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Jivaro

Jivaro

PRONUNCIATION: HEE-va-ro

ALTERNATE NAMES: Shuar

LOCATION: Ecuador; Peru (Eastern slopes of the Andes mountains)

POPULATION: 10,00030,000

LANGUAGE: Jivaro; Quechua

RELIGION: Traditional mystical and spiritual beliefs

1 INTRODUCTION

The Jivaro are a tribe of people from the Andes mountains. The name "Jivaro" was given to this group of people by Spanish conquerors. The Jivaro prefer the name Shuar. Their history as great warriors goes back to the days of the expansion of the Inca empire when the Jivaro fought to remain free of Inca control. They also battled the Spanish during the Spanish Conquest. In the centuries following the conquest, the Jivaro continued to fight modern society, resisting successive waves of missionaries. Once known for their practice of shrinking human heads, some Jivaro are quickly adapting to contemporary life. No longer isolated from society, their traditional life-style is fading as their villages adopt modern ways. Most Jivaro, however, remain isolated and continue to live a traditional way of life.

2 LOCATION

The Jivaro live on the eastern slopes of the Andes where mountain ranges meet the Amazon River headwaters. This tropical forest region is characterized by frequent, heavy rainfall and dense tropical vegetation. The Jivaro are mainly concentrated in Ecuador. Current estimates place the population at approximately 10,000 to 30,000 people.

3 LANGUAGE

The Jivaro speak Jivaroan, which has many dialects. Many Jivaro now also speak the Quechua language, which is spoken throughout the Andes region.

4 FOLKLORE

The Jivaro have a rich mythology. A variety of ancient myths have been passed down through the generations to explain the origins of the Jivaro people. In one story, the Andean foothills were subject to a severe flood, killing all but two brothers. When the waters receded and the brothers returned to their shelter, they found dishes of food laid out for them by two parrots. One of the brothers caught one of the gift-bearing parrots and married her. This marriage produced three girls and three boys, whose descendants became the Jivaro people.

The boa constrictor holds a unique place in Jivaro mythology. The largest snake in the Amazon basin, it is respected and feared both for its strength and because it is believed to possess supernatural powers.

5 RELIGION

The Jivaro believe that spiritual forces are responsible for real-world occurrences. They believe spirits inhabit animals, plants, and objects. Many daily customs and behaviors are guided by their desire for spiritual power or to avoid evil spirits. Fearful of witchcraft, the Jivaro often attribute sickness or death to the power of their enemies to cast curses.

The Jivaro worship many deities, or gods. Nungui, or Earth Mother, is believed to have the power to make plants grow. Living deep underground, she emerges at night to dance in the garden. Women sing to Nungui to ask her to protect the garden, and they carefully weed the garden daily to appease her. Jivaro believe in a protective spirit that comes to them in a vision. This spirit, known as arutam, is thought to protect them from injury, disease, and death.

Some Jivaro have been influenced by Christian missionaries

6 MAJOR HOLIDAYS

Jivaro holidays consist of the various rituals and celebrations that mark major life transitions or events. Jivaro may share in celebrations of national holidays if they are visiting an area where festivities are taking place.

7 RITES OF PASSAGE

Jivaro rites of passage and celebrations are connected to their spiritual beliefs. All personal milestones and important events have spiritual significance. The most important moment in a young male Jivaro's life is when he is encouraged to gain his arutam or protective spirit. Parents fear that without this protective spirit, Jivaro youths will not survive into adulthood.

At or before puberty, young male Jivaro are led deep into the forest. There they consume a hallucinogenic drug called maikoa and then await a vision of the arutam soul that will protect them from danger. They may remain in the forest for days, fasting and bathing in a waterfall, while they await the sacred vision. If the vision does not come, they return home, then set off again to the forest to make a second attempt. Once this power is received, the boy is allowed to participate in many adult activities.

8 RELATIONSHIPS

The Jivaro are a very sociable people. When visiting a neighbor or relative's house, guests enjoy a hospitable welcome. Beer made from manioc (cassava) root is offered, and the family meal is shared. Often, if the distances traveled are great, guests are invited to stay for several days. Banana leaves laid on the dirt floor serve as beds for visitors.

These visits also provide an opportunity for men to seek new wives. In contrast to Western cultures, it is the Jivaro men who are fussy about their appearance. A man may spend hours before a visit or party painting his face and putting decorative adornments on his clothes and in his hair. On special occasions, complex geometric designs are painted on the nose and cheekbones. Parrot feathers adorn the hair, and ear sticks are placed through holes in the ear.

Gift-giving is also important among the Jivaro. The fangs of a boa constrictor, thought to bring good luck, are a common gift for a potential bride. If she returns the gestures of affection to her suitor, he may begin negotiations with the woman's father to marry her. Romantic love and mutual attraction are very important in the selection of a spouse. In addition, women seek good hunters and warriors as husbands, while men desire good gardeners and potters. The husband is obligated to pay a bride price (a payment to her family) or perform services for the wife's father.

9 LIVING CONDITIONS

Jivaro families live in large one-room shelters without internal walls or rooms for privacy. Traditional Jivaro houses are large ovals built from materials found in the forest. These shelters, called jivaria, generally house large families of about eight to ten people. Contemporary Jivaro houses resemble the one pictured on the next page. However, only a small minority of Jivaro live in contemporary houses.

Jivaria houses are built by the male head of the household with help from his male relatives. Houses must be strong to withstand heavy rainfall.

Houses have very simple furniture: lowlying beds made of bamboo (with no mattresses) and shelves to store basic pottery.

The Jivaro are completely without political organization. There are no tribal leaders or community organizations. The only unit of organization is the family group. The Jivaro population is widely dispersed, with an average of one to five miles (one-and-a-half to eight kilometers) between houses. Families live in a house for no more than ten years, since the nearby supply of firewood and small game becomes depleted. Families then move a few miles or kilometers away to an area richer in resources.

10 FAMILY LIFE

The roles of males and females in Jivaro society are clearly defined and are tied to religious beliefs. The division of labor is partly the result of the belief that most things have either male or female souls. Manioc (cassava), for example, is thought to be female, so all tasks related to the planting, reaping, and processing of manioc are the domain of women. Planting and reaping of corn, which has a male soul, are the responsibility of men.

Most Jivaro families have one or two dogs. They are not kept as pets, but rather as an essential aid to hunting and for protection from enemies. Dogs hold a privileged position in Jivaro households. They receive generous attention and care. In addition, monkeys or birds are sometimes kept as pets.

11 CLOTHING

Daily dress among the Jivaro is simple. Both men and women wear clothes made of plain brown cloth, occasionally painted with vertical stripes. These homewoven clothes are durable and rugged and can last for many years. The women drape the cloth over one shoulder, sometimes belting it at the waist with bark string or a piece of woven cotton. Men wrap the cloth around the waist so that it reaches down below the knees. A common feature of male attire is the etsemat, a woven band decorated with feathers that is worn around the head.

Ceremonial dress is more elaborate. Men paint their faces with black and red dyes. An ornament made of bird bones is wrapped around the shoulders, signifying the possession of an arutam soul and the spiritual power it provides. More recently, the Jivaro are acquiring Western clothing. These manufactured clothes are often used for special occasions such as visits to neighboring families.

12 FOOD

The Jivaro have a varied diet of meat and vegetables that they obtain from many sources. The primary foods of their diet are the vegetables grown in their gardens. These are supplemented by searching for wild plantains and other edible plants. Protein in the diet is provided by raising chickens and hunting wild game. As with many other Amazon peoples, the most popular drink among the Jivaro is beer made from fermented manioc (cassava) root.

13 EDUCATION

Most Jivaro children receive little formal education, although programs are being instituted to educate all Jivaro children. In some remote Jivaro settlements, lessons are broadcast via radio. Jivaro children are also taught the skills needed for survival in the jungle. They learn these basic skills from their parents and elder siblings. For example, they are taught how to swim at a very young age. Due to the widely dispersed population, most children have little contact with playmates other than their siblings.

14 CULTURAL HERITAGE

Songs and music are a part of Jivaro daily life. Songs accompany many daily events and special occasions. Jivaro men sing special songs while weaving, as do women while gardening. At parties or ceremonial events, flutes and drums made with monkey skins are used to accompany the singing.

15 EMPLOYMENT

Much of the workday is dedicated to ensuring a constant supply of food. The Jivaro are primarily farmers. They grow several staple crops, including manioc (cassava) root, sweet potatoes, sugar cane, peanuts, and plantains. The women spend a large part of the day keeping the large garden free of weeds. Women are also responsible for producing pottery for storing food and drinks. Young girls tend to the house and are responsible for such tasks as sweeping the floors with banana leaves.

The men have more varied duties, including clearing the forest, collecting firewood, and hunting. They also craft blowguns and spears for hunting game. Making a blowgun can take as long as a couple of weeks from start to finish. Wood from a chonta palm tree is split open, tied together, and hollowed out with a mixture of sand and water. The mouthpiece is made of bone. Darts are made quickly by sharpening palm leaves. Curare, a poison that paralyzes, is placed on the tip of the dart. Darts can be shot nearly one hundred feet (thirty meters) to reach monkeys in trees or large birds.

The Jivaro are no longer completely isolated from modern society. They frequently trade skins and featherworked handicrafts to obtain modern goods. In addition, some Jivaro work as laborers to obtain cash. Particularly valued are machetes, axes, and guns, useful tools for life in the forest.

16 SPORTS

The Jivaro do not participate in sports.

17 RECREATION

The Jivaro are a festive people, and parties lasting through the night or even over several days are common. The main form of entertainment is dancing and drinking manioc (cassava) beer with neighbors in the evening. After a few hours spent drinking and talking, drums are brought out. Dancing and singing follow, usually until dawn. For the Jivaro, these parties provide a rare occasion for social interaction and communication in a society where there is almost no contact with people outside the family.

18 CRAFTS AND HOBBIES

The Jivaro are skilled craftspeople. Women learn to make pottery from a very young age. The art of weaving is reserved exclusively for men. They spin, weave, and dye cotton wool with natural dyes extracted from tropical plants. Elaborate feather headdresses and artifacts are also widely sought for their artistic beauty. The skills to make these traditional items are still taught to successive generations. However, the growing availability of Western goods has diminished the quality of traditional goods.

19 SOCIAL PROBLEMS

Modern society continues to challenge traditional culture. Like many native people, the Jivaro struggle to hang on to their traditional way of life as contemporary influences enter their world.

20 BIBLIOGRAPHY

Descola, Philippe. Spears of Twilight: Three Years Among the Jivaro. New York: New Press, 1996.

Furneaux, Rupert. Primitive Peoples. London: David and Charles, 1975.

Harner, Michael J. The Jivaro: People of the Sacred Waterfalls. New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1973.

Weyer, Edward. Primitive Peoples Today. New York: Doubleday and Company, 1961.

WEBSITES

Embassy of Ecuador, Washington, D.C. [Online] Available http://www.ecuador.org/, 1998.

Interknowledge Corp. Ecuador. [Online] Available http://www.interknowledge.com/ecuador/, 1998.

STAAC. Jivaro Indians. [Online] Available http://www.nzp.com/1201jivaro.html, 1995.

World Travel Guide. Ecuador. [Online] Available http://www.wtgonline.com/country/ec/gen.html, 1998.

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Jivaro

Jivaro

ETHNONYMS: Aents, Chívari, Chiwaro, Gíbari, Givari, Gívaro, Híbaro, Jibaro, Jívara, Jívira, Macusari, Mainu, Shuar, Shuara, Síwaro, Xívari, Xívaro, Zíbaro


The 30,000 to 32,000 Jivaro live in the foothills of the Andes Mountains of Ecuador, particularly on the Zamora, Upano, and Paute rivers in Morona-Santiago Province (2° to 5° S, 77° to 79° W). There are four major subgroups: the Antipa, the Aguaruna, the Huambiza, and the Achuale. They speak a language belonging to the Jivaroan Family, but some speak Quechua in addition. When the Spanish first contacted them, the Jivaro were repelling the hostile advances of the Inca, who sought the gold in Jivaro territory. Later, the Jivaro fought off the Spanish, who also came to their territory looking for gold. A gold rush to the area in the 1930s caused the Jivaro to fight the new arrivals; the Roman Catholic Salesians, who had a mission among the Jivaro, were able to stop the war by persuading the Ecuadoran government to provide the Jivaro a reservation. Since then, relations between the Jivaro and Whites have been essentially peaceful, although the Jivaro cannot be considered completely pacified. The Jivaro are nowadays swidden horticulturists who produce sweet manioc, maize, and other crops. They have acquired a strong taste for trade goods, and many of them have entered the work force as laborers to earn the money necessary to buy such items.

Traditionally, the Jivaro raised sweet manioc, maize, sweet potatoes, peanuts, tuber beans, macabo (Xanthosoma sp.), pumpkins, plantains, tobacco, cotton, and, later, the introduced species of banana, sugarcane, taro, and yam. Planting and other horticultural rituals are very important. The Jivaro fish and forage for wild fruits, cacao, nuts, and other foods. They used to hunt deer and tapir, but in the middle of the twentieth century they gave up eating these animals out of fear of the spirits in them. Hunting is done with bows and arrows, spears, and atlatls. Larger game is hunted by groups of people accompanied by dogs; blowguns are used for small game. There is much magic associated with hunting, including the use of pepper in the eyes of hunters and dogs to improve vision. The Jivaro traditionally domesticated llamas and guinea pigs and later the introduced dog, chicken, and pig.

An entire Jivaro community of from 80 to 300 people (30 to 40 people in the twentieth century) lives in one house (jivaría ), which, for defensive purposes, is built on a steep hill at the upper end of a stream. The house itself is approximately 13 meters by 26 meters, elliptical in shape, and has a thatched roof. Men and women sleep at opposite ends.

Each community is politically independent and has its own headman. It is located 4 or more kilometers from its nearest neighboring community. The community is made up of people patrilineally and affinally related. In times of war, two or more villages may unite to fight a common enemy, as was the case when the Spanish attempted to conquer them.

There are rituals for both boys and girls upon reaching puberty. Men may marry their cross cousins and their sisters' daughters. Polygyny is common, and this would appear to be adaptive since so many men die in warfare. Levirate is obligatory. Men either pay a bride-price or perform bride-service. Deceased adults are buried in hollowed-out logs in special buildings and are given food and drink for two years, after which they are believed to transform into animals or birds. Children are interred in urns.

Bibliography

Gippelhauser, Richard (1990). Die Achuara-Jivaro: Wirtschaftliche und soziale Organisationsformen am peruanischen Amazonas. Vienna: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften.


Harner, Michael J. (1973). The Jívaro: People of the Sacred Waterfalls. New York: Doubleday.


Karsten, Rafael (1935). "The Head-Hunters of Western Amazonas: The Life and Culture of the Jibaro Indians of Easten Ecuador and Peru." Societas Scientiarum Fennica, Commentationes Humanarum, Litterarum (Helsinki) 8(1).

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Jívaro

Jívaro (hē´värō), linguistic stock of Native South Americans in Ecuador. The peoples, N of the Marañón River and E of the Andes, engage in farming, hunting, fishing, and weaving. They have a patrilineal society, with some 15 to 20 people, the family group, living in each huge, isolated communal house. Though not unique to the Jívaro, head shrinking, accompanied by elaborate ceremony, made them famous, but the practice has virtually disappeared. The Jívaro long resisted government and missionary efforts to subdue them.

See V. W. Von Hagen, Off with Their Heads (1937); J. Hanzelka and M. Zikmund, Amazon Headhunters (tr. 1964); M. J. Harner, The Jívaro (1972).

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Jivaro

Jivaroarrow, barrow, farrow, harrow, Jarrow, marrow, narrow, sparrow, taro, tarot, Varro, yarrow •gabbro • Avogadro • Afro • aggro •macro • cilantro • Castro •wheelbarrow •Faro, Kilimanjaro, Pissarro, Pizarro, Tupamaro •Pedro • allegro • hedgerow • velcro •escrow •metro, retro •electro • Jethro •bolero, caballero, dinero, Faeroe, pharaoh, ranchero, sombrero, torero •scarecrow • Ebro •Montenegro, Negro •repro • in vitroPyrrho • synchro •windrow • impro • intro • bistro •Babygro • McEnroe •biro, Cairo, giro, gyro, tyro •fibro • micro • maestro •borrow, Corot, morrow, sorrow, tomorrow •cockcrow • cointreau •Moro, Sapporo, Thoreau •Mindoro • Yamoussoukro •Woodrow •burro, burrow, furrow •upthrow •De Niro, hero, Nero, Pierrot, Pinero, Rio de Janeiro, sub-zero, zero •bureau, chiaroscuro, Douro, enduro, euro, Ishiguro, Oruro, Truro •Politburo • guacharo • Diderot •vigoro • Prospero • Cicero • in utero •Devereux • Jivaro • overthrow

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Jivaro

Jivaro

PRONUNCIATION: Hee-va-ro
LOCATION: Ecuador; Peru (Eastern slopes of the Andes mountains), and western Colombia
POPULATION: 15,000–50,000 (Estimate. No recent census have been completed)
LANGUAGE: Jivaro; Quechua
RELIGION: Traditional mystical and spiritual beliefs

INTRODUCTION

The Jivaro are an Andean tribe often considered to be the most warlike people of South America. Their history as violent warriors goes back to the days of the expansion of the Inca Empire when the Jivaro fought to remain free of Inca control. They also battled the Spanish during the conquest, and it is alleged that they massacred nearly 50,000 Spaniards in 1599. One of the preferred warfare devices used by Jivaro to fight the Europeans was the blowgun, using poisoned darts. In the centuries following the conquest, the Jivaro continued to fight assimilation into modern society, and they have resisted successive waves of missionaries. Once famed for their practice of shrinking human heads, the Jivaro in recent times have become largely peaceful and are no longer completely isolated from modern society.

LOCATION AND HOMELAND

The Jivaro live on the eastern slopes of the Andes, where mountain ranges meet the Amazon headwaters. This tropical forest region is characterized by frequent and heavy rainfall, and dense tropical vegetation. The Jivaro people developed a tropical-forest type of agriculture that has allowed them to grow different crops such as cassava, corn (maize), and sweet potatoes. To complement their diet, Jivaro fish, hunt, and gather fruits in the forest.

The Jivaro are mainly concentrated in Ecuador, although many closely related tribes, such as the Aguaruna, are found in Peru and Colombia. Current estimates place the population at approximately 15,000–50,000 people.

LANGUAGE

The Jivaro lend their name to a linguistic family. Jivaro consists of two languages, Jivaroan and Aguaruna, and a variety of dialects are spoken by related groups in the region, such as Achuar-Shiwiar, Huambisa, Shuar, and Maina among others. However, some linguists consider Jivaroan to be a single language with Aguaruna being the most divergent dialect. Jivaroan is known and spoken in Peru, Ecuador, and a small part of Colombia, while Aguaruna is spoken in four regions of Peru: Amazonas, Cajamarca, Loreto, and San Martin.

FOLKLORE

The Jivaro have a rich mythology. A variety of ancient myths have been passed down through the generations to explain the origins of the Jivaro peoples. In one story of Jivaro creation, the Andean foothills were subject to a severe flood, killing all but two brothers. Upon the brothers' return to their shelter after the waters had receded, they found dishes of food laid out for them by two parrots. One of the brothers caught one of the gift-bearing parrots and married her. This marriage produced three girls and three boys, whose descendants became the Jivaro people. Jivaro myths, it is believed, are an amalgamation of traditional Jivaro mythology and more modern beliefs introduced in the past decades by missionaries.

The boa constrictor holds a unique place in Jivaro mythology. The largest snake in the Amazon basin is respected and feared not merely because of its strength, but because it is believed to possess strong supernatural powers.

RELIGION

The Jivaro belong to a spiritual and mystical world. The Jivaro hold a deep-rooted belief that spiritual forces all around them are responsible for real-world occurrences. They ascribe spiritual significance to animals, plants, and objects. Many daily customs and behaviors are guided by their desire to attain spiritual power or avoid evil spirits. Fearful of witchcraft, the Jivaro often attribute sickness or death to the power of their enemies to cast curses.

There are a great many deities or gods that the Jivaro revere. Primary among these is Nungui or Earth Mother who is believed to have the power to make plants grow. Residing deep underground, she emerges at night to dance in the garden. Women sing to Nungui to ask her to protect the garden, and they carefully weed the garden daily to appease her. Equally important is the quest for an arutam soul, which offers protection from injury, disease, or death. This spiritual power is temporary, however, but it can eventually be replaced by killing an enemy. The pursuit of protection by arutam power provides the belief system underlying the pervasive violence in Jivaro society.

MAJOR HOLIDAYS

Jivaro holidays consist of the various rituals and celebrations that mark major life transitions or events.

RITES OF PASSAGE

Jivaro rites of passage and celebrations are reflections of their spiritual beliefs. All personal milestones and important events are celebrated with spiritual significance. The most important moment in a young male Jivaro's life is when he is encouraged to gain his arutam, or protective spirit. Parents fear that without this protective spirit, Jivaro youths will be unlikely to survive into adulthood. At or before puberty, young male Jivaro are led deep into the forest where they consume a hallucinogenic drug called maikoa and then await a vision of the arutam soul that will protect them from danger. They may remain there for days, fasting and bathing in a waterfall, while they await the sacred vision. If the vision does not come, they return home, then set off again to the forest to make a second attempt. Once this power is received, the boy is allowed to participate in many adult activities, such as hunting.

Full adult status, however, is not given until the boy successfully hunts down a sloth and learns the head-shrinking techniques. Despite the prohibition of headhunting activities, such practice reportedly continued into the mid-20th century.

The Jivaro tribes of Ecuador and Peru had a degree of expertise in the art of mummification. According to historical accounts, Jivaro warrior used to take additional precaution of ensuring the immortality of their chiefs by roasting their embalmed bodies over very low fires.

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS

Despite their warlike reputation, the Jivaro are in fact a very sociable people. When visiting a neighbor or relative's house, guests can expect a hospitable welcome. Beer made from manioc (cassava) root will be offered, and the family meal will be shared. Often, if the distances traveled are great, the guests will be invited to stay for a few days. Banana leaves laid on the dirt floor serve as beds for the visitors.

These visits also provide an opportunity for men to seek new wives. In contrast to Western cultures, it is the men that are fussy about their appearance. A man may spend considerable time before a visit or party painting his face and putting decorative adornments on his clothes and in his hair. On special occasions, complex geometric designs are painted on the nose and cheekbones. Toucan feathers adorn the hair, and ear sticks are placed through holes in the ear. When trying to attract a young woman, the suitor concocts a homemade mixture of plants, herbs, and oils that acts like a perfume.

Gift-giving is also important among the Jivaro. A common gift for the potential bride is the fang of a boa constrictor that are purported to bring good luck. If these gestures of affection are reciprocated, the man may begin negotiations with the woman's father to marry her. Romantic love and mutual attraction are paramount in the selection of a spouse. In addition, women seek good hunters and warriors as husbands, while men desire good gardeners and potters. The husband is obligated to pay a bride-price or perform services to the wife's father.

LIVING CONDITIONS

Related families live in a single large community house rather than in a village. The most common construction is a large, one-room shelter, with no internal walls or rooms for privacy. These houses, called jivaria, generally house large nuclear families averaging 8 to 10 people and an entire community goes from 30 to 40 people. For defensive purposes Jivaria shelters are built on a steep hill by the male head of the household with help from his male relatives. The houses must be strong enough to withstand both heavy rainfall and enemy attack. The men scour the forest for palm leaves to build a thatched roof to repel the frequent rainfall. The Jivaro seek to build large shelters, up to 24 m (80 ft) in length, which enable them to entertain visitors comfortably. Although they like to dance, it is their custom only to dance indoors, thereby requiring a large floor area.

Although there are no private rooms, the house is divided into two areas, one for men and one for women. There are even separate doors for use by men and women. They have very basic furniture, low-lying beds made of bamboo (with no mattresses), and shelves to store basic pottery.

One unusual characteristic of the Jivaro is the complete lack of any political organization. There are no tribal leaders or community organizations. The sole unit of organization is the family group. However, in times of war, two or more villages may unite to fight a common enemy, as was the case when the Spanish attempted to conquer them. The Jivaro population is widely dispersed, with an average of 1.5 km to 8 km (1–5 mi) between houses. Families live in a house for no more than 10 years, as the nearby supply of firewood and small game becomes depleted. Families will then move a few kilometers or miles away to an area richer in resources

FAMILY LIFE

The roles of males and females in Jivaro society are clearly prescribed. These distinct roles are tied to religious beliefs. The division of labor is partly the result of the belief that most inanimate and living objects have either male or female souls. Manioc (cassava), for example, is thought to be female, so all tasks related to the planting, reaping, and processing of manioc is left for females. Planting and reaping corn, which has a male soul, is left to the males.

Jivaro are polygynous, that is, men may have more than one wife. An average Jivaro family will consist of a man with three wives and multiple children. This practice may have developed in response to the decline in the male population as a result of intertribal warfare. Women greatly outnumber men in many villages. Upon the death of the husband, the widow usually becomes the wife of the deceased husband's brother.

Most Jivaro families are not complete without one or two dogs. They are kept, not as pets, but as an essential aid for hunting and for protection from enemies. The essential roles dogs perform give them a privileged position in Jivaro households. They receive generous attention and care. In addition, monkeys or birds are sometimes kept as pets.

CLOTHING

Daily dress among the Jivaro is simple. Both men and women wear garb made of plain brown cloth, occasionally painted with vertical stripes. These hand woven clothes are durable and rugged and can last for many years. The women drape the cloth over one shoulder, sometimes belting it at the waist with bark string or a piece of woven cotton. Men wrap the cloth around the waist so that it reaches down below the knees. A common feature of male attire is the etsemat, a woven band decorated with feathers that is worn around the head.

Ceremonial dress is more elaborate. Men paint their faces with black and red dyes. An ornament made of bird bones is wrapped around the shoulders, signifying the possession of an arutam soul and the spiritual power it provides. More recently, however, the Jivaro are acquiring Western clothing. Often, there is now a preference for using these manufactured clothes for special occasions, such as visits to neighboring families.

FOOD

The Jivaro have a fairly varied diet of meat and vegetables that they obtain from many sources. The primary elements of their diet are the staple vegetables grown in their gardens. These tubers (root plants such as potatoes) and vegetables are supplemented by foraging for wild plantains and other edible plants. The protein in the diet is obtained by raising chickens and hunting wild game. Animals, such as wild hogs, peccaries, and monkeys, are hunted with great skill with blowguns and cu-rare darts. Spearing fish in the rivers provides another form of protein. As with many other Amazon peoples, the most popular drink among the Jivaro is beer made from fermented manioc (cassava) root.

EDUCATION

Most Jivaro children receive no formal education. Rather than learning the modern skills of reading and writing, Jivaro children are taught the skills needed for survival in the jungle. They are, for example, taught how to swim at a very young age. They learn these basic skills from their parents and elder siblings. Because of the widely dispersed population, most children have little contact with playmates other than their siblings.

In less remote Jivaro settlements, some formal schooling may be offered by missionaries.

CULTURAL HERITAGE

Songs and music are closely integrated into Jivaro daily life. Songs exist to accompany many daily occurrences and special occasions. Jivaro men sing special songs while weaving, as do women while gardening. At parties or ceremonial events, flutes and drums made with monkey skins are used to accompany the singing.

WORK

Much of the workday is dedicated to ensuring a constant supply of food. The Jivaro are primarily subsistence agriculturalists and grow a fairly diverse range of staple crops, such as manioc (cassava) root, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, peanuts, and plantains. The women spend a large proportion of the day dealing with the laborious task of keeping the large garden free from weeds. Women are also responsible for producing the pottery needed for storing food and drinks. Young girls tend to the house and are responsible for such tasks as sweeping the floors with banana leaves.

The men have more varied duties, such as clearing the forest, collecting firewood, and hunting. They also have developed the skill for crafting blowguns and spears, which are essential for game hunting. The process of making a blowgun can take as long as a couple of weeks from start to finish. Wood from a chonta palm tree is split open, tied together, and hollowed out with a mixture of sand and water. The final touch is the addition of a mouthpiece made of bone. Darts are made quickly, by sharpening palm leaves. Curare is placed on the tip of the dart, which can be propelled nearly 30 m (100 ft) to reach monkeys in trees or large birds. Longer blowguns, sometimes up to 4.5 m (15 ft) in length, allow for greater accuracy but are difficult to carry long distances while tracking prey. Most blowguns are therefore between 2 m and 2.5 m (6–8 ft).

The Jivaro are no longer completely isolated from modern society. They frequently trade skins and feather-worked handi-crafts to obtain goods from the commercial sector. In addition, some Jivaro work as laborers to obtain cash to purchase modern goods. Particularly valued are machetes, axes, and guns, as they are useful tools for life in the forest.

SPORTS

The Jivaro do not participate in sports.

ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION

The Jivaro are a festive people, and parties lasting throughout the night or even over several days are common. Evenings spent dancing and drinking manioc (cassava) beer with neighbors is the main form of entertainment. After a few hours spent drinking and talking, the party livens up as the drums are brought out. Dancing and singing ensue, usually until dawn. For the Jivaro, these parties provide a rare occasion for social interaction and communication in a society where there is limited contact with others outside the family on a daily basis.

FOLK ART, CRAFTS, AND HOBBIES

The Jivaro are skilled craftspeople. The women learn to make pottery from a very young age. The art of weaving is one reserved exclusively for men. They spin, weave, and dye cotton wool with natural dyes extracted from tropical plants. Elaborate feather headdresses and artifacts are also widely sought for their artistic beauty. These skills are still taught to successive generations, but the growing availability of Western goods has tended to diminish the quality of traditional goods.

SOCIAL PROBLEMS

Modern society continues to challenge traditional culture.

GENDER ISSUES

Jivaro tribes regularly practice polygamy. However, the Jivaro wage a constant warfare among themselves for which polygamy is the direct cause. Most of the wives are gained by the killing of an enemy and the confiscation of the women as the spoils of war. If a Jivaro wife is detected in any breach of infidelity, she is subject to a terrific course of discipline that includes various methods of physical torture for first and second offenses and death for a third offense.

The roles of males and females in Jivaro society are clearly defined and are tied to religious beliefs. Gender roles state that the men protect, hunt, fish, clear forest, and cut wood. Jivaro women cultivate the land, cook, make beer, and care for the children and animals. Jivaro women are also responsible for producing pottery for storing food and drinks. Young girls tend to the house and are responsible for such tasks as sweeping the floors with banana leaves.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Descola, Philippe. Spears of Twilight: Three Years Among the Jivaro. New York: New Press, 1996.

Furneaux, Rupert. Primitive Peoples. London: David and Charles, 1975.

Harner, Michael J. The Jivaro: People of the Sacred Waterfalls. New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1973.

Redmond, Elsa. Studies in Latin American Ethnohistory and Archaeology, "Tribal and Chiefly Warfare on South America." Michigan: Ann Arbor, 1994.

Weyer, Edward. Primitive Peoples Today. New York: Doubleday and Company, 1961.

—revised by C. Vergara

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