Skip to main content

Times Beach


TIMES BEACH, a town in Missouri, came to national attention in December 1982, when Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) officials learned that soil samples taken from the town's dirt roads contained dioxin, a toxic chemical by-product, in concentrations hundreds of times higher than levels considered safe for human exposure. The EPA found that a contractor hired by Times Beach to control dust on its dirt roads had sprayed them with waste automotive oil mixed with industrial sludge from a defunct chemical company. The EPA purchased all the property in Times Beach and permanently evacuated its 2,000 residents. The buyout was the first under the Superfund program.


Posner, Michael. "Anatomy of a Missouri Nightmare." Maclean's 96 (April 4,1983): 10–12.

Switzer, Jacqueline Vaughn. Environmental Politics: Domestic and Global Dimensions. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.

JohnMorelli/c. w.

See alsoChemical Industry ; Conservation ; Environmental Protection Agency ; Hazardous Waste ; Superfund .

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Times Beach." Dictionary of American History. . 23 Mar. 2018 <>.

"Times Beach." Dictionary of American History. . (March 23, 2018).

"Times Beach." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved March 23, 2018 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.