoyle was also instrumental in founding the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy and in establishing the Anglo-Australian Observatory in central New South Wales. He was a prolific author, not only of technical papers but also of science fiction and popular science. His first novel, The Black Cloud (1957), has become a classic, and his autobiography, Home Is Where the Wind Blows (1994), discusses the controversy and academic disputes he endured during his teaching years at Cambridge (1945–1972). Hoyle was knighted in 1972.
See S. Mitton, Conflict in the Cosmos: Fred Hoyle's Life in Science (2005).
"Hoyle, Sir Fred." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 19, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hoyle-sir-fred
"Hoyle, Sir Fred." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hoyle-sir-fred
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
Hoyle, Sir Fred
"Hoyle, Sir Fred." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 19, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hoyle-sir-fred
"Hoyle, Sir Fred." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved April 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hoyle-sir-fred