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Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Named for Admiral William Penn, father of the founder of Pennsylvania.

NICKNAME: The Keystone State.

CAPITAL: Harrisburg.

ENTERED UNION: 12 December 1787 (2nd).

SONG: "Pennsylvania."

MOTTO: Virtue, Liberty and Independence.

COAT OF ARMS: A shield supported by two horses displays a sailing ship, a plow, and three sheaves of wheat; an eagle forms the crest. Beneath the shield an olive branch and a cornstalk are crossed, and below them is the state motto.

FLAG: The coat of arms appears in the center of a blue field.

OFFICIAL SEAL: obverse: a shield displays a sailing ship, a plow, and three sheaves of wheat, with a cornstalk to the left, an olive branch to the right, and an eagle above, surrounded by the inscription "Seal of the State of Pennsylvania." reverse: a woman representing Liberty holds a wand topped by a liberty cap in her left hand and a drawn sword in her right, as she tramples a lion representing Tyranny. The legend "Both Can't Survive" encircles the design.

BIRD: Ruffed grouse.

FISH: Brook trout.

FLOWER: Mountain laurel.

TREE: Hemlock.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Presidents' Day, 3rd Monday in February; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Columbus Day, 2nd Monday in October; Veterans' Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November and the following day; Christmas Day, 25 December.

TIME: 7 AM EST = noon GMT.

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

Located in the northeastern United States, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is the second-largest of the three Middle Atlantic states and ranks 33rd in size among the 50 states.

The total area of Pennsylvania is 45,308 sq mi (117,348 sq km), of which land occupies 44,888 sq mi (116,260 sq km) and inland water 420 sq mi (1,088 sq km). The state extends 307 mi (494 km) e-w and 169 mi (272 km) n-s. Pennsylvania is rectangular in shape, except for an irregular side on the e and a break in the even boundary in the nw where the line extends n-e for about 50 mi (80 km) along the shore of Lake Erie.

Pennsylvania is bordered on the n by New York; on the e by New York and New Jersey (with the Delaware River forming the entire boundary); on the se by Delaware; on the s by Maryland and West Virginia (demarcated by the Mason-Dixon line); on the w by West Virginia and Ohio; and on the nw by Lake Erie. The total boundary length of Pennsylvania is 880 mi (1,416 km). The state's geographical center lies in Centre County, 2.5 mi (4 km) sw of Bellefonte.

TOPOGRAPHY

Pennsylvania may be divided into more than a dozen distinct physiographic regions, most of which extend in curved bands from east to south. Beginning in the southeast, the first region (including Philadelphia) is a narrow belt of coastal plain along the lower Delaware River; this area, at sea level, is the state's lowest region. The next belt, dominating the southeastern corner, is the Piedmont Plateau, a wide area of rolling hills and lowlands. The Great Valley, approximately 10-15 mi (16-24 km) in width, runs from the middle of the state's eastern border to the middle of its southern border. The eastern, central, and western parts of the Great Valley are known as the Lehigh, Lebanon, and Cumberland valleys, respectively. West and north of the Great Valley, the Pocono Plateau rises to about 2,200 ft (700 m). Next, in a band 50-60 mi (80-100 km) wide, most of the way from the north-central part of the eastern border to the west-central part of the southern border are the Appalachian Mountains, a distinctive region of parallel ridges and valleys.

The Allegheny High Plateau, part of the Appalachian Plateaus, makes up the western and northern parts of the state. The Allegheny Front, the escarpment along the eastern edge of the plateau, is the most striking topographical feature in Pennsylvania, dissected by many winding streams to form narrow, steep-sided valleys; the southwestern extension of the Allegheny High Plateau contains the state's highest peak, Mt. Davis, at 3,213 ft (980 m). A narrow lowland region, the Erie Plain, borders Lake Erie in the extreme northwestern part of the state. The mean elevation of the state is approximately 1,100 ft (336 m).

According to federal sources, Pennsylvania has jurisdiction over 735 sq mi (1,904 sq km) of Lake Erie; the state government gives a figure of 891 sq mi (2,308 sq km). Pennsylvania contains about 250 natural lakes larger than 20 acres (8 hectares), most of them in the glaciated regions of the northeast and northwest. The largest natural lake within the state's borders is Conneaut Lake, about 30 mi (48 km) south of the city of Erie, with an area of less than 1.5 sq mi (39 sq km); the largest manmade lake is Lake Wallenpaupack, in the Poconos, occupying about 9 sq mi (23 sq km). Pennsylvania claims more than 21 sq mi (54 sq km) of the Pymatuning Reservoir on the Ohio border.

The Susquehanna River and its tributaries drain more than 46% of the area of Pennsylvania, much of it in the Appalachian Mountains. The Delaware River forms Pennsylvania's eastern border and, like the Susquehanna, flows southeastward to the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the western part of the state is drained by the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers, which join at Pittsburgh to form the Ohio. The Beaver, Clarion, and Youghiogheny rivers are also important parts of this system.

During early geological history, the topography of Pennsylvania had the reverse of its present configurations, with mountains in the southeast and a large inland sea covering the rest of the state. This sea, which alternately expanded and contracted, interwove layers of vegetation (which later became coal) with layers of sandstone and shale.

CLIMATE

Although Pennsylvania lies entirely within the humid continental zone, its climate varies according to region and elevation. The regions with the warmest temperatures and the longest growing seasons are the low-lying southwest Ohio valley and the Monongahela valley in the southeast. The region bordering Lake Erie also has a long growing season, as the moderating effect of the lake prevents early spring and late autumn frosts. The first two areas have hot summers, while the Erie area is more moderate. The rest of the state, at higher elevations, has cold winters and cool summers.

Among the major population centers, Philadelphia has an annual average temperature of 55°f (12°c), with a normal minimum of 46°f (7°c) and a normal maximum of 64°f (17°c). Pittsburgh has an annual average of 51°f (10°c), with a minimum of 41°f (5°c) and a maximum of 60°f (15°c). In the cooler northern areas, Scranton has a normal annual average ranging from 40°f (4°c) to 59°f (15°c); Erie, from 41°f (5°c) to 57°f (13°c). The record low temperature for the state is 42°f (41°c), set at Smethport on 5 January 1904; the record high, 111°f (44°c), was reached at Phoenixville on 10 July 1936.

Philadelphia has about 40.9 in (103 cm) of precipitation annually, and Pittsburgh has 37 in (93 cm). Pittsburgh, however, has much more snow43.1 in (109 cm), compared with 21 in (52 cm) for Philadelphia. The snowfall in Erie, in the snow belt, averages 85.5 in (217 cm) per year, with heavy snows sometimes experienced late in April. In Philadelphia, the sun shines an average of 56% of the time; in Pittsburgh, 45%.

The state has experienced several destructive floods. On 31 May 1889, the South Fork Dam near Johnstown broke after a heavy rainfall, and its rampaging waters killed 2,200 people and devastated the entire city in less than 10 minutes. On 19-20 July 1977, Johnstown experienced another flood, resulting in 68 deaths. Three tornadoes raked the southwestern part of the commonwealth on 23 June 1944, killing 45 persons and injuring another 362. Rains from Hurricane Agnes in June 1972 resulted in floods that caused 48 deaths and more than $1.2 billion worth of property damage in the Susquehanna Valley.

FLORA AND FAUNA

Maple, walnut, poplar, oak, pine, ash, beech, and linden trees fill Pennsylvania's extensive forests, along with sassafras, sycamore, weeping willow, and balsam fir (Abies fraseri). Red pine and paper birch are found in the north while the sweet gum is dominant in the extreme southwest. Mountain laurel (the state flower), June-berry, dotted hawthorn, New Jersey tea, and various dogwoods are among the shrubs and small trees found in most parts of the state, and dewberry, wintergreen, wild columbine, and wild ginger are also common. In April 2006, the small whorled pogonia and Virginia spirea were classified as threatened, with the northeastern bulrush as endangered.

Numerous mammals persist in Pennsylvania, among them the white-tailed deer (the state animal), black bear, red and gray foxes, opossum, raccoon, muskrat, mink, snowshoe hare, common cottontail, and red, gray, fox, and flying squirrels. Native amphibians include the hellbender, Fowler's toad, and the tree, cricket, and true frogs; among reptilian species are the five-lined and black skinks and five varieties of lizard. The ruffed grouse, a common game species, is the official state bird; other game birds are the wood dove, ring-necked pheasant, bobwhite quail, and mallard and black ducks. The robin, cardinal, English sparrow, red-eyed vireo, cedar waxwing, tufted titmouse, yellow-shafted flicker, barn swallow, blue jay, and killdeer are common non-game birds. More than 170 types of fish have been identified in Pennsylvania, with brown and brook trout, grass pickerel, bigeye chub, pirate perch, and white bass among the common native varieties.

In 1978, the Pennsylvania Game Commission and the US Fish and Wildlife Service signed a cooperative agreement under which the federal government provides two dollars for each dollar spent by the state to determine the status of and improve conditions for threatened or endangered species. On the threatened or endangered list in April 2006 were 12 animal species (vertebrates and invertebrates), including the Indiana bat, bald eagle, orangefoot pimpleback pearly mussel, dwarf wedgemussel, and pink mucket pearly mussel.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Pennsylvania's environment was ravaged by uncontrolled timber cutting in the 19th century, and by extensive coal mining and industrial development until recent times. Pittsburgh's most famous landmarks were its smokestacks, and it was said that silverware on ships entering the port of Philadelphia would tarnish immediately from the fumes of the Delaware River. The anthracite-mining regions were filled with huge, hideous culm piles, and the bituminous and anthracite fields were torn up by strip-mining.

In 1895, Pennsylvania appointed its first commissioner of forestry, in an attempt to repair some of the earlier damage. Gifford Pinchot, who twice served as governor of Pennsylvania, was the first professionally trained forester in the United States (he studied at the École National Forestiere in Paris), developed the US Forest Service, and served as Pennsylvania forest commissioner from 1920 to 1922. In 1955, the state forests were put under scientific management.

In 1972, Pennsylvania voters ratified a state constitutional amendment adopted 18 May 1971, acknowledging the people's "right to clean air, pure water, and to the preservation of the natural, scenic, historic, and esthetic values of the environment" and naming the state as trustee of these resources. Passage of the amendment came only two years after establishment of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, which in the 1990s was reorganized into two separate entities. The Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (DCNR) was established on 1 July 1995 to maintain and preserve the state's 116 state parks, manage the 2.1 million acres of state forest land, and provide information on the state's ecological and geologic resources. The DCNR also oversees environmental education and provides assistance and grants for preserving rivers, community trails, parks, and recreation. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) was established to protect the state's air, land, and water from pollution and to provide a cleaner environment for the health and safety of Pennsylvania's citizens.

In March 1979, Pennsylvania suffered the worst nuclear-power accident in US history when a nuclear reactor on Three Mile Island malfunctioned and radioactive gases escaped. A second reactor was shut down immediately even though it was not damaged. The cleanup of radioactive waste cost about $1 billion, and it was not until late 1985 that the undamaged unit was placed back in operation.

An oil spill at Marcus Hook, near the Delaware Border, released 435,000 gallons of crude oil into the Delaware River in September 1985; damage to birds and wetlands was more extensive in Delaware than in Pennsylvania. In 1996, there were 404,000 acres (163,492 hectares) of wetlands in the state. There are about 50 private conservancy groups that work with the state to protect these lands.

As of the early 1990s, sewage and industrial wastes were the major pollutants in areas with high industrial and population concentrations. In western and parts of central Pennsylvania, drainage from abandoned bituminous coal mines created serious water quality problems; active mines in this region were also potentially polluting. A similar situation prevailed in the anthracite areas of northeastern Pennsylvania. Oil and gas well operations, located

PennsylvaniaCounties, County Seats, and County Areas and Populations
COUNTY COUNTY SEAT LAND AREA (SQ MI) POPULATION (2005 EST.) COUNTY COUNTY SEAT LAND AREA (SQ MI) POPULATION (2005 EST.)
Adams Gettysburg 521 99,749 Lackawanna Scranton 461 209,525
Allegheny Pittsburgh 727 1,235,841 Lancaster Lancaster 952 490,562
Armstrong Kittanning 646 70,586 Lawrence New Castle 363 92,809
Beaver Beaver 436 177,377 Lebanon Lebanon 363 125,578
Bedford Bedford 1,017 50,091 Lehigh Allentown 348 330,433
Berks Reading 861 396,314 Luzerne Wilkes-Barre 891 312,861
Blair Hollidaysburg 527 126,795 Lycoming Williamsport 1,237 118,395
Bradford Towanda 1,152 62,537 McKean Smethport 1,237 44,370
Bucks Doylestown 610 621,342 Mercer Mercer 672 119,598
Butler Butler 789 182,087 Mifflin Lewistown 413 46,235
Cambria Ebensburg 691 148,073 Monroe Stroudsburg 609 163,234
Cameron Emporium 398 5,639 Montgomery Norristown 486 775,883
Carbon Jim Thorpe 384 61,959 Montour Danville 131 18,032
Centre Bellefonte 1,106 140,561 Northampton Easton 376 287,767
Chester West Chester 758 474,027 Northumberland Sunbury 461 92,610
Clarion Clarion 607 40,589 Perry New Bloomfield 557 44,728
Clearfield Clearfield 1,149 82,783 Philadelphia Philadelphia 136 1,463,281
Clinton Lock Haven 891 37,439 Pike Milford 550 56,337
Columbia Bloomsburg 486 64,939 Potter Coudersport 1,081 17,834
Crawford Meadville 1,011 89,442 Schuylkill Pottsville 782 147,447
Cumberland Carlisle 547 223,089 Snyder Middleburg 329 38,207
Dauphin Harrisburg 528 253,995 Somerset Somerset 1,073 78,907
Delaware Media 184 555,648 Sullivan Laporte 451 6,391
Elk Ridgeway 830 33,577 Susquehanna Montrose 826 42,124
Erie Erie 804 280,446 Tioga Wellsboro 1,131 41,649
Fayette Uniontown 794 146,142 Union Lewisburg 317 43,131
Forest Tionesta 428 5,739 Venango Franklin 679 55,928
Franklin Chambersburg 774 137,409 Warren Warren 885 42,033
Fulton McConnellsburg 438 14,673 Washington Washington 858 206,406
Greene Waynesburg 577 39,808 Wayne Honesdale 731 50,113
Huntingdon Huntingdon 877 45,947 Westmoreland Greensburg 1,033 367,635
Indiana Indiana 829 88,703 Wyoming Tunkhannock 399 28,160
Jefferson Brookville 657 45,759 York York 906 408,801
Juniata Mifflintown 392 23,507 TOTALS 45,150 12,429,616

primarily in the northwestern portion of the commonwealth, were additional pollution sources. In 2003, 166.9 million lb of toxic chemicals were released in the state.

After miners were trapped (and subsequently successfully rescued) in an accident at Quecreek Mine in July 2002, the DEP launched a program to build a database of abandoned mine locations to minimize the risk of another such accident occurring.

In 2003, Pennsylvania had 572 hazardous waste sites listed in the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) database. In 2006, Pennsylvania ranked second in the nation (following New Jersey) for the highest number of hazardous waste sites on the National Priorities List, with 94 sites; these included the Rodale Manufacturing Co. Westinghouse Electric Corp. (Sharon), and Saegertown Industrial Area. At least 26 sites have been deleted from the list in past years. In 2005, the EPA spent over $14 million through the Superfund program for the cleanup of hazardous waste sites in the state. In 2004, the state received a federal EPA grant of $52.5 million for the clean water state revolving fund.

POPULATION

Pennsylvania ranked sixth in population in the United States with an estimated total of 12,429,616 in 2005, an increase of 1.2% since 2000. Between 1990 and 2000, Pennsylvania's population grew from 11,881,643 to 12,281,054, an increase of 3.4%. The population is projected to reach 12.7 million by 2015 and 12.8 million by 2025. In 2004, the median age for Pennsylvanians was 39.3. In the same year, 22.9% of the populace was under age 18 while 15.3% was age 65 or older. The population density in 2004 was 276.9 persons per sq mi.

As recently as 1940, Pennsylvania was the second most populous state in the United States. By the 1980 census, however, the state had slipped to fourth place, with a population of 11,863,895; it dropped to fifth place in 1990 with a population of 11,881,643.

The largest city in the state, Philadelphia, was the fifth-largest US city as of 2004, with a population of 1,470,151. Philadelphia's population has declined since 1970, when 1,949,996 people lived there. The population of the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington metropolitan area was estimated 5,800,614 in 2004. Pittsburgh's population declined from 616,806 in 1950 to an estimated 322,450 in 2004 in the city proper. In 2004, the Pittsburgh metropolitan area had an estimated population of 2,401,575. The 2004 estimated populations of Pennsylvania's other major cities were Allentown, 106,732, and Erie, 103,925. Other cities with large populations include Reading, Scranton, Bethlehem, Lancaster, Harrisburg, Altoona, and Wilkes-Barre.

ETHNIC GROUPS

During the colonial period, under the religious tolerance of a Quaker government, Pennsylvania was a haven for dissident sectarians from continental Europe and the British Isles. Some German sectarians, including the Amish, have kept up their traditions to this day. An initially friendly policy toward the Indians waned in the late 18th century under the pressures of population growth and the anxieties of the French and Indian War. The famous Carlisle Indian School (18791918) educated many leaders from various tribes throughout the United States. In Pennsylvania itself, however, there were only 18,348 American Indians in 2000, up from 15,000 in 1990. In 2004, American Indians accounted for 0.2% of the population.

Modest numbers of black slaves were utilized as domestics, field workers, and iron miners in colonial Pennsylvania. Antislavery sentiment was stirred in the 18th century through the efforts of a Quaker, John Woolman, and other Pennsylvanians. The Gradual Abolition of Slavery Act was passed in 1780, and the important antislavery newspaper The Liberator appeared in Philadelphia in 1831. As of 2000, black Americans numbered 1,224,612 (10% of the total state population), and were concentrated in the large cities. Philadelphia was 43.2% black in 2000, with 655,824 African American residents. In 2004, 10.5% of the state's population was black.

The late 19th and early 20th centuries brought waves of immigrants from Ireland, Wales, various Slavic nations, and the eastern Mediterranean and the Balkans. Many of the new immigrants settled in the east-central anthracite coal-mining region. In 2000, 508,291 Pennsylvania residents, or 4.1% of the total population, were foreign born, up from 3.1% in 1990. Italy, Germany, the United Kingdom, India, the former Soviet Union, Korea, and Poland were the leading countries of origin. In the valleys surrounding Pittsburgh there are still self-contained ethnic enclaves, and there has been increased interest in preserving distinctive ethnic traditions.

Hispanics and Latinos in Pennsylvania numbered 394,088 in 2000 (3.2%), up from 232,000 in 1990. Most were Puerto Ricans, with smaller numbers of Cubans and Central Americans. In 2004, 3.8% of the population was of Hispanic or Latino origin. In 2000, Asians numbered 219,813; the Asian population included 50,650 Chinese (almost double the 1990 total of 25,908), 31,612 Koreans, 57,241 Asian Indians (almost triple the 1990 figure of 19,769), 14,506 Filipinos, and 30,037 Vietnamese, up sharply from 14,126 in 1990. Pacific Islanders numbered 3,417. In 2004, Asians accounted for 2.2% of the population. That year, 0.9% of the population reported origin of two or more races.

LANGUAGES

Once home to several Algonkian tribes, Pennsylvania still has such Algonkian place-names as Punxsutawney, Aliquippa, Pocono, Towanda, Susquehanna, and Shamokin. An Iroquoian tribe gave its name to the Conestoga region. The word came to identify first the pioneers' covered wagons manufactured in the area and then, in shortened form, a cheap cigar called a stogie.

Although not quite homogeneous, Pennsylvania's North Midland dialect is significant as the source of much Midwestern and western speech. The only non-Midland sector is the northern tier of counties, settled from southern New York State, where features of the northern dialect predominate.

On the whole, Pennsylvania North Midland is distinguished by the presence of want off a tram or bus, snake feeder (dragonfly), run (small stream), waterspouts and spouts (gutters), and creek as /krik/. With these features are found others that commonly occur in Southern Pennsylvania, such as corn pone, roasting ears, and spiket (spigot). Western Pennsylvania, however, contrasts with the eastern half by the dominance of /nawthing/ for nothing, /greezy/ for greasy, /kao/ for cow, sugar tree (sugar maple), hap (quilt), and clothes press (closet), as well as by the influential merging of the /ah/ vowel and the /aw/ vowel so that cot and caught sound alike. Southern Pennsylvania has flannel cakes for pancakes and ground hackie for chipmunk. Within this region, Philadelphia and its suburbs have distinctive baby coach for baby carriage, pavement for sidewalk, hoagie for a large sandwich, the vowel of put in broom and Cooper, and the vowel of father in on and fog. In the east and northeast, a doughnut is a cruller, one is sick in the stomach, and syrup has the vowel of sit.

In much of central Pennsylvania, descendants of the colonial Palatinate German population retain their speech as Deutsch, often misnamed Pennsylvania Dutch, which has influenced English in the state through such loanwords as toot (bag), rainworm (earthworm), snits (dried apples), and smearcase (cottage cheese).

In 2000, 10,583,054 Pennsylvanians91.6% of the population five years old or olderspoke only English at home, down slightly from 92.7% in 1990.

The following table gives selected statistics from the 2000 Census for language spoken at home by persons five years old and over. The category "Other West Germanic languages" includes Dutch, Pennsylvania Dutch, and Afrikaans. The category "Other Slavic languages" includes Czech, Slovak, and Ukrainian. The category "Other Asian languages" includes Dravidian languages, Malayalam, Telugu, Tamil, and Turkish. The category "Other Indic languages" includes Bengali, Marathi, Punjabi, and Romany. The category "Other Indo-European languages" includes Albanian, Gaelic, Lithuanian, and Rumanian.

LANGUAGE NUMBER PERCENT
Population 5 years and over 1,555,538 100.0
Speak only English 10,583,054 91.6
Speak a language other than English 972,484 8.4
Speak a language other than English 972,484 8.4
Spanish or Spanish Creole 356,754 3.1
Italian 70,434 0.6
German 68,672 0.6
Other West Germanic languages 51,073 0.4
French (incl. Patois, Cajun) 47,735 0.4
Chinese 42,790 0.4
Russian 32,189 0.3
Polish 31,717 0.3
Korean 25,978 0.2
Vietnamese 25,880 0.2
Other Slavic languages 24,423 0.2
Arabic 19,557 0.2
Greek 17,348 0.2
Other Asian languages 16,196 0.1
Other Indic languages 12,297 0.1
Other Indo-European languages 11,656 0.1
Hindi 10,045 0.1

RELIGIONS

With a long history of toleration, Pennsylvania has been a haven for numerous religious groups. The first European settlers were Swedish Lutherans; German Lutherans began arriving 1703. William Penn brought the Quakers to Pennsylvania during the 1680s and the climate of religious liberty soon attracted other dissident groups, including German Mennonites, Dunkars, Moravians, and Schwenkfelders; French Huguenots; Scots-Irish Presbyterians; and English Baptists. Descendants of the 16th-century Anabaptists, the Mennonites for the most part settled as farmers; they and the Quakers were the first religious groups openly to advocate abolition of slavery and to help runaway slaves to freedom via the Underground Railroad. The Amish-Mennonite followers of Jacob Amman continue to dress in black clothing, shun the use of mechanized tools, automobiles and electrical appliance, and observe Sundays by singing 16th-century hymns.

The Presbyterians, who built their first church in the state in 1704, played a major role both in the establishment of schools in the colony and in the later development of Pittsburgh and other cities in the western part of the state. Methodists held their first services in Philadelphia in 1768; for many years thereafter, Methodist circuit riders proselytized throughout the state.

Immigration during the 19th century brought a major change in patterns of worship. The Quakers gradually diminished in number and influence, while Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches and Jewish synagogues opened in many of the mining and manufacturing centers. The bulk of the Jewish migration came, after 1848, from Germany and, after 1882, from East Europe and Russia. The Gilded Age saw the founding of a new group in Pittsburgh by clergyman Charles Taze Russell; first called the Russellites, members of this group (established in 1872) are known today as Jehovah's Witnesses.

Roman Catholics constitute the largest religious group in the state, with a total membership of about 3,686,088 in 2004, with about 1,486,058 belonging to the archdiocese of Philadelphia. The largest Protestant denomination in 2000 was the United Methodist Church, with 659,350 adherents; however, membership in 2004 was reported at about 471,311. Other major Protestant groups (with 2000 membership data) were the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, 611,913; the Presbyterian Church USA, 324,714; the American Baptist Church USA, 132,858; and the Episcopal Church, 116,511. The historically important Mennonites, of various traditions, had over 68,000 adherents in 2000. Amish communities had over 25,000 members and Moravians numbered over 10,000. Friends USA (Quakers) reported a membership of about 11,844. Jewish congregations included an estimated 283,000 members and the Muslim congregations had about 71,190 adherents. About 5.1 million people (42.1% of the population) were not counted as members of any religious organization. In 2005, the United Church of Christ reported about 182,779 members statewide.

The American Council of Christian Churches maintains executive offices in Bethlehem. The Mennonite Central Committee, a relief organization, is based in Akron. The Moravian Historical Society can be found in Nazareth,

TRANSPORTATION

Like so many of its industrial assets, Pennsylvania's well-developed road and rail networks are showing signs of old age. Nevertheless, the state remains an important center of transportation, and its ports are among the busiest in the United States.

The early years of railroad building left Pennsylvania with more miles of track than any other state. The first railroad charter, issued in 1819, provided for a horse-drawn railroad from the Delaware Valley to the headwaters of the Lehigh River. The state authorized construction of a line between Columbia and Philadelphia in 1828, and partial service began four years later as part of the State Works. The roadbed was state-owned, and private rail car companies paid a toll to use the rails. During this time, Pennsylvanians John Jervis and Joseph Harrison were developing steam-powered locomotives. Taking advantage of the new technology were separate rail lines connecting Philadelphia with Germantown (1834), Trenton, New Jersey (1838), and Reading (1839), with the Lehigh Valley (1846), and with New York City (1855). In December 1852, the Pennsylvania Central completed lines connecting Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. Five years later, the Pennsylvania Railroad purchased the State Works, eliminating state competition and tolls. By 1880, the company (which had added many smaller coal hauling lines to its holdings) was the world's largest corporation, with more than 30,000 employees and $400 million in capital. Although railroad revenues declined with the rise of the automobile, the Pennsylvania Railroad remained profitable until the 1960s, when the line merged with the New York Central to form the Penn Central. In 1970, the Penn Central separated its real estate holdings from its transportation operation, on which it declared bankruptcy.

As of 2003, the state had 6,942 rail mi (11,176 km) of track, of which 3,566 mi (5,741 km) were operated by the two Class I railroads serving the state: CSX Transportation and the Norfolk Southern. Overall that same year, Pennsylvania was served by 60 railroads, more than any other state. Coal was the top commodity by tonnage, carried by rail originating and terminating within the state. As of 2006, Amtrak operated passenger service through Pennsylvania to Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and other cities along the east-west route, and from Philadelphia to New York and Washington, DC, along the northeast corridor.

Mass transit systems exist in metropolitan Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, in Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Montgomery, and Philadelphia counties, and in Altoona, Allentown, Erie, Harrisburg. Johnstown, Lancaster, Reading, Scranton, State College, and Wilkes-Barre. The Philadelphia Rapid Transit System, the state's first subway, was established in 1902 and is operated by the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority, (SEPTA), which also runs buses, trolleys, trackless trolleys, and commuter trains in Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Montgomery, and Philadelphia counties. In 1985, a 1.1-mile (1.8-km) subway was opened in Pittsburgh as part of a 10.5-mile (16.9-km) light-rail (trolley) transit system linking downtown Pittsburgh with the South Hills section of the city.

Throughout its history, Pennsylvania has been a pioneer in road transportation. One of the earliest roads in the colonies was a "king's highway," connecting Philadelphia to Delaware in 1677; a "queen's road" from Philadelphia to Chester opened in 1706. A flurry of road building connected Philadelphia with other eastern Pennsylvania communities between 1705 and 1735. The first interior artery, the Great Conestoga Road, was opened in 1741 and linked Philadelphia with Lancaster. Indian trails in western Pennsylvania were developed into roadways, and a thoroughfare to Pittsburgh was completed in 1758. During the mid-1700s, a Lancaster County artisan developed an improved wagon for transporting goods across the Alleghenies. Called a Conestoga wagon after the region from which it came, this vehicle later became the prime means of transport for westward pioneers. Another major improvement in land transportation came with the opening in 1792 of the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, one of the first stone-surfaced roads in the United States. The steel-cable suspension bridge built by John Roebling over the Monongahela River at Pittsburgh in 1846 revolutionized bridge building, leading to the construction of spans longer and wider than had previously been thought possible. During the 1920s, Pennsylvania farmers were aided by the building of inexpensive rural roads connecting them with their markets.

A major development in automotive transport, the limited-access highway came to fruition with the Pennsylvania Turnpike, which opened in 1940 and was the first high-speed, multilane highway in the United States. In 2004, Pennsylvania had 120,623 mi (194,203 km) of public roads. Besides the Turnpike, the major highways are I-80 (Keystone Shortway), crossing the state from East Stroudsburg to the Ohio Turnpike; I-81, from the New York to the Maryland border via Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, and Harrisburg; and I-79, from Erie to the West Virginia border via Pittsburgh. As of 2004, there were some 9.989 million motor vehicles registered, including around 5.593 million automobiles, about 3.716 million trucks of all types, and some 29,000 buses. In that same year, there were a total of 8,430,142 licensed drivers in the state.

Blessed with access to the Atlantic Ocean and the Great Lakes and with such navigable waterways as the Delaware, Monongahela, Allegheny, and Ohio rivers, Pennsylvania was an early leader in water transportation, and Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Erie all developed as major ports. The peak period of canal building came during the 1820s and 1830s, which saw the completion of the Main Line of Public Works, used to transport goods between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh from 1834 to 1854. This system used waterways and a spectacular portage railroad that climbed over and cut through, via a tunnel, the Allegheny Mountains. Monumental as it was, the undertaking was largely a failure. Built too late to challenge the Erie Canal's domination of east-west trade, the Main Line was soon made obsolete by the railroads, as was the rest of the state's 800-mi (1,300-km) canal system.

Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Erie are the state's major shipping ports. The Philadelphia Harbor (including ports in the Philadelphia metropolitan area) handled 35.219 million tons of cargo in 2004. Although no longer the dominant gateway to the Mississippi, Pittsburgh is still a major inland port, and handled 41.034 million tons of cargo that year, while Erie, the state's port on the Great Lakes, handled 1.099 million tons of cargo. In 2003, water-borne shipments totaled 104.404 million tons. In 2004, Pennsylvania had 259 mi (416 km) of navigable inland waterways.

In 2005, Pennsylvania had a total of 810 public and private-use aviation-related facilities. This included 468 airports, 329 heliports, three STOLports (Short Take-Off and Landing), and 10 seaplane bases. The busiest air terminal in the state is Philadelphia International Airport, with 13,824,332 passenger enplanements in 2004, followed by Pittsburgh International Airport with 6,606,117 enplanements in that same year, making them the 17th- and 32nd-busiest airports in the United States, respectively.

HISTORY

Soon after the glacier receded from what is now Pennsylvania, about 20,000 years ago, nomadic hunters from the west moved up the Ohio River, penetrated the passes through the Allegheny Mountains, and moved down the Susquehanna and Delaware rivers. By about ad 500, the earliest Indians, already accustomed to fishing and gathering nuts, seeds, fruit, and roots, were beginning to cultivate the soil, make pottery, and build burial mounds. Over the next thousand years, the Indians became semisedentary, or only seasonal, nomads.

Woodland Indians living in Pennsylvania, mostly of the Algonkian language family, were less inclined toward agriculture than other Indian tribes. The first Europeans to sail up the Delaware River found the Leni-Lenape ("original people"), who, as their name signified, had long occupied that valley, and whom the English later called the Delaware. Other Algonkian tribes related to the Leni-Lenape were the Nanticoke, who ranged along the Susquehanna River, and the Shawnee, who were scattered throughout central Pennsylvania. The other major Indian language group in Pennsylvania was Iroquoian. This group included the Susquehanna (Conestoga), living east of the Susquehanna River and south to the shores of Chesapeake Bay; the Wyandot, along the Allegheny River; and the Erie, south of Lake Erie. Proving that tribes related by language could be deadly enemies, the Iroquoian Confederacy of the Five Nations, located in what is now New York, destroyed the Iroquoian-speaking Erie in the 1640s and the Susquehanna by 1680. The confederacy conquered the Leni-Lenape by 1720 but failed to destroy them.

The first European to reach Pennsylvania was probably Cornelis Jacobssen, who in 1614 entered Delaware Bay for Dutch merchants interested in the fur trade. In 1638, the Swedes began planting farms along the Delaware River; they lived in peace with the Leni-Lenape and Susquehanna, with whom they traded for furs. Under Governor Johan Printz, the Swedes expanded into present-day Pennsylvania with a post at Tinicum Island (1643) and several forts along the Schuylkill River. The Dutch conquered New Sweden in 1655, but surrendered the land in 1664 to the English, led by James, Duke of York, the brother of King Charles II and the future King James II.

The English conquest was financed partly by Admiral William Penn, whose son, also named William, subsequently joined the Society of Friends (Quakers), a radical Protestant sect persecuted for espousing equality and pacifism. Dreaming of an ideal commonwealth that would be a refuge for all persecuted peoples, Penn asked Charles II, who had not paid the debt owed to Penn's father, to grant him land west of the Delaware. The Duke of York willingly gave up his claim to that land, and Charles II granted it in 1681 as a proprietary colony to the younger Penn and named it Pennsylvania in honor of Penn's father.

As proprietor of Pennsylvania, Penn was given enormous power to make laws and wars (subject to approval by the king and the freeman of Pennsylvania), levy taxes, coin money, regulate commerce, sell land, appoint officials, administer justice, and construct a government. From the beginning, Penn virtually gave up his lawmaking power and granted suffrage to property holders of 50 acres or £50. Even before coming to Pennsylvania, he forged his first Frame of Government, a document that went into effect on 25 April 1682 but lasted less than a year. Under it, a 72-member council, presided over by a governor, monopolized executive, legislative, and judicial power, although a 200-member assembly could veto or amend the council's legislation. Arriving in the colony in October 1682, Penn approved the location and layout of Philadelphia, met with the Leni-Lenape to acquire land and exchange vows of peace, called for elections to select an assembly, and proposed a Great Law that ranged from prescribing weights and measures to guaranteeing fundamental liberties.

When the First Frame proved unwieldy, Penn on 2 April 1683 approved a Second Frame, which created an 18-member council and a 36-member assembly. A conspicuous friend of the deposed James II, Penn lost control of Pennsylvania from 1692 to 1694, and it was during this period that the legislature began to assert its rights. Penn returned to the colony in 1699, and on 28 October 1701 approved yet another constitution, called the Charter of Privileges. This document lodged legislative power in an annually elected unicameral assembly, executive power in a governor and council, which he now appointed, and judicial power in appointed provincial judges and an elected county judiciary. The Charter of Privileges remained in force until 1776.

As Pennsylvania's government evolved, its population grew steadily. Most of the first immigrants were from the British Isles and Germany. From 1681 to 1710, numerous English and Welsh Quaker migrants populated a 25-mi (40-km) zone surrounding Philadelphia. By 1750, most German immigrants were settled in a semicircular zone some 25-75 mi (40-120 km) from Philadelphia. A third and outermost ring, extending roughly 75 mi (120 km) west and north of the Germans, was populated beginning in 1717 by the Scots-Irish, who were indifferent farmers, but known as aggressive pioneers. By 1776, each of the major groupswhich remained quite distinctconstituted roughly a third of the 300,000 Pennsylvanians. Minorities included about 10,000 Scots, 10,000 Irish Catholics, 8,000 French Huguenots, 8,000 black slaves (despite Quaker hostility to slavery), and 1,000 Jews.

A key issue during the pre-Revolutionary period was the size and extent of the colony. Conflicting colonial charters, reflecting vague English ideas of American geography, brought all of Pennsylvania's boundaries except the Delaware River into dispute. After a protracted struggle, Pennsylvania and Maryland agreed upon a basis for Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon to run the famous line (176367) that divided North and South. Although Virginia and Pennsylvania both claimed the area around Pittsburgh, a joint commission agreed in 1779 to extend the Mason-Dixon line west the full five degrees prescribed in Penn's original charter. Five years earlier, the Penn family had abandoned to New York land north of the 42d parallel. This was confirmed as Pennsylvania's northern border in 1782, when the US Congress rejected Connecticut's claim to the Wyoming Valley area, where skirmishes (called the Yankee-Pennamite wars) had been going on since the 1760s.

Pennsylvania moved rapidly toward independence after the British victory in the French and Indian War. The Proclamation of 1763, preventing settlement west of the Alleghenies, outraged western Pennsylvania, while the Stamp Act (1765), Townshend Acts (1767), and Tea Act (1773) incensed Philadelphians. Although the Continental Congress began meeting in Philadelphia in September 1774, Pennsylvania revolted reluctantly. In July 1776, only three Pennsylvania delegates to the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, while two were opposed and two absented themselves from the vote. Nevertheless, the Declaration of Independence was proclaimed from Independence Hall, Pennsylvania's State House, on 4 July 1776. As the headquarters of the Congress, Philadelphia was an important British target. The American defeat at the Battle of Brandywine Creek on 11 September 1777 led to the British occupation of the city. The provisional capital was moved first to Lancaster and then to York, where the Articles of Confederation were drafted. Following battles at Germantown and Whitemarsh, General George Washington set up winter headquarters at Valley Forge, remaining there from December 1777 to June 1778. Faced with the threat of French naval power intervening on behalf of the Americans, the British evacuated Philadelphia during the spring of 1778, and Congress reconvened there on 2 July. Philadelphia would serve as the US capital until 1783, and again from 1790 to 1800.

With independence, Pennsylvania adopted the state constitution of 1776, which established a powerful unicameral assembly elected annually by all freemen supporting the Revolution, a weak administrative supreme executive council (with a figurehead president), an appointed judiciary, and a council of censors meeting every seven years in order to take a census, reapportion the assembly, and review the constitutionality of state actions. In 1780, Pennsylvania passed the first state law abolishing slavery. Seven years later, Pennsylvania became the second state to ratify the US Constitution and join the Union. In 1790, Pennsylvania adopted a new constitution, modeled on the federal one, allowing all tax-paying males to vote. This document provided for a powerful governor, elected for a three-year term and eligible to succeed himself twice, a bicameral legislature (with senators elected every four years and a house elected annually), and an appointed judiciary.

Opposition to national taxes was evidenced by two disturbances in the 1790s. In 1794, western Pennsylvania settlers, opposed to a federal excise tax on distilled spirits, waged the Whiskey Rebellion. The insurrection was soon quashed by state troops under federal command. The levying of a federal property tax inspired the unsuccessful Fries Rebellion (1799) among Pennsylvania Germans.

By 1800, the first stages of industrialization were at hand. Pittsburgh's first iron furnace was built in 1792, and the increasing use of coal as fuel made its mining commercially feasible. The completion of the Main Line of Public Works, a canal and rail system connecting Philadelphia with Pittsburgh, was a major development of the early 19th century, which was otherwise a period of political turmoil and shifting party alliances.

By 1838, Pennsylvania adopted a new constitution curtailing the governor's power (he could serve only two three-year terms in a nine-year period), making many judgeships elective for specific terms, restricting the charter of banks, and disenfranchising black people. The 1840s saw not only an influx of Irish immigrants but also the rise of the Native American (Know-Nothing) Party, an anti-Catholic movement. The antislavery crusade, which gave birth to the Republican Party, influenced state politics during the following decade.

Although a Pennsylvania Democrat, James Buchanan, carried the state and won the presidency in 1856, the Republicans captured Pennsylvania for Abraham Lincoln in 1860, partly by their strong support for a protective tariff. Protectionism attracted Pennsylvania because, in addition to its enormously productive farms, it was heavily industrialized, leading the nation in the production of iron, lumber, textiles, and leather.

Pennsylvania rallied to the Union cause, supplying some 338,000 men, a figure exceeded only by New York. The state was the scene of the Battle of Gettysburg (1-3 July 1863), a turning point in the war for the Union cause. Under General George Gordon Meade, the Union troops (one-third of whom were Pennsylvanians) defeated Confederate forces under General Robert E. Lee, who was then forced to lead a retreat to Virginia.

The Civil War left the Republican Party dominant in Pennsylvania, but, in the postwar years, the Republicans were themselves dominated by industry, particularly the Pennsylvania Railroad. Between 1890 and 1900, the state was the nation's chief producer of coal, iron, and steel, and for much of that period the main source of petroleum and lumber. Farmers' sons and daughters joined immigrants from abroad in flocking to the anthracite and bituminous coal regions and to Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and other urban centers to work in mines, mills, and factories. As the state's industrial wealth increased, education, journalism, literature, art, and architecture flourished in Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. The 1876 Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia illustrated America's advancement in the arts and industry.

Pennsylvania adopted a reform constitution in 1873, increasing the size of the Senate and house to reduce the threat of bribery, prescribing rules to prevent treachery in legislation and fraud at the polls, equalizing taxation, limiting state indebtedness, restricting the governor to one four-year term in eight years, and creating the office of lieutenant governor. None of this, however, seriously hampered the Republican political machine, led by Simon Cameron, Matthew Quay, and Boies Penrose, which dominated the state from the 1860s to the 1920s. Though Progressive reforms were enacted in subsequent years, the Penrose machine grew ever more efficient, while industrial leaderssupported both by the Pennsylvania state government and by society at largesmashed labor's efforts to unite, particularly in the great steel strike of 1919.

During the nationwide boom years of the 1920s, Pennsylvania did little more than hold its own economically, and its industrial growth rate was low. The state's share of the nation's iron and steel output no longer exceeded that of the rest of the country combined. Coal, textiles, and agricultureall basic to the state's economywere depressed. When Penrose died in 1921, at least five factions sought to control the powerful Pennsylvania Republican Party. In this confusion, Gifford Pinchot, a Progressive disciple of Theodore Roosevelt, won the governorship for 192327 and reorganized the state's administration, but failed in his attempt to enforce prohibition and to regulate power utilities.

The disastrous depression of the 1930s brought major changes to Pennsylvania. Serving again as governor (193135), Pinchot fought for state and federal relief for the unemployed. The Republican organization's lack of enthusiasm for Pinchot and Progressivism helped revive the state Democratic Party long enough to secure the election in 1934for the first time since 1890of its gubernatorial nominee, George H. Earle. As governor, Earle successfully introduced a Little New Deal, supporting labor, regulating utilities, aiding farmers, and building public works. With government support, coal miners, steelworkers, and other organized labor groups emerged from the Depression strong enough to challenge industry. Full employment and prosperity returned to Pennsylvania with the unprecedented demands on it for steel, ships, munitions, and uniforms during World War II.

Despite their professed opposition to government control, the Republican administrations (193955) that succeeded the Earle regime espoused and even enlarged Earle's program. They regulated industry, improved education, and augmented social services, at the same time increasing state bureaucracy, budgets, and taxes. Markets, transportation, banks, factories, machinery, and skilled labor remained abundant. Two Democratic governors were able to attract new industries to the state during the 1950s and early 1960s. However, the economy was still not healthy in 1963, when Republican William W. Scranton entered the statehouse (196367). Scranton continued both to enlarge state responsibilities (through increased taxes) and to secure federal aid for economic and social programs. He was rewarded with four years of steady economic growth. Pennsylvania's unemployment level, second-highest in the nation from 1950 to 1962, had dropped below the national average by 1966. The 1873 constitution was extensively revised at a constitutional convention held in 196768, during the administration of Raymond P. Shafer (196771), Scranton's Republican successor.

Pennsylvania faced an unresolved financial crisis in 1971 when Democrat Milton J. Shapp became governor. During his first term (197175), Shapp weathered the storm by securing passage of a state income tax. He virtually eliminated state patronage by signing union contracts covering state employees. Not only did he continue to attract business to Pennsylvania, but he also championed the consumer with no-fault auto insurance, adopted in 1974. Shapp's second term, however, was wrecked by his pursuit of the 1976 presidential nomination and by rampant corruption among Pennsylvania Democrats. Shapp's successor, Republican Richard L. Thornburgh, had scarcely been seated in the governor's chair before the release of radioactive gases resulting from the malfunction of one of the two nuclear reactors at Three Mile Island in March 1979 confronted himand otherswith vexing questions concerning the safety and wisdom of nuclear power. Nevertheless, in September 1985, during Thornburgh's second term, and following six years of cleanup of radioactive waste, the undamaged reactor at Three Mile Island was restarted.

In the mid-1980s, Pennsylvania found itself confronted with the problem of completing the transition from a manufacturing to a service economy. While some parts of the state, namely southeastern Pennsylvania and Philadelphia, had successfully negotiated the transition, the economies of Pittsburgh, Lehigh Valley, Scranton, and Wilkes-Barre remained centered on the depressed steel and coal industries. Under Governor Robert Casey, who took office in 1987, Pennsylvania created an organization called the Governor's Response Team to assist ailing industries in the state. The team helped companies obtain low-interest loans and subsidized companies that sought to retrain their workers. In the first year of its existence, the team reached out to assist 214 companies, saved 10,000 existing jobs, and created 10,000 new ones.

In the mid-1990s, steel was no longer the mainstay of industry in Pennsylvania, although the state still led the nation in production of specialty steel. Important manufacturing sectors included food processing and chemicals, especially pharmaceuticals. Philadelphia had become a center for high-technology industries, while Pittsburgh was a mecca for corporate headquarters. By 2000 the state's economy was described as "relentlessly strong" by one newspaper, and legislators considered $643.5 million in tax cuts to residents and businesses along with increased spending in education and health care. As in many other regions of the nation, one of the by-products of Pennsylvania's robust economy was urban sprawl. A landmark in the anti-sprawl movement, in June 2000 Republican Governor Tom Ridge signed into law a plan that encouraged local governments to work together, allowed them to determine growth areas, and required state agencies to comply with community development guidelines.

In 1996 Governor Ridge approved the deregulation of the state's electrical utilities. Four years later, a report indicated the move had helped the economy (by lower consumer bills) but would result in lower tax revenues (due to restructuring and lower prices). While computer models forecasted that by 2004 reductions in electric rates under deregulation would lead to $1.9 billion in additional economic output, a $1.4-billion increase in personal income, and 36,000 new jobs, legislators had not yet addressed the projected shortfall in tax revenues, which would affect public transportation and municipalities.

The state remained one of the nation's most populous, ranking fifth both in the 1990 census and 1995 estimates, before slipping to sixth (with over 12.2 million people) in 2000. The July 2004 population was 12.4 million, still ranking sixth in the nation.

Following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, President George Bush proposed the creation of a cabinet-level Department of Homeland Security. Former Governor Tom Ridge was named first secretary of the department.

Democratic Governor Ed Rendell, elected in 2002, was the first former Philadelphia mayor to become Pennsylvania governor in 90 years. Rendell pledged to lower property taxes by one-third during his first year in office, raise income taxes, and to provide prescription drug coverage for senior citizens. He favored the introduction of slot machines at the state's racetracks and increasing school spending. In 2003, Pennsylvania faced a $2.4 billion budget deficit for fiscal year 2003/04.

Pennsylvania's 2005 budget was $22 billion; and the state's budget had been balanced. Governor Rendell was implementing his "Plan for a New Pennsylvania," by increasing education funding; passing an economic stimulus package to revitalize towns and communities; passing legislation to reduce property taxes; and expanding Pennsylvania's PACE and PACENET program to provide seniors with prescription drug coverage.

STATE GOVERNMENT

The 1873 constitution, substantially reshaped by a constitutional convention in 196768, is the foundation of state government in Pennsylvania. Between 1968 and January 2005, 30 amendments had been adopted.

The General Assembly consists of a 50-member Senate, elected to staggered four-year terms, and a 203-member House of Representatives, elected every two years. Regular sessions are two-years and begin on the first Tuesday in January of the odd-numbered year. The session ends on November 30 of the even-numbered year. Each calendar receives its own legislative number. Special sessions may be called by the majority petition of each house. To qualify for the General Assembly, a person must have been a state resident for four years and a district resident for at least one year; senators must be at least 25 years old, representatives at least 21. The legislative salary was $66,203.55 in 2004.

As head of the executive branch and chief executive officer of the state, the governor of Pennsylvania has the power to appoint heads of administrative departments, boards, and commissions, to approve or veto legislation, to grant pardons, and to command the state's military forces. The governor, who may serve no more than two four-year terms in succession, must be a US citizen, a qualified voter, be at least 30 years old, and have been a Pennsylvania resident for at least seven years before election. Elected with the governor is the lieutenant governor, who serves as president of the Senate and chairman of the board of pardons, and assumes the powers of the governor if the governor becomes unable to continue in that office. As of December 2004, the governor's salary was $155,753.

Other state elected officials are the auditor general, who oversees all state financial transactions; the state treasurer, who receives and keeps records of all state funds; and the attorney general, who heads the Department of Justice. All other department heads, or secretaries, are appointed by the governor and confirmed by a majority of the Senate.

A bill may be introduced in either house of the General Assembly. After the measure is passed by majority vote in each house, the governor has 10 days including Sundays (or 30 days, including Sundays, if the legislature has adjourned) in which to sign it, refuse to sign it (in which case it automatically becomes law), or veto it. Vetoes may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of the elected members of each house. A bill becomes effective 60 days after enactment.

A proposed constitutional amendment must be approved by a majority of both house and Senate members in two successive legislatures before it can be placed on the ballot. If approved by a majority of the voters in a general election, the amendment then becomes part of the constitution.

To vote in state elections a person must be a US citizen for at least one month before the next election, at least 18 years old, and a resident of Pennsylvania and of the precinct for at least 30 days preceding the election. Restrictions apply to convicted felons.

POLITICAL PARTIES

The Republican Party totally dominated Pennsylvania politics from 1860, when the first Republican governor was elected, to the early 1930s. During this period, there were 16 Republican and only two Democratic administrations. Most of the Republicans were staunchly probusiness, though one Republican Progressive, Gifford Pinchot, was elected governor in 1922 and again in 1930. A Democrat, George Earle, won the governorship in 1934, in the depths of the Depression, but from 1939 through 1955, Republicans again held the office without interruption. Only since the mid-1950s has Pennsylvania emerged as a two-party state, with Democrats electing governors in 1954, 1958, 1970, 1974, 1986 and 1990, and Republicans winning the governorships in 1962, 1966, 1978, 1982, and 1994. In 1998, Tom Ridge, the Republican first elected to the office in 1994, won a second term as governor. He was named the first secretary of the newly created Department of Homeland Security in November 2002, after having served as the first administrator of the Office of Homeland Security

Pennsylvania Presidential Vote by Political Parties, 19482004
YEAR ELECTORAL VOTE PENN. WINNER DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN PROGRESSIVE SOCIALIST PROHIBITION SOC. LABOR
*Won US presidential election.
1948 35 Dewey (R) 1,752,426 1,902,197 55,161 11,325 10,538 1,461
SOC: WORKERS
1952 32 *Eisenhower (R) 2,146,269 2,415,789 4,222 1,508 8,951 1,377
1956 32 *Eisenhower (R) 1,981,769 2,585,252 2,035 7,447
1960 32 *Kennedy (D) 2,556,282 2,439,956 2,678 7,158
1964 29 *Johnson (D) 3,130,954 1,673,657 10,456 5,092
PEACE/FREEDOM AMERICAN IND.
1968 29 Humphrey (D) 2,259,403 2,090,017 7,821 4,862 378,582 4,977
AMERICAN
1972 27 *Nixon (R) 1,796,951 2,714,521 4,639 70,593
COMMUNIST US LABOR
1976 27 *Carter (D) 2,328,677 2,205,604 1,891 3,009 25,344 2,744
LIBERTARIAN SOC. WORKERS
1980 27 *Reagan (R) 1,937,540 2,261,872 5,184 33,263 20,291
1984 25 *Reagan (R) 2,228,131 2,584,323 21,628 6,982
CONSUMER NEW ALLIANCE POPULIST
1988 25 *Bush (R) 2,194,944 2,300,087 19,158 12,051 4,379 3,444
IND. (Perot)
1992 23 *Clinton (D) 2,239,164 1,791,164 21,477 4,661 902,667
1996 23 *Clinton (D) 2,215,819 1,801,169 28,000 430,984
GREEN REFORM
2000 23 Gore (D) 2,485,967 2,281,127 103,392 11,248 16,023
WRITE-IN (Nader) CONSTITUTION (Peroutka)
2004 21 Kerry (D) 2,938,095 2,793,847 6,319 21,185 2,656 6,318

from September 2001. In 2002, Democrat Ed Rendell was elected governor.

Both US Senate seats were held by Republicans from 1968 to 1991. In November of 1991, a little-known Democrat and former college president named Harris Wofford defeated former governor Richard Thornburgh for the seat of Senator John Heinz, who died in 1991. In 1994, Republican Rick Santorum, a congressman from the Pittsburgh area, defeated Wofford; Santorum was reelected in 2000. Pennsylvania's other senator, Republican Arlen Specter, was elected to his fifth term in 2004. In 2005, Pennsylvania's 19 US House seats were held by 7 Democrats and 12 Republicans. In mid-2005, there were 30 Republicans and 20 Democrats in the state Senate, and 110 Republicans and 93 Democrats in the state House.

Democratic voters were heavily concentrated in metropolitan Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania, a pivotal state for Jimmy Carter in 1976, was swept by the Republican tide in the 1980 presidential election; Ronald Reagan, the Republican nominee, won nearly 50% of the popular vote. In 1984, President Reagan received 53% of the popular vote, while Democrat Walter Mondale received 46%. In 1988, Republican and former vice president George Bush won 51% of the popular vote. Democratic nominee Bill Clinton garnered 45% of the vote in 1992, and in 1996, Clinton won 49% of the vote. In 2000, Democrat Al Gore won 51% of the vote to Republican George W. Bush's 47%; Green Party candidate Ralph Nader won 2% of the vote. In 2004, Democrat John Kerry won 50.8% of vote to incumbent President Bush's 48.6%. In 2004 there were 8,367,000 registered voters. In 1998, 48% of registered voters were Democratic, 42% Republican, and 9% unaffili-ated or members of other parties. The state had 21 electoral votes in the 2004 presidential election, a loss of 2 votes over 2000.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

As of 2005, Pennsylvania had 67 counties, 1,018 municipal governments, 501 public school districts, and 1,885 special districts. In 2002, there were 1,546 townships.

Under home-rule laws, municipalities may choose to draft and amend their own charter. Pennsylvania counties are responsible for state law enforcement, judicial administration, and the conduct of state elections: counties also are involved in public health, regional planning, and solid waste disposal. Counties can also maintain hospitals, homes for the aged, community colleges, libraries, and other community facilities. The chief governing body in each county is a three-member board of commissioners, each elected to a four-year term. Other elected officials generally include the sheriff, district attorney, notary, clerk of courts, register of wills, recorder of deeds, jury commissioners, auditor or controller, and treasurer. Among the appointed officials is a public defender. Counties are divided by law into nine classes, depending on population. Philadelphia's county offices were merged with the city government in 1952, pursuant to the home-rule charter of 1951.

There are four classes of cities. The only first-class city, Philadelphia, is governed by a mayor and city council. Other elected officials are the controller, district attorney, sheriff, register of wills, and three city commissioners. Major appointed officials include managing director, director of finance, city representative, and city solicitor. Both Pittsburgh and Scranton (classified as second-class cities) are governed under mayor-council systems that give the mayors strong discretionary powers.

Boroughs are governed under mayor-council systems giving the council strong powers. Other elected officials are the tax assessor, tax collector, and auditor or controller. The state's first-class townships, located mostly in metropolitan areas, are governed by elected commissioners who serve four-year overlapping terms. Second-class townships, most of them located in rural areas, have three supervisors who are elected at large to six-year terms.

In 2005, local government accounted for about 416,829 full-time (or equivalent) employment positions.

STATE SERVICES

To address the continuing threat of terrorism and to work with the federal Department of Homeland Security, homeland security in Pennsylvania operates under executive order; a homeland security director was appointed to oversee the state's homeland security activities.

Executive agencies under the governor's jurisdiction are the Advisory Commission on African American Affairs, the Advisory Commission on Asian American Affairs, Advisory Commission on Latino Affairs, Commission for Children and Families, Green Government Council, Sportsmen's Advisory Council, Office of Inspector General, Office of Public Liaison, Pennsylvania Rural Development Council, and the Council on the Arts. The State Ethics Commission enforces the Pennsylvania Public Official and Employee Ethics Act. The Liquor Control Board operates state liquor stores and claims to be the world's largest single purchaser of liquors and wines.

The Department of Education administers the school laws of Pennsylvania, oversees community colleges, licenses and regulates private schools, and administers the state public library program. Educational policy is the province of the State Board of Education, a panel with 17 members appointed by the governor to six-year terms. Also within the department are various boards that make policies for and review developments within the state's higher educational system.

The Department of Transportation maintains state-operated highways, mass transit, rail service, and aviation facilities. The Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission also has transport-related responsibilities. Agencies and departments providing health and welfare services include the Department of Aging, Department of Community and Economic Development, and Department of Health. All public assistance, social service, mental health, and developmental disability programs are administered by the Department of Public Welfare.

The Office of Attorney General has divisions on criminal law, legal services, and public protection. The National Guard, Bureau for Veterans' Affairs, and state veterans' homes are under the Department of Military and Veterans Affairs; the Pennsylvania State Police is a separate state agency. The Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency allocates federal funds for crime control, juvenile justice, and delinquency prevention. The Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency (formerly the State Council of Civil Defense) provides assistance in emergency situations resulting from natural or manmade disasters.

All state park and forest preservation programs, ecological and geological resource information programs, and community conservation partnerships are under the supervision of the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources and the Department of Environmental Protection. Land and water environmental protection programs are under the supervision of the Department of Environmental Protection. The Department of Labor and Industry administers safety, employment, and industrial standards; operates vocational rehabilitation and workers' compensation programs; and mediates labor disputes.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

Since 1968, all Pennsylvania courts have been organized under the Unified Judicial System. The highest court in the state is the Supreme Court, which, having been established in 1722, is the oldest appellate court in the United States. The Court consists of 7 justices, elected to 10-year terms. The justice with the longest continuous service on the court automatically becomes chief justice. In general, the Supreme Court hears appeals from the commonwealth court. A separate appellate court, called the Superior Court, hears appeals from the courts of common pleas. There are 15 superior court judges, also elected to 10-year terms, as are the commonwealth and common pleas, which have original jurisdiction over all civil and criminal cases not otherwise specified.

In counties other than Philadelphia, misdemeanors and other minor offenses are tried by district justices, formerly known as justices of the peace. The Philadelphia municipal court consists of 22 judges, all of whom must be lawyers; the six judges who constitute the Philadelphia traffic court need not be lawyers. Pittsburgh's magistrates' court, appointed by the mayor, comprises 5 to 8 judges who need not be lawyers. All of Pennsylvania's judges, except traffic court judges and Pittsburgh's magistrates, are initially elected on a partisan ballot and thereafter on a nonpartisan retention ballot.

As of 31 December 2004, a total of 40,963 prisoners were held in Pennsylvania's state and federal prisons, an increase from 40,890 of 0.2% from the previous year. As of year-end 2004, a total of 1,827 inmates were female, up from 1,823 or 0.2% from the year before. Among sentenced prisoners (one year or more), Pennsylvania had an incarceration rate of 329 per 100,000 population in 2004.

According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Pennsylvania in 2004, had a violent crime rate (murder/nonnegligent manslaughter; forcible rape; robbery; aggravated assault) of 411.1 reported incidents per 100,000 population, or a total of 50,998 reported incidents. Crimes against property (burglary; larceny/theft; and motor vehicle theft) in that same year totaled 299,611 reported incidents or 2,415 reported incidents per 100,000 people. Pennsylvania has a death penalty, of which lethal injection is the sole method of execution. From 1976 through 5 May 2006, the state has carried out three executions, the last of which took place in July 1999. As of 1 January 2006, Pennsylvania had 231 inmates on death row.

In 2003, Pennsylvania spent $218,059,061 on homeland security, an average of $18 per state resident.

ARMED FORCES

In 2004, there were 2,837 active-duty military personnel and 25,076 civilian personnel stationed in Pennsylvania. The US Army War College is in Carlisle, and there are army depots in Chambersburg, New Cumberland, and Scranton. Defense contracts worth more than $6.2 billion were awarded to Pennsylvania firms in 2004, tenth-highest in the United States for that year. In addition, there was another $2.9 billion in payroll outlays by the Department of Defense.

In 2003, there were 1,145,919 veterans living in the state, of whom 221,316 served in World War II; 149,673 in the Korean conflict; 335,124 during the Vietnam era; and 124,852 in the Gulf War. In 2004, the Veterans Administration expended more than $2.4 billion in pensions, medical assistance, and other major veterans' benefits.

As of 31 October 2004, the Pennsylvania State Police employed 4,227 full-time sworn officers.

MIGRATION

When William Penn's followers arrived in Pennsylvania, they joined small groups of Dutch, Swedish, and Finnish immigrants who were already settled along the Delaware River. By 1685, 50% of Pennsylvania's European population was British. In 1683, the Frankfort Land Co. founded the Mennonite community of Germantown on 6,000 acres (2,400 hectares) east of the Schuylkill River. One hundred years later there were 120,000 Germans, about one-fourth of the state's census population; the Moravians, from Saxony, settled primarily in Bethlehem and Nazareth, and the Amish in Lancaster and Reading.

During the 19th century, more immigrants settled in Pennsylvania than in any other state except New York. Between 1840 and 1890, the anthracite mines in east-central Pennsylvania attracted the Irish, Welsh, and Slavs; Scots-Irish, Italian, Austrian, Hungarian, and Polish (and, after 1880, Russian) immigrants worked the western coal fields. The cities attracted Italian, French, and Slavic workers. East European and Russian Jews settled in Philadelphia and Pittsburgh between 1882 and 1900. By the turn of the century, the urban population surpassed the rural population.

During the 20th century, these patterns have been reversed. The trend among whites, particularly since World War II, has been to move outfrom the cities to the suburbs, and from Pennsylvania to other states. Blacks, who began entering the state first as slaves and then as freemen, continued to migrate to the larger cities until the early 1970s, when a small out-migration began. Overall, between 1940 and 1980, Pennsylvania lost a net total of l,759,000 residents through migration; it lost an additional 98,000 residents between 1980 and 1983. From 1985 to 1990, Pennsylvania had a net migration gain of nearly 21,000. Between 1990 and 1998, the state had a net loss of 219,000 in domestic migration but a net gain of 104,000 in international migration. In 1996, about 3% of Pennsylvania's population (421,000) was foreign-born. In 1998, 11,942 foreign immigrants arrived in the state; of these, the greatest number, 1,127, came from India. Pennsylvania's overall population increased only 1% between 1990 and 1998. In the period 200005, net international migration was 102,470 and net internal migration was 28,012, for a net gain of 74,458 people.

INTERGOVERNMENTAL COOPERATION

Pennsylvania participates in such regional bodies as the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, Susquehanna River Basin Commission, Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission, Wheeling Creek Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Commission, and Great Lakes Commission. In 1985, Pennsylvania, seven other Great Lakes states, and the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario signed the Great Lakes Compact to protect the lakes' water reserves. Other agreements include the Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, Interstate Mining Compact Commission, Ohio River Basin Commission, Appalachian Regional Commission, Brandywine River Valley Compact, New Jersey-Pennsylvania Turnpike Bridge Compact, Potomac Valley Conservancy District, Pymatuning Lake Compact, and the Tri-State Agreement on the Chesapeake Bay.

Some of the most important interstate agreements concern commerce and development along the Delaware River. The Delaware River Basin Commission involves the governors of Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania in the utilization and conservation of the Delaware and its surrounding areas. Through the Delaware River Port Authority, New Jersey and Pennsylvania control an interstate mass transit system. The two states also are signatories to the Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Compact and Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission. During fiscal year 2005, Pennsylvania received $15.561 billion in federal grants (fifth among the 50 states). Federal grants were estimated at $16.324 billion in fiscal year 2006, and an estimated $16.846 billion in fiscal year 2007.

ECONOMY

Dominated by coal and steel, Pennsylvania is an important contributor to the national economy, but its role has diminished considerably since the early 20th Century. The state reached the height of its economic development by 1920, when its western oil wells and coal fields made it the nation's leading energy producer. By that time, however, Pennsylvania's oil production was already on the decline, and demand for coal had slackened. No longer did the state dominate US steel production. Pennsylvania produced 60% of the United States total in 1900, but only 30% in 1940 and 24% in 1960. Philadelphia, a diversified manufacturing center, began to lose many of its textile and apparel factories. The Great Depression of the 1930s hastened the decline. Industrial production in 1932 was less than half the 1929 level, and mineral production, already in a slump throughout the 1920s, dropped more than 50% in value between 1929 and 1933. By 1933, some 37% of the state's workforce was unemployed.

Massive federal aid programs and the production of munitions stimulated employment during the 1940s, but some sections of the state have never fully recovered from the damage of the Depression years. Declines in coal and steel production and the loss of other industries to the Sunbelt have not yet been entirely countered by gains in other sectors, despite a steady expansion of machinery production, increased tourism, and the growth of service-related industries and trade. Manufacturing, the second-largest employer in Pennsylvaniaproviding one million jobs in the 1990slost about 350,000 jobs during the 1980s. The outlook for the steel industry remains uncertain, as Pennsylvania's aging factories face severe competition from foreign producers. Services, in contrast, recorded about as much growth as manufacturing lost. The fastest growing service industries were concentrated in the medical and health fields. Coming into the 21st century, the annual growth rate for Pennsylvania's economy averaged 4.75% (1998 to 2000), which was then more than halved to 2.2% in the national recession of 2001. Manufacturing output, which grew 5.2% from 1997 to 2000 (although decreasing as a share of total output from 20.1% to 18.4%), fell 7.2% in 2001 (decreasing its share to 16.7%). The strongest growth in output was in various service sectors, with output from general services up 28% from 1997 to 2001; from financial services, up 22.1%, and from trade, up 19.5%.

In 2004, Pennsylvania's gross state product (GSP) was $468.089 billion, of which manufacturing (durable and nondurable goods) accounted for the largest share at $75.281 billion or 16% of GSP, followed by the real estate sector at $55.986 billion (11.9% of GSP), and healthcare and social assistance services at $42.035 billion (8.9% of GSP). In that same year, there were an estimated 927,369 small businesses in Pennsylvania. Of the 275,853 businesses that had employees, an estimated total of 271,410 or 98.4% were small companies. An estimated 33,188 new businesses were established in the state in 2004, up 6.3% from the year before. Business terminations that same year came to 34,507, up 4.8% from 2003. There were 1,138 business bankruptcies in 2004, down 4.6% from the previous year. In 2005, the state's personal bankruptcy (Chapter 7 and Chapter 13) filing rate was 472 filings per 100,000 people, ranking Pennsylvania as the 31st highest in the nation.

INCOME

In 2005 Pennsylvania had a gross state product (GSP) of $487 billion which accounted for 3.9% of the nation's gross domestic product and placed the state at number 6 in highest GSP among the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, in 2004 Pennsylvania had a per capita personal income (PCPI) of $33,312. This ranked 19th in the United States and was 101% of the national average of $33,050. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of PCPI was 4.0%. Pennsylvania had a total personal income (TPI) of $412,890,270,000, which ranked sixth in the United States and reflected an increase of 5.1% from 2003. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of TPI was 4.2%. Earnings of persons employed in Pennsylvania increased from $291,978,764,000 in 2003 to $308,068,372,000 in 2004, an increase of 5.5%. The 200304 national change was 6.3%.

The US Census Bureau reports that the three-year average median household income for 2002 to 2004 in 2004 dollars was $44,286 compared to a national average of $44,473. During the same period an estimated 10.4% of the population was below the poverty line as compared to 12.4% nationwide.

LABOR

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), in April 2006 the seasonally adjusted civilian labor force in Pennsylvania 6,318,700, with approximately 299,400 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 4.7%, compared to the national average of 4.7% for the same period. Preliminary data for the same period placed nonfarm employment at 5,747,200. Since the beginning of the BLS data series in 1976, the highest unemployment rate recorded in Pennsylvania was 12.9% in March 1983. The historical low was 4% in March 2000. Preliminary nonfarm employment data by occupation for April 2006 showed that approximately 4.4% of the labor force was employed in construction; 11.6% in manufacturing; 19.7% in trade, transportation, and public utilities; 5.8% in financial activities; 11.6% in professional and business services; 18.3% in education and health services; 8.5% in leisure and hospitality services; and 13% in government.

The history of unionism in Pennsylvania dates back to 1724 when Philadelphia workers organized the Carpenters' Company, the first crafts association in the colonies. Its Carpenters' Hall gained fame as the site of the First Continental Congress in 1774; the carpenters were also responsible for the first strike in the United States in 1791. The nation's first labor union was organized by Philadelphia shoemakers in 1794. By 1827, the Mechanics' Union of Trade Associations, the country's first central labor body, was striking for a 10-hour workday and was the impetus behind the formation of the Organized Workingman's Party. Nine years later there were no fewer than 58 labor organizations in Philadelphia and 13 in Pittsburgh, but the Panic of 1837 resulted in a sharp decline of union strength and membership for many years. Union ranks were further depleted by the Civil War, despite the efforts of Pennsylvania labor leader William Sylvis, who later became an important figure in the national labor reform movement. After the Civil War ended, the Noble Order of the Knights of Labor was established in Philadelphia in 1869.

The coal fields were sites of violent organizing struggles. In 1835, low wages and long hours sparked the first general mine strikes, which, like a walkout by anthracite miners in 1849, proved unsuccessful. During the 1850s and 1870s, a secret society known as the Molly Maguires led uprisings in the anthracite fields, but its influence ended after the conviction of its leaders for terrorist activities. The demise of the Molly Maguires did not stop the violence, however. Eleven persons were killed during a mine strike at Connellsville in 1891, and a strike by Luzerne County miners in 1897 resulted in 20 deaths. Finally, a five-month walkout by anthracite miners in 1902 led to increased pay, reduced hours, and an agreement to employ arbitration to settle disputes.

Steelworkers, burdened for many years by 12-hour workdays and 7-day workweeks, called several major strikes during this period. An 1892 lockout at Andrew Carnegie's Homestead steel mill led to a clash between workers and Pinkerton guards hired by the company. After several months, the strikers went back to work, their resources exhausted. A major strike in 1919, involving half of the nation's steelworkers, shut down the industry for more than three months, but it too produced no immediate gains. The Steel Workers Organizing Committee, later the United Steelworkers, finally won a contract and improved benefits from US Steel in 1937, although other steel companies held out until the early 1940s, when the Supreme Court forced recognition of the union.

The US Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that in 2005, a total of 753,000 of Pennsylvania's 5,456,000 employed wage and salary workers were formal members of a union. This represented 13.8% of those so employed, down from 15% in 2004, but still above the national average of 12%. Overall in 2005, a total of 818,000 workers (15%) in Pennsylvania were covered by a union or employee association contract, which includes those workers who reported no union affiliation. Pennsylvania is one of 28 states that do not have a right-to-work law.

As of 1 March 2006, Pennsylvania had a state-mandated minimum wage rate of $5.15 per hour. In 2004, women in the state accounted for 47.5% of the employed civilian labor force.

AGRICULTURE

Pennsylvania ranked 20th among the 50 states in agricultural income in 2005, with receipts of $4.7 billion.

During the colonial period, German immigrants farmed the fertile land in southeastern Pennsylvania, making the state a leader in agricultural production. Unlike farmers in other states, who worked the soil until it was depleted and then moved on, these farmers carefully cultivated the same plots year after year, using crop rotation techniques that kept the land productive. As late as 1840, the state led the nation in wheat production, thanks in part to planting techniques developed and largely confined to southeastern Pennsylvania. However, westward expansion and the subsequent fall in agricultural prices hurt farming in the state, and many left the land for industrial jobs in the cities. Today, most farms in the state produce crops and dairy items for Philadelphia and other major eastern markets.

As of 2004 there were about 58,200 farms averaging 132 acres (54 hectares) in size. The leading farm areas were all in southeastern Pennsylvania. Lancaster County is by far the most productive, followed by the counties of Chester, Berks, Franklin, and Lebanon. These five counties account for over 40% of state agricultural sales.

Field crops in 2004 included: hay, 4,296,000 tons (valued at $380 million); corn for grain, 137.2 million bushels (valued at $274.4 million); soybeans, 10.5 million bushels (valued at $97.5 million); wheat, 6.6 million bushels (valued at $21.8 million); oats, 6.1 million bushels (valued at $10.3 million); and barley, 3.4 million (valued at $7.7 million).

Pennsylvania is a major producer of mushrooms and greenhouse and nursery crops. Other crops are fresh vegetables, potatoes, strawberries, apples, pears, peaches, grapes, and cherries (sweet and tart). The value of fresh market vegetables exceeded $70.4 million in 2004; the value of vegetables for processing, $10.9 million.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

Most of Pennsylvania's farm income stems from livestock production, primarily in Lancaster County.

In 2005, there were an estimated 1.63 million cattle and calves, valued at $1.8 billion. During 2004, there were around 1.1 million hogs and pigs, worth $106.9 million. In 2003 the state produced 7 million lb (3.2 million kg) of sheep and lambs, which brought in $7.5 million in gross income.

Pennsylvania is a leading producer of chickens in the United States, selling 44.2 million lb (20 million kg) in 2003. An estimated 10.4 billion lb (4.7 billion kg) of milk (fourth among the 50 states) was produced from 575,000 milk cows in the same year.

FISHING

There is very little commercial fishing in Pennsylvania. In 2004, the commercial catch was only 14,000 lb (640 kg), worth $38,000. In 2003, there were 5 processing and 34 wholesale plants in the state with about 976 employees.

The state's many lakes and streams make it a popular area for sport fishing. All recreational fishing in the state is supervised by the Fish Commission, established in 1866 and one of the oldest conservation agencies in the United States. Walleye, trout, and salmon were the leading species. There are two national fish hatcheries in the state. In 2004, Pennsylvania issued 1,018,756 sport fishing licenses.

FORESTRY

Pennsylvania's richly diverse forests dominate the landscape, covering 58% (16,585,000 acres/6,712,000 hectares) of the total land area. For the northeastern United States, public ownership is high at 26% (4,403,000 acres/1,782,000 hectares), mostly owned by the commonwealth. The 1989 Forest Inventory identified 90 different tree species; most of the 2,076 species of native vascular plants are forest related. Eagles and ospreys are making a comeback, there is a resident elk herd (the largest east of the Mississippi), coyotes have moved in, and river otters and fishers have been re-introduced. Some species of forest birds which are experiencing declines regionally have increasing populations in Pennsylvania's forests.

The forest products industry and forest-based recreation are very important to Pennsylvania's economy. Ten commercial tree species dominate the average annual net growth, producing 74% of the wood grown each year. In 2004, the total lumber production was 1,143 million board feet, or 2.3% of the US total.

Camping, fishing, hiking, and hunting are traditional Pennsylvania pastimes and the clean streams, vistas, and flora and fauna of the forest provide a focal point for these activities.

MINING

According to preliminary data from the US Geological Survey (USGS), the estimated value of nonfuel mineral production by Pennsylvania in 2003 was $1.26 billion, a decrease from 2002 of about 2%. The USGS data ranked Pennsylvania as 10th among the 50 states by the total value of its nonfuel mineral production, accounting for over 3% of total US output.

According to the preliminary data for 2003, by descending order of value, crushed stone, cement (portland and masonry), and construction sand and gravel were the state's top nonfuel minerals by value. Collectively, these commodities accounted for almost 92% of all nonfuel mineral output, by value. By volume, Pennsylvania in 2003 was third in portland cement, fourth (out of four states) in the production of tripoli, and sixth in the production of masonry cement and lime.

Preliminary figures for 2003 showed that crushed stone production totaled 96 million metric tons, which had a value of $547 million, while portland cement output that year totaled 6.13 million metric tons and was valued at an estimated $457 million. Construction sand and gravel production in 2003 totaled 18 million metric tons and was worth $115 million. Lime output that same year stood at 1.25 million metric tons and was worth $91.3 million.

Although no metals were mined in Pennsylvania, the state was the nation's fifth leading producer of raw steel, processing 5.53 million metric tons of raw steel in 2003.

ENERGY AND POWER

As of 2003, Pennsylvania had 85 electrical power service providers, of which 35 were publicly owned and 13 were cooperatives. Of the remainder, 11 were investor owned, 17 were generation-only suppliers and nine were delivery-only providers. As of that same year there were 5,747,853 retail customers. Of that total, 5,161,605 received their power from investor-owned service providers. Cooperatives accounted for 207,495 customers, while publicly owned providers had 83,030 customers. Generation-only suppliers had 295,723 customers. There was no customer data on the number of delivery-only customers.

Total net summer generating capability by the state's electrical generating plants in 2003 stood at 42.368 million kW, with total production that same year at 206.349 billion kWh. Of the total amount generated, 14.6% came from electric utilities, with the remaining 85.4% coming from independent producers and combined heat and power service providers. The largest portion of all electric power generated, 116.009 billion kWh (56.2%), came from coal-fired plants, with nuclear power generation in second place at 74.360 billion kWh (36%). Other renewable power sources, pumped storage facilities, hydroelectric, petroleum, natural gas, and other types of gas fueled plants accounted for the remaining production.

Operating nuclear plants in Pennsylvania as of 2006 were: Peach Bottom in York County; Beaver Valley at Shippingsport, Susquehanna in Luzerne County; Limerick, near Philadelphia; and Unit 1 of the Three Mile Island plant near Harrisburg.

The nation's first oil well was struck in Titusville in 1859, and for the next five decades Pennsylvania led the nation in oil production. As of 2004, Pennsylvania had proven crude oil reserves of 12 million barrels, less than 1% of all proven US reserves, while output that same year averaged 7,000 barrels per day. Including federal offshore domains, the state that year ranked 24th (23rd excluding federal offshore) in proven reserves and 22nd (21st excluding federal offshore) in production among the 31 producing states. In 2004 Pennsylvania had 16,242 producing oil wells, accounting for under 1% of all US production. As of 2005, the state's five refineries had a combined crude oil distillation capacity of 770,000 barrels per day.

In 2004, Pennsylvania had 44,227 producing natural gas and gas condensate wells. In that same year, marketed gas production (all gas produced excluding gas used for repressuring, vented and flared, and nonhydrocarbon gases removed) totaled 159.827 billion cu ft (4.5 billion cu m). As of 31 December 2004, proven reserves of dry or consumer-grade natural gas totaled 2,386 billion cu ft (67.76 billion cu m).

Virtually all the state's commercial oil and gas reserves lie beneath the Allegheny High Plateau, in western Pennsylvania.

Coal is the state's most valuable mineral commodity, accounting for more than two-thirds of all mine income. In 2004, Pennsylvania had 260 producing coal mines, 202 of which were surface operations and 58 were underground. Coal production that year totaled 65,996,000 short tons, up from 63,708,000 short tons in 2003. Of the total produced in 2004, underground mines accounted for most of the production at 53,224,000 short tons.

Pennsylvania is the only state to produce both anthracite (hard) and bituminous (soft or brown) coal. The state has a total of 66 anthracite mines (46 surface and 20 underground) and 194 bituminous (156 surface and 38 underground) mines. In 2004, anthracite production totaled 1,679,000 short tons, with bituminous output at 64,317,000 short tons.

Total recoverable coal reserves in 2004 totaled 614 million short tons. Of that total, recoverable anthracite reserves that year totaled 22 million short tons, while recoverable bituminous reserves were placed at 592 million short tons. Bituminous coal is mined in Washington, Clearfield, Greene, Cambria, Armstrong, Somerset, Clarion, Allegheny, and 19 other counties in the western part of the state. A anthracite mining is concentrated in Schuylkill, Luzerne, Lackawanna, Northumberland, Carbon, Columbia, Sullivan, and Dauphin counties in the east. One short ton equals 2,000 lb (0.907 metric tons).

INDUSTRY

At different times throughout its history, Pennsylvania has been the nation's principal producer of ships, iron, chemicals, lumber, oil, textiles, glass, coal, and steel. Although it is still a major manufacturing center, Pennsylvania's industrial leadership has diminished steadily during the 20th century.

The first major industry in colonial Pennsylvania was shipbuilding, centered in Philadelphia. Iron works, brick kilns, candle factories, and other small crafts industries also grew up around the city. By 1850, Philadelphia alone accounted for nearly half of Pennsylvania's manufacturing output, with an array of products including flour, preserved meats, sugar, textiles, shoes, furniture, iron, locomotives, pharmaceuticals, and books. The exploitation of the state's coal and oil resources and the discovery of new steel-making processes helped build Pittsburgh into a major industrial center.

According to the US Census Bureau's Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM) for 2004, Pennsylvania's manufacturing sector covered some 21 product subsectors. The shipment value of all products manufactured in the state that same year was $190.370 billion. Of that total, chemical manufacturing accounted for the largest share at $29.876 billion. It was followed by food manufacturing at $23.707 billion; primary metal manufacturing at $17.760 billion; petroleum and coal product manufacturing at $17.471 billion; and fabricated metal product manufacturing at $15.090 billion.

In 2004, a total of 645,796 people in Pennsylvania were employed in the state's manufacturing sector, according to the ASM. Of that total, 457,003 were actual production workers. In terms of total employment, the fabricated metal product manufacturing industry accounted for the largest portion of all manufacturing employees with 85,795 (62,587 actual production workers). It was followed by food manufacturing, with 71,228 (51,734 actual production workers); machinery manufacturing, with 51,643 (32,815 actual production workers); plastics and rubber products manufacturing, with 44,095 (34,117 actual production workers); printing and related support activities, with 42,733 (31,705 actual production workers); and transportation equipment manufacturing, with 37,763 (27,124 actual production workers).

ASM data for 2004 showed that Pennsylvania's manufacturing sector paid $26.816 billion in wages. Of that amount, the fabricated metal product manufacturing sector accounted for the largest share at $3.402 billion. It was followed by food manufacturing at $2.468 billion; machinery manufacturing at $2.372 billion; primary metal manufacturing at $2.140 billion; and chemical manufacturing at $2.063 billion.

COMMERCE

A major component in Philadelphia's early economy, trade remains important to the state.

According to the 2002 Census of Wholesale Trade, Pennsylvania's wholesale trade sector had sales that year totaling $183.7 billion from 15,991 establishments. Wholesalers of durable goods accounted for 9,887 establishments, followed by nondurable goods wholesalers at 4,777 and electronic markets, agents, and brokers accounting for 1,327 establishments. Sales by durable goods wholesalers in 2002 totaled $77.5 billion, while wholesalers of nondurable goods saw sales of $83.2 billion. Electronic markets, agents, and brokers in the wholesale trade industry had sales of $22.9 billion.

In the 2002 Census of Retail Trade, Pennsylvania was listed as having 48,041 retail establishments with sales of $130.7 billion. The leading types of retail businesses by number of establishments were: food and beverage stores (6,949); clothing and clothing accessories stores (6,276); motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers (5,465); miscellaneous store retailers (5,449); and gasoline stations (4,476). In terms of sales, motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts stores accounted for the largest share of retail sales at $33.1 billion, followed by food and beverage stores at $21.3 billion; general merchandise stores at $16.8 billion; nonstore retailers at $11.6 billion; gasoline stations at $9.6 billion; and building material/garden equipment and supplies dealers at $9.2 billion. A total of 661,993 people were employed by the retail sector in Pennsylvania that year.

During the colonial era, Philadelphia was one of the busiest Atlantic ports and the leading port for the lucrative Caribbean trade. Philadelphia remains one of the country's leading foreign trade centers. In 2005, total exports of Pennsylvania goods had a value of $22.2 billion (ninth in the United States).

CONSUMER PROTECTION

Consumer protection affairs in Pennsylvania are the responsibility of the Bureau of Consumer Protection, which is under the Office of Attorney General. The bureau investigates and mediates complaints, acts in an advisory position to the legislature on issues that would affect consumers, investigates claims of fraud and deception, and acts to promote consumer education. Also within the Office of Attorney General is the Charitable Trusts and Organizations section and the Office of Consumer Advocate, which is responsible for representing the state's consumers in matters that involve utility services. Pennsylvanians are encouraged to report instances of fraud, waste, or mismanagement of state funds through a toll-free telephone service run by the Auditor General. Additionally, the Department of Insurance and the Department of Banking protect state residents against insurance fraud and banking fraud, respectively.

When dealing with consumer protection issues, the state's Attorney General's Office can initiate civil and criminal proceedings; administer consumer protection and education programs; handle formal consumer complaints; and exercise broad subpoena powers. However, the Attorney General cannot represent the state before regulatory agencies. In antitrust actions, the Attorney General's Office can act on behalf of those consumers who are incapable of acting on their own; initiate damage actions on behalf of the state in state courts; initiate criminal proceedings; and represent counties, cities and other governmental entities in recovering civil damages under state or federal law.

The offices of the Bureau of Consumer Protection and of the Office of Consumer Advocate are located in Harrisburg. The Office of the Attorney General has regional offices in Allentown, Ebensburg, Erie, Harrisburg, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh and Scranton. County government consumer protection offices are located in Doylestown, Media, Norristown and West Chester.

BANKING

Philadelphia is the nation's oldest banking center, and Third Street, between Chestnut and Walnut, has been called the cradle of American finance. The first chartered commercial bank in the United States was the Bank of North America, granted its charter in Philadelphia by the federal government in December 1781 and by Pennsylvania in April 1782. The First Bank of the United States was headquartered in Philadelphia from its inception in 1791 to 1811, when its charter was allowed to expire. Its building was bought by Stephen Girard, a private banker whose new institution quickly became one of the nation's largest banks. Girard's bank was closed after he died in 1831, but a new Girard Bank was opened in 1832; it merged with Philadelphia National Bank in 1926.

By the early 1800s, Philadelphia had reached its zenith as the nation's financial center. It was the home of the Bank of Pennsylvania, founded in 1793; the Bank of Philadelphia (1804); the Farmers and Mechanics Bank (1809); the Philadelphia Savings Fund Society (1816), the first mutual savings bank; and, most powerful of all, the Second Bank of the United States (1816). After 1823, under the directorship of Nicholas Biddle, this bank became an international leader and the only rival to New York City's growing banking industry. When President Jackson vetoed the bank's recharter in 1831, Philadelphia lost its preeminence as a banking center.

Pittsburgh's rise to prominence during the late 1800s, was due in great part to the efforts of its most successful financier, Andrew Mellon. In March 1982, the state legalized multibank holding companies; subsequently, the Mellon Bank acquired Centre County Bank of State College, Girard Bank, and Northwest Bank. Other major institutions are: Pittsburgh National Bank, part of PNC Financial, and Philadelphia National Bank. First Pennsylvania, in financial difficulty for several years, was saved from possible failure early in 1980 through a loan package engineered by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

As of June 2005, Pennsylvania had 254 insured banks, savings and loans, and saving banks, plus 73 state-chartered and 579 federally chartered credit unions (CUs). Excluding the CUs, the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington market area accounted for the largest portion of the state's financial institutions and deposits in 2004, with 156 institutions and $221.259 billion in deposits. As of June 2005, CUs accounted for 6.2% of all assets held by all financial institutions in the state, or some $23.100 billion. Banks, savings and loans, and savings banks collectively accounted for the remaining 93.8% or $348.550 billion in assets held.

The median net interest margin (the difference between the lower rates offered to savers and the higher rates charged on loans) for the state's banks stood at 3.31% as of fourth quarter 2005, down from 3.37% in 2004 and 3.38% in 2003. Pennsylvania's banks' media past-due/nonaccrual loan to total loan ratios in fourth quarter 2005 stood at 1.26%, down from 1.36% in 2004 and 1.51% in 2003.

Regulation of Pennsylvania's state-charter banks and other state-chartered financial institutions is the responsibility of the state's Department of Banking.

INSURANCE

In 2004, there were over 8.5 million individual life insurance policies in force, with a total value of about $551 billion; total value for all categories of life insurance (individual, group, and credit) was over $909.5 billion. The average coverage amount is $64,100 per policy holder. Death benefits paid that year totaled $2.67 billion.

There were 37 life and health and 200 property and casualty insurance companies domiciled in Pennsylvania in 2003. In 2004, direct premiums for property and casualty insurance totaled over $19.2 billion. That year, there were 60,779 flood insurance policies in force in the state, with a total value of $8 billion. About $2.2 billion of coverage was held through FAIR plans, which are designed to offer coverage for some natural circumstances, such as wind and hail, in high risk areas.

In 2004, 58% of state residents held employment-based health insurance policies, 5% held individual policies, and 25% were covered under Medicare and Medicaid; 12% of residents were uninsured. In 2003, employee contributions for employment-based health coverage averaged at 15% for single coverage and 23% for family coverage. The state does not offer a health benefits expansion program in connection with the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA, 1986), a health insurance program for those who lose employment-based coverage due to termination or reduction of work hours.

In 2003, there were over 8.3 million auto insurance policies in effect for private passenger cars. Required minimum coverage includes bodily injury liability of up to $15,000 per individual and $30,000 for all persons injured in an accident, as well as property damage liability of $5,000. Coverage for first party medical expenses is also required. In 2003, the average expenditure per vehicle for insurance coverage was $810.25.

SECURITIES

Formally established in 1790, the Philadelphia Stock Exchange (PHLX) is the oldest stock exchange in the United States. It was also the nation's most important exchange until the 1820s, when the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) eclipsed it. Since World War II, the Philadelphia exchange has merged with stock exchanges in Baltimore (1949), Washington, DC (1953), and Pittsburgh (1969). As the primary odd-lot market for Government National Mortgage Association securities and as a leading market for odd-lot government securities and stock options, PHLX ranks after only the NYSE and American exchanges (AMEX) in trading volume. PHLX was the first exchange in the United States to trade foreign currency options (1982) and the National Over-the-Counter Index (1985). Over 2,600 stocks and over 800 options are traded on the exchange.

Sales of securities are regulated by the Pennsylvania Securities Commission, which also licenses all securities dealers, agents, and investment advisers in the state.

In 2005, there were 5,490 personal financial advisers employed in the state and 7,680 securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents. In 2004, there were over 415 publicly traded companies within the state, with over 168 NASDAQ companies, 97 NYSE listings, and 26 AMEX listings. In 2006, the state had 26 Fortune 500 companies; AmerisouceBergen ranked first in the state and 27th in the nation with revenues of over $54.5 billion, followed by Sunoco, Comcast, Rite Aid, and Cigna. Comcast is listed on NASDAQ; the other top four are listed on the NYSE.

PUBLIC FINANCE

Pennsylvania's budget is prepared annually by the Office of Budget and submitted by the governor to the General Assembly for amendment and approval. By law, annual operating expenditures may not exceed available revenues and surpluses from prior years. The fiscal year (FY) runs from 1 July to 30 June.

Fiscal year 2006 general funds were estimated at $24.7 billion for resources and $24.5 billion for expenditures. In fiscal year 2004, federal government grants to Pennsylvania were $19.9 billion.

On 5 January 2006 the federal government released $100 million in emergency contingency funds targeted to the areas with the greatest need, including $7.7 million for Pennsylvania.

TAXATION

In 2005, Pennsylvania collected $27,263 million in tax revenues or $2,193 per capita, which placed it 22nd among the 50 states in per capita tax burden. The national average was $2,192 per capita. Property taxes accounted for 0.2% of the total; sales taxes, 29.6%; selective sales taxes, 18.9%; individual income taxes, 30.4%; corporate income taxes, 6.2%; and other taxes, 14.7%.

As of 1 January 2006, Pennsylvania had one individual income tax bracket of 3.07%. The state taxes corporations at a flat rate of 9.99%.

In 2004, state and local property taxes amounted to $12,518,226,000 or $1,010 per capita. The per capita amount

PennsylvaniaState Government Finances
(Dollar amounts in thousands. Per capita amounts in dollars.)
AMOUNT PER CAPITA
Abbreviations and symbols:zero or rounds to zero; (NA) not available; (X) not applicable.
source: U.S. Census Bureau, Governments Division, 2004 Survey of State Government Finances, January 2006.
Total Revenue 69,212,674 5,584.37
  General revenue 50,028,732 4,036.53
    Intergovernmental revenue 15,298,110 1,234.32
    Taxes 25,346,879 2,045.09
      General sales 7,773,133 627.17
      Selective sales 4,756,518 383.78
      License taxes 2,547,850 205.57
      Individual income tax 7,323,364 590.88
      Corporate income tax 1,677,998 135.39
      Other taxes 1,268,016 102.31
    Current charges 5,706,808 460.45
    Miscellaneous general revenue 3,676,935 296.67
  Utility revenue - -
  Liquor store revenue 1,109,204 89.50
  Insurance trust revenue 18,074,738 1,458.35
Total expenditure 57,353,773 4,627.54
  Intergovernmental expenditure 12,156,969 980.88
  Direct expenditure 45,196,804 3,646.67
    Current operation 31,408,588 2,534.18
    Capital outlay 3,361,917 271.25
    Insurance benefits and repayments 8,044,411 649.06
    Assistance and subsidies 1,258,487 101.54
    Interest on debt 1,123,401 90.64
Exhibit: Salaries and wages 7,457,562 601.71
Total expenditure 57,353,773 4,627.54
  General expenditure 48,242,901 3,892.44
    Intergovernmental expenditure 12,156,969 980.88
    Direct expenditure 36,085,932 2,911.56
  General expenditures, by function:
    Education 15,391,363 1,241.84
    Public Welfare 16,772,449 1,353.27
    Hospitals 2,201,565 177.63
    Health 1,471,027 118.69
    Highways 4,026,416 324.87
    Police protection 604,141 48.74
    Correction 1,488,414 120.09
    Natural resources 631,347 50.94
    Parks and recreation 168,300 13.58
    Government administration 2,068,165 166.87
    Interest on general debt 1,123,401 90.64
    Other and unallocable 2,296,313 185.28
  Utility expenditure 48,285 3.90
  Liquor store expenditure 1,018,176 82.15
  Insurance trust expenditure 8,044,411 649.06
Debt at end of fiscal year 25,995,752 2,097.45
Cash and security holdings 104,532,372 8,434.11

ranks the state 24th nationally. Local governments collected $12,449,837,000 of the total and the state government $68,389,000.

Pennsylvania taxes retail sales at a rate of 6%. In addition to the state tax, local taxes on retail sales can reach as much as 1%, making for a potential total tax on retail sales of 7%. Food purchased for consumption off-premises is tax exempt. The tax on cigarettes is 135 cents per pack, which ranks 12th among the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Pennsylvania taxes gasoline at 31.2 cents per gallon. This is in addition to the 18.4 cents per gallon federal tax on gasoline.

According to the Tax Foundation, for every federal tax dollar sent to Washington in 2004, Pennsylvania citizens received $1.06 in federal spending.

ECONOMIC POLICY

The Center for Entrepreneurial Assistance directs and controls the Department of Community and Economic Development's economic assistance activities. Other agencies include the Pennsylvania Industrial Development Authority and the Pennsylvania Capital Loan Fund. Pennsylvania also encourages industrial development, domestic and foreign investment to the state, and export assistance to Pennsylvania companies.

The Pennsylvania Industrial Development Authority Board and the Pennsylvania Minority Business Development Authority provide loans to businesses that want to build new facilities or renovate and expand older ones. The Office of Minority Business Enterprise seeks to strengthen minority businesses by helping them obtain contracts with the state. The Small Business Development Center aids small businesses by providing a network of informational sources. Additional services are provided by the Appalachian Regional Commission, the Office of Corporate and Financial Regulation, the Ben Franklin Technology Development Authority, the Community Economic Development Loan Program, the Customized Job Training Program, the Enterprise Zone Program, the Export Finance Program, the First Industries Fund, the Industrial Sites Reuse Program, the Infrastructure Development Program, the Keystone Innovation Starter Kit, Keystone Opportunity Zones, the Pennsylvania Capital Access Program (PennCap), the Pennsylvania Economic Development Financing Authority, Small Business Development Centers, and the Tax Increment Financing Guarantee Program.

HEALTH

The infant mortality rate in October 2005 was estimated at 6.9 per 1,000 live births. The birth rate in 2003 was 11.4 per 1,000 population. The abortion rate stood at 14.3 per 1,000 women in 2000. In 2003, about 76% of pregnant woman received prenatal care beginning in the first trimester. In 2004, approximately 86% of children received routine immunizations before the age of three.

The crude death rate in 2003 was 10.5 deaths per 1,000 population, which was the second-highest rate in the country that year (following West Virginia). As of 2002, the death rates for major causes of death (per 100,000 resident population) were: heart disease, 315; cancer, 242 (the third-highest rate in the country); cerebrovascular diseases, 69.5; chronic lower respiratory diseases, 48.8; and diabetes, 30.1. The mortality rate from HIV infection was 4 per 100,000 population. In 2004, the reported AIDS case rate was at about 13.1 per 100,000 population. In 2002, about 57% of the population was considered overweight or obese. As of 2004, about 22.6% of state residents were smokers.

In 2003, Pennsylvania had 201 community hospitals with about 40,900 beds. There were about 1.8 million patient admissions that year and 33 million outpatient visits. The average daily inpatient census was about 28,200 patients. The average cost per day for hospital care was $1,326. Also in 2003, there were about 740 certified nursing facilities in the state with 90,857 beds and an overall occupancy rate of about 89.7%. In 2004, it was estimated that about 69.9% of all state residents had received some type of dental care within the year. Pennsylvania had 332 physicians per 100,000 resident population in 2004 and 995 nurses per 100,000 in 2005. In 2004, there were a total of 7,789 dentists in the state.

About 14% of state residents were enrolled in Medicaid programs in 2003. In 2004, Pennsylvania tied with Arkansas and Florida at third in the nation for the highest percentage of residents on Medicare (following West Virginia and Maine). Approximately 12% of the state population was uninsured in 2004. In 2003, state health care expenditures totaled $18.8 million.

The University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, which originated as the medical school of the College of Philadelphia in 1765, is the nation's oldest medical school. One of the nation's newest is the Hershey Medical Center of Pennsylvania State University. Other medical schools in Pennsylvania are the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Temple University's School of Medicine, the Medical College of Pennsylvania, and Allegheny University, the last three in Philadelphia. The state also aids colleges of osteopathic medicine, podiatric medicine, and optometryall in Philadelphia. In 2005, the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, ranked 13th and 15th respectively on the Honor Roll of Best Hospitals 2005 by U.S. News & World Report. The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia ranked first in the nation in reputation for pediatric care

SOCIAL WELFARE

In 2004, about 487,000 people received unemployment benefits, with the average weekly unemployment benefit at $294. For 2005, the estimated average monthly participation in the food stamp program included about 1,042,809 persons (471,960 households); the average monthly benefit was about $88.28 per person. That year, the total of benefits paid through the state for the food stamp program was about $1.1 billion.

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), the system of federal welfare assistance that officially replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) in 1997, was reauthorized through the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. TANF is funded through federal block grants that are divided among the states based on an equation involving the number of recipients in each state. In 2004, the Pennsylvania TANF program had 231,000 recipients; state and federal expenditures on this TANF program totaled $346 million in fiscal year 2003.

In December 2004, Social Security benefits were paid to 2,405,080 Pennsylvania residents. This number included 1,556,970 retired workers, 266,100 widows and widowers, 275,950 disabled workers, 133,490 spouses, and 172,570 children. Social Security beneficiaries represented 19.3% of the total state population and 93.3% of the state's population age 65 and older. Retired workers received an average monthly payment of $982; widows and widowers, $945; disabled workers, $910; and spouses, $496. Payments for children of retired workers averaged $509 per month; children of deceased workers, $658; and children of disabled workers, $266. Federal Supplemental Security Income payments in December 2004 went to 316,917 Pennsylvania residents, averaging $437 a month.

HOUSING

Faced with a decaying housing stock, Philadelphia during the 1970s and 1980s encouraged renovation of existing units along with the construction of new ones, effectively revitalizing several neighborhoods. About 22.4% of all units in the state were built in the period from 1970 to 1989.

In 2004, there were 5,385,729 housing units in Pennsylvania, 4,817,757 of which were occupied; 72.8% were owner-occupied. About 57.6% of all units were single-family, detached homes. About 30.7% of all units were built in 1939 or earlier. In 2004, utility gas and fuel oil were the most common sources of energy for heating. It was estimated that 135,756 units lacked telephone services, 23,755 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 28,415 lacked complete kitchen facilities. The average household had 2.48 members.

In 2004, 49,700 new privately owned housing units were authorized for construction. The median home value was $116,520. The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was $1,114. Renters paid a median of $611 per month. In September 2005, the state received grants of $450,000 from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) for rural housing and economic development programs. For 2006, HUD allocated to the state over $50 million in community development block grants. The city of Philadelphia was awarded over $53 million in community development block grants.

EDUCATION

Pennsylvania fell behind many of its neighbors in establishing a free public school system. From colonial times until the 1830s, almost all instruction in reading and writing took place in private schools. Called "dame schools" in the cities and "neighborhood schools" in rural areas, they offered primary courses, usually taught by women in their own homes. In addition, the Quakers, Moravians, and Scots-Irish Presbyterians all formed their own private schools, emphasizing religious study. Many communities also set up secondary schools, called academies, on land granted by the state; by 1850, there were 524 academies, some of which later developed into colleges. A public school law passed in 1834 was not mandatory in the school districts but was still unpopular. Thaddeus Stevens, then a state legislator, is credited with saving the law from repeal in 1835. Two years later, more than 40% of the state's children were in public schools.

As of 2004, 86.5% of the population 25 years old and older had completed four years of high school, and 25.3% had obtained a bachelor's degree or higher.

The total enrollment for fall 2002 in Pennsylvania's public schools stood at 1,817,000. Of these, 1,242,000 attended schools from kindergarten through grade eight, and 575,000 attended high school. Approximately 76.3% of the students were white, 15.8% were black, 5.5% were Hispanic, 2.3% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 0.1% were American Indian/Alaskan Native. Total enrollment was estimated at 1,812,000 in fall 2003 and expected to be 1,676,000 by 2014, a decline of 7.7% during the period 2002 to 2014. Expenditures for public education in 2003/04 were estimated at $20.7 billion or $9,979 per student, the ninth-highest among the 50 states. In fall 2003 there were 316,337 students enrolled in 2,009 private schools. Since 1969, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has tested public school students nationwide. The resulting report, The Nation's Report Card, stated that in 2005 eighth graders in Pennsylvania scored 281 out of 500 in mathematics compared with the national average of 278.

As of fall 2002, there were 654,826 students enrolled in college or graduate school; minority students comprised 16.4% of total postsecondary enrollment. In 2005 Pennsylvania had 262 degree-granting institutions including 44 public four-year schools, 21 public two-year schools, and 98 nonprofit, private four-year schools. Indiana University of Pennsylvania, established in 1872, accounted for about 15% of enrollment. Four universities have nonprofit corporate charters but are classified as state-related: Pennsylvania State University, Temple University, the University of Pittsburgh, and Lincoln University. Of these, Penn State is by far the largest. Founded in 1855 as the Farmers' High School of Pennsylvania, Penn State now has its main campus at University Park and 23 smaller campus locations statewide as well as a Penn State World Campus that allows online access to a Penn State education.

State-aided private institutions receiving designated grants from the legislature include the University of Pennsylvania, the largest of these schools, founded in 1740 by Benjamin Franklin as the Philadelphia Academy and Charitable School; among its noteworthy professional schools is the Wharton School of Business. Other private colleges and universities, also eligible to receive state aid through a per-pupil funding formula, include Bryn Mawr College (founded in 1880), Bucknell University (1846) in Lewisburg, Carnegie-Mellon University (1900) in Pittsburgh, Dickinson College (1733) in Carlisle, Duquesne University (1878) in Pittsburgh, Haverford College (1833), Lafayette College (1826), Lehigh University (1865), Swarthmore College (1864), and Villanova University (1842). The Pennsylvania Higher Education Assistance Agency (PHEAA) offers higher education grants, guarantees private loans, and administers work-study programs for Pennsylvania students.

ARTS

The Pennsylvania Council on the Arts (PCA) was established in 1966 and consists of a Council comprised of 19 members15 private citizens appointed by the governor and 4 members of the General Assembly. In 2005, the PCA and other Pennsylvania arts organizations received 103 grants totaling $3,135,800 from the National Endowment for the Arts. The Pennsylvania Humanities Council (PHC) was established in 1973. In 2005, the National Endowment for the Humanities contributed $6,181,059 for 59 state programs. The state and various private sources also provided funding for arts programs.

Philadelphia was the cultural capital of the colonies and rivaled New York as a theatrical center during the 1800s. In 1984, Philadelphia had five fully developed resident theaters, ranking third in the nation after New York and California. As of 2005 a number of regional and summer stock theaters were scattered throughout the state, the most noteworthy being in Bucks County, Lancaster, and Pittsburgh. The Bucks County Playhouse is recognized as the State Theater and carries a rich history of featuring well-known stars such as Grace Kelly, Robert Redford, and Walter Matthau. The Bucks County Playhouse is also noted for premiering the famous dramas, Harvey, Nobody Loves Me (Barefoot In The Park) and Give 'Em Hell Harry.

Pennsylvania's most significant contribution to the performing arts has come through music. One of America's first important songwriters, Stephen Foster, was born in 1826 in Lawrenceville and grew up in Pittsburgh. Some of Foster's songs include, "Oh! Susanna" (1848), "Jeanie With the Light Brown Hair" (1854), and "Old Folks at Home (Swanee River)" (1851).The Pittsburgh Symphony, which began performing in 1896, first achieved prominence under Victor Herbert. Temporarily disbanded in 1910, the symphony was revived under Fritz Reiner in 1927; subsequent music directors have included William Steinberg and Andre Previn. Even more illustrious has been the career of the Philadelphia Orchestra, founded in 1900. Among this orchestra's best-known permanent conductors have been Leopold Stokowski and Eugene Ormandy, both of whom recorded extensively.

An important dance company, the Pennsylvania Ballet, is based in Philadelphia, which is also home to the Curtis Institute of Music, founded in 1924. Pittsburgh hosts the Pittsburgh Ballet Theater (PBT). In 1989 PBT began conducting educational programs; as of 2005 the outreach programs had reached over 65,000 students from more than 200 school districts. The National Choreographic Center was established in the mid-1980s in Carlisle in conjunction with the Central Pennsylvania Youth Ballet School. Opera companies include the Fulton Opera House in Lancaster, Pittsburgh Opera, and Opera Company of Philadelphia.

In 1997 the Philadelphia Fringe Festival was founded. Under a changed title, the Philadelphia Live Arts Festival and Philly Fringe evolved into a 16-day festival. The festival, which includes theater, dance, music, poetry and puppetry performances, has been recorded as drawing over 47,000 attendants. The American Poetry Review, published in Philadelphia, has become one of the nation's premier poetry journals. Favorite tourist sites featuring the arts include the Andy Warhol Museum in Pittsburgh and the Edgar J. Kaufmann House, more commonly known as, Fallingwater, a home designed by renowned architect Frank Lloyd Wright in Bear Run.

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

As of December 2001, Pennsylvania had 459 public library systems, with a total of 636 libraries, of which there were 181 were branches. In that same year, the libraries had a combined 28,061,000 volumes of books and serial publications on their shelves, and a total circulation of 56,929,000. The system also had 1,957,000 audio and 831,000 video items, 29,000 electronic format items (CD-ROMs, magnetic tapes, and disks), and 35 bookmobiles. The largest public library in the state, and one of the oldest in the United States, is the Free Library of Philadelphia, with 6,700,000 volumes in 73 branches. The Carnegie Library in Pittsburgh has 3,439,666 volumes and 18 branches. Harrisburg offers the State Library of Pennsylvania, which had 1,000,494 volumes in 1998. The Alverthorpe Gallery Library in Jenkintown contains the Rosenwald collection of illustrated books dating from the 15th century. In fiscal year 2001, operating income for the state's public library system came to $277,782,000 and included $2,705,000 in federal grants and $73,274,000 in state grants.

Philadelphia is the site of the state's largest academic collection, the University of Pennsylvania Libraries, with 4,791,342 volumes. Other major academic libraries are at the University of Pittsburgh, 3,968,106 volumes; Penn State, over 2.5 million; Temple, 2,445,164; Carnegie-Mellon, 906,069; and Bryn Mawr, 1,062,594.

Pennsylvania has 362 museums and public gardens, with many of the museums located in Philadelphia. The Franklin Institute, established in 1824 as an exhibition hall and training center for inventors and mechanics, is a leading showcase for science and technology. Other important museums are the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Academy of Natural Sciences, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Afro-American Historical and Cultural Museum, American Catholic Historical Society, American Swedish Historical Foundation Museum, and Museum of American Jewish History.

The Carnegie Institute in Pittsburgh is home to several major museums, including the Carnegie Museum of Natural History and the Museum of Art. Also in Pittsburgh are the Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science and the Frick Art Museum. Other institutions scattered throughout the state include the Moravian Museum, Bethlehem; US Army Military History Institute, Carlisle; Erie Art Center, Museum, and Old Custom House; Pennsylvania Lumber Museum, Galeton; Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission and William Penn Memorial Museum, Harrisburg; Pennsylvania Dutch Folk Culture Society, Lenhartsville; Schwenkfelder Museum, Pennsburg; and Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania, Strasburg. A new exhibit at the Pittsburgh Zoo and Aquarium opened in June of 2000, featuring a $16.8 million aquarium that was twice as big as the old Aqua Zoo, and included 500 species of sea creatures.

Several old forts commemorate the French and Indian War, and George Washington's Revolutionary headquarters at Valley Forge is now a national historical park. Brandywine Battlefield (Chadds Ford) is another Revolutionary War site. Gettysburg National Military Park commemorates the Civil War. Other historic sites are Independence National Historical Park, Philadelphia; the Daniel Boone Homestead, Birdsboro; John Brown's House, Chambers-burg; James Buchanan's home, Lancaster; and Ft. Augusta, Sunbury, a frontier outpost.

COMMUNICATIONS

Philadelphia already had mail links to surrounding towns and to Maryland and Virginia by 1737, when Benjamin Franklin was named deputy postmaster of the city, but service was slow and not always reliable. During the remainder of the century, significant improvements in delivery were made, but some townspeople devised ingenious ways of transmitting information even faster than the mails. Philadelphia stock exchange brokers, for instance, communicated with agents in New York by flashing coded signals with mirrors and lights from a series of high points across New Jersey, thereby receiving stock prices on the same day they were transacted. By 1846, the first telegraph service in the state linked Harrisburg and Lancaster.

In 2004, 95.6% of Pennsylvania's households had telephones. Additionally, by June of that same year there were 6,420,037 mobile wireless telephone subscribers. In 2003, 60.2% of Pennsylvania households had a computer and 54.7% had Internet access. By June 2005, there were 1,602,716 high-speed lines in Pennsylvania, 1,455,509 residential and 157,207 for business.

Pittsburgh's KDKA became the world's first commercial radio station in 1920. By 2005, it was one of 55 major AM and 144 major FM radio stations. In addition, there were 34 major television stations. WQED in Pittsburgh pioneered community-sponsored educational television when it began broadcasting in 1954. In 1999, the Philadelphia area had 2,670,710 households, 79% with cable; the Pittsburgh area had a 79% penetration rate in 1,135,290 households; and the Harrisburg-Lancaster-Lebanon-York area had 599,930 households, 78% with cable.

A total of 217,724 Internet domain names were registered in the state as of 2000.

PRESS

Benjamin Franklin may have been colonial Pennsylvania's most renowned publisher, but its first was Andrew Bradford, whose American Weekly Mercury, established in 1719, was the third newspaper to appear in the colonies. Founded nine years later, the Pennsylvania Gazette was purchased by Franklin in 1730 and served as the springboard for Poor Richard's Almanack.

During the 1800s, newspapers sprang up in all the major cities and many small communities. By 1880, Pittsburgh had 10 daily newspapersmore than any other city its size. After a series of mergers and closings, however, it is left with only one paper todaythe Post-Gazette. Philadelphia has two newspapers, the Inquirer and the Daily News. The Inquirer, founded in 1829, has won numerous awards for its investigative reporting.

In 2005, Pennsylvania had 50 morning newspapers, 31 evening newspapers, and 41 Sunday papers.

The following table shows the approximate circulation of some of the leading dailies in 2005:

AREA NAME DAILY SUNDAY
Allentown Morning Call (m,S) 126,470 159,733
Erie Times-News (m,S) 59,454 86,185
Harrisburg Patriot-News (m,S) 100,129 150,061
Philadelphia Inquirer (m,S) 368,833 750,780
Daily News (m) 135,956 68,333 (Sat.)
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (m,S) 238,860 402,981
Wilkes-Barre Citizens' Voice (m,S) 31,606 30,664
Times Leader (m,S) 42,585 59,730

In 2005, there were 198 weekly publications in Pennsylvania. Of these there are 107 paid weeklies, 38 free weeklies, and 53 combined weeklies. The total circulation of paid weeklies (506,614) and free weeklies (1,556,969) is 1,679,404. The Moon Record of Crescent, Pennsylvania ranked eighth among paid weeklies in the United States based on a circulation of 49,000. Based on circulation in the United States in 2005, among free weeklies the Bucks County Trend Midweek ranked first with a circulation of 625,000, followed by two northeast Philadelphia publications, the News Gleaner and Northeast Times, ranking fourteenth and fifteenth, respectively, with circulations of 136, 070 and 119,673. The Pittsburgh Pennysaver (circulation 772,546) ranked ninth in the United States among shopping publications in 2005.

Farm Journal and Current History, both monthlies, are published in Philadelphia, and there are monthlies named for both Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. Of more specialized interest are the gardening, nutrition, and health magazines and books from Rodale Press in Emmaus which publishes Prevention, Men's Health and Runner's World, Women's Health, Organic Gardening, Backpacker, Best Life, Bicycling and Mountain Bike. The Chilton Co., publisher of automotive guides, was acquired by The Thompson Corporation in 2003.

ORGANIZATIONS

In 2006, there were over 17,340 nonprofit organizations registered within the state, of which about 11,572 were registered as charitable, educational, or religious organizations.

Philadelphia is the home for two major service organizations: Big Brothers/Big Sisters of America and the Grand United Order of Odd Fellows. Educational organizations in that city include the American Academy of Political and Social Science, the Academy of Natural Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools. The Association for Children with Learning Disabilities is located in Pittsburgh, the College Placement Council in Bethlehem, and the American Philatelic Society in State College.

State organizations for arts and culture include ArtsQuest, Dance Theatre of Pennsylvania, the Pittsburgh Center for the Arts, the Folk Heritage Institute, and the Pennsylvania Historical Association. There are also several municipal and regional historical societies and art councils. State environmental organizations include Preservation Pennsylvania and the Rodale Institute.

Professional and trade groups in the state include the American Board of Surgery, the American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, the National Board of Medical Examiners, the United Steel Workers of America, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. Valley Forge is the home of the Patriotic Order of the Sons of America.

Among the many sports organizations headquartered in Pennsylvania are the US Squash Racquets Association, Pop Warner Football, US Rowing Association, and the Little League Foundation. The Major League Umpires Association is also based in the state.

The Jewish Publication Society is based in Philadelphia. The Mennonite Central Committee, a major international relief and service organization, is based in Akron. The Moravian Historical Society is based in Nazareth.

TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

Tourism is the second-largest industry in the state of Pennsylvania, which hosted a record 126 million travelers in 2003. Of these, some 1.3 million were international visitors with the majority from Canada, the United Kingdom, and Germany. Two-thirds of out-of-state visitors traveled to the state from New York, New Jersey, and Maryland; Virginians and Ohioans completed the list of top-five states providing tourists to Pennsylvania. The total economic impact from travel expenditures was $21.9 billion in 2003. The industry supported over 563,440 jobs.

Philadelphiawhose Independence National Historical Park has been called the most historic square mile in Americaoffers the Liberty Bell, Independence Hall, Carpenter's Hall, and many other sites. North of Philadelphia, in Bucks County, is the town of New Hope, with its numerous crafts and antique shops.

The Lancaster area is "Pennsylvania Dutch" country, featuring tours and exhibits of Amish farm life. Gettysburg contains not only the famous Civil War battlefield but also the home of Dwight D. Eisenhower, opened to the public in 1980. Among the most popular sites are Chocolate World and Hershey Park in the town of Hershey and Valley Forge National Historic Park. Annual parades and festivals include the Mummers Parade on 1 January in Philadelphia and the Kutztown Folk Festival, commemorating Pennsylvania Dutch life, held the first week of July. Fallingwater is a Frank Lloyd Wright-designed house and visitor center.

No less an attraction are the state's outdoor recreation areas. The Laurel Highlands have many ski areas. The Laurel Caverns feature guided tours of the caves. By far the most popular for both skiing and camping are the Delaware Water Gap and the Poconos, also a favorite resort region. The state park system includes 116 state parks, 20 state forests, 1 national forest, and 3 environmental education centers.

SPORTS

Pennsylvania has seven major professional sports teams: the Philadelphia Phillies and the Pittsburgh Pirates of Major League Baseball, the Philadelphia Eagles and the Pittsburgh Steelers of the National Football League, the Philadelphia 76ers of the National Basketball Association, and the Pittsburgh Penguins and Philadelphia Flyers of the National Hockey League.

The Phillies won the World Series in 1980; they won the National League Championship in 1993, but lost the World Series to the Toronto Blue Jays. The Pirates won the World Series in 1909, 1925, 1960, 1971, and 1979. The Steelers established a legendary football dynasty in the 1970s, winning Super Bowls in 1975, 1976, 1979, 1980, and 2006. They also played in the 1996 Super Bowl, losing to the Dallas Cowboys. The Eagles won the National Football Conference championship in 1981, but lost to Oakland in that year's Super Bowl. The 76ers won the NBA championship in 1947, 1956, 1967, and 1983, and lost the championship series in 1977, 1980, and 1982. The Flyers won the Stanley Cup in 1974 and 1975 and lost in the finals in 1976, 1980, 1985, 1987, and 1997. The Penguins won the Stanley Cup in 1991 and 1992.

There are also minor league baseball teams in Harrisburg, Scranton, Altoona, Reading, Williamsport, Allentown, and Erie, and minor league hockey teams in Hershey, Johnstown, Wilkes-Barre, and Philadelphia.

Horse racing is conducted at Keystone Race Track in Bucks County, Penn National Race Course in Dauphin County, and Commodore Downs in Erie County. Harness-racing tracks include Liberty Bell Park in northeast Philadelphia, the Meadows in Washington County, and Pocono Downs in Luzerne County. Each June, Pennsylvania hosts a major auto race, the Pocono 500. Each July, the state hosts a second NASCAR Nextel Cup event, the Pennsylvania 500. The Penn Relays, an important amateur track meet, are held in Philadelphia every April.

In collegiate sports, football is most prominent. The University of Pittsburgh Panthers were named national champions in 1918, 1937, and 1976. Pennsylvania State University was named champion in 1982 and 1986 and joined the Big Ten in 1990. The Nittany Lions of Penn State won the Rose Bowl in 1995; the Sugar Bowl in 1983; the Orange Bowl in 1969, 1970, and 2006; the Fiesta Bowl in 1997; the Outback Bowl in 1996 and 1999; and the Cotton Bowl in 1972, to name just a few of their bowl victories. The University of Pennsylvania, members of the Ivy League, traditionally field strong teams in football and basketball. Villanova University, located in Philadelphia, won the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) basketball championship in 1985.

Each summer, Williamsport hosts baseball's Little League World Series.

FAMOUS PENNSYLVANIANS

Johan Printz (b.Sweden, 15921663), the 400-lb, hard-drinking, hard-swearing, and hard-ruling governor of New Sweden, was Pennsylvania's first European resident of note. The founder of Pennsylvania was William Penn (b.England, 16441718), a Quaker of sober habits and deep religious beliefs. Most extraordinary of all Pennsylvanians, Benjamin Franklin (b.Massachusetts, 170690), a printer, author, inventor, scientist, legislator, diplomat, and statesman, served the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and US governments in a variety of posts.

Only one native Pennsylvanian, James Buchanan (17911868), has ever become US president. Buchanan was a state assemblyman, five-term US representative, two-term US senator, secretary of state, and minister to Russia and then to Great Britain before entering the White House as a 65-year-old bachelor in 1857. As president, he tried to maintain the Union by avoiding extremes and preaching compromise, but his toleration of slavery was abhorrent to abolitionists and his desire to preserve the Union was obnoxious to secessionists. Dwight D. Eisenhower (b.Texas, 18901969) retired to a farm in Gettysburg after his presidency was over. George M. Dallas (17921864), Pennsylvania's only US vice president, was James K. Polk's running mate.

The six Pennsylvanians who have served on the US Supreme Court have all been associate justices: James Wilson (174298), Henry Baldwin (17801844), Robert C. Grier (17941870), William Strong (180895), George Shiras Jr. (18321924), and Owen J. Roberts (18751955). Controversial supreme court nominee Robert Heron Bock (b.Pennsylvania 1927) served as a federal judge for many years.

Many other Pennsylvanians have held prominent federal positions. Albert Gallatin (b.Switzerland, 17611849), brilliant secretary of the treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, later served as minister to France and then to Great Britain. Richard Rush (17801859) was Madison's attorney general and John Quincy Adams's secretary of the treasury. A distinguished jurist, Jeremiah Sullivan Black (181083) was Buchanan's attorney general and later his secretary of state. John Wanamaker (18381922), an innovative department store merchandiser, served as postmaster general under Benjamin Harrison. Philander C. Knox (18531921) was Theodore Roosevelt's attorney general and William Howard Taft's secretary of state. Financier Andrew C. Mellon (18551937) was secretary of the treasury under Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover. Recent Pennsylvanians in high office include Richard Helms (19132002), director of the US Central Intelligence Agency from 1966 to 1973, and Alexander Haig (b.1924), former commander of NATO forces in Europe, chief of staff under Richard Nixon, and Ronald Reagan's first choice for secretary of state.

Three US senators, Simon Cameron (17991889), Matthew Quay (18331904), and Boies Penrose (18601921), are best known as leaders of the powerful Pennsylvania Republican machine. Senator Joseph F. Guffey (18701959) sponsored legislation to stabilize the bituminous coal industry. After serving as reform mayor of Philadelphia, Joseph S. Clark (19011990) also distinguished himself in the Senate, and Hugh Scott (190094) was Republican minority leader from 1969 to 1977. Outstanding representatives from Pennsylvania include Thaddeus Stevens (17921868), leader of radical Republicans during the Civil War era; David Wilmot (181468), author of the proviso attempting to prohibit slavery in territory acquired from Mexico; and Samuel J. Randall (182890), speaker of the House of Representatives from 1876 to 1881.

Other notable historical figures were Joseph Galloway (b.Maryland, 1729?1803), a loyalist; Robert Morris (England, 17341806), a Revolutionary financier; and Betsy Ross (Elizabeth Griscom, 17521836), the seamstress who allegedly stitched the first American flag. Pamphleteer Thomas Paine (England, 17371809), pioneer Daniel Boone (17341820), and General Anthony Wayne (174596) also distinguished themselves during this period. In the Civil War, General George B. McClellan (182685) led the Union army on the Peninsula and at the Battle of Antietam, while at the Battle of Gettysburg, Generals George Gordon Meade (b.Spain, 181572) and Winfield Scott Hancock (182486) both showed their military prowess.

Important state governors include John W. Geary (181973), Samuel W. Pennypacker (18431916), Robert E. Pattison (b.Maryland, 18501904), Gifford Pinchot (b.Connecticut 18651946), James H. Duff (18831969), George H. Earle (18901974), Milton J. Shapp (Ohio, 191288), William W. Scranton (b.Connecticut, 1917), George M. Leader (b.1918), and Richard L. Thornburgh (b.1932).

Pennsylvanians have won Nobel Prizes in every category except literature. General George C. Marshall (18801959), chief of staff of the US Army in World War II and secretary of state when the European Recovery Program (Marshall Plan) was adopted, won the 1953 Nobel Peace Prize. Simon Kuznets (b.Russia, 190185) received the 1971 Nobel Prize in economic science for work on economic growth, and Herbert A. Simon (b.Wisconsin, 19162001) received the 1978 award for work on decision making in economic organizations; in 1980, Lawrence R. Klein (b.Nebraska, 1920) was honored for his design and application of econometric models. In physics, Otto Stern (b.Germany, 18881969) won the 1943 prize for work on the magnetic momentum of protons. In chemistry, Theodore W. Richards (18681928) won the 1914 Nobel Prize for determining the atomic weight of many elements, and Christian Boehmer Anfinsen (191695) won the 1972 award for pioneering studies in enzymes. In physiology or medicine, Philip S. Hench (18961965) won in 1950 for his discoveries about hormones of the adrenal cortex, Haldane K. Hartline (190383) won in 1967 for work on the human eye, and Howard M. Temin (193494) was honored in 1975 for the study of tumor viruses.

Many other Pennsylvanians were distinguished scientists. Ebenezer Kinnersly (171178) studied electricity, and Benjamin Franklin's grandson Alexander Dallas Bache (180667) was an expert on magnetism. Caspar Wistar (b.Germany, 17611818) and Thomas Woodhouse (17701809) pioneered the study of chemistry, while William Maclure (b.Scotland, 17631840) and James Mease (17711846) were early geologists. David Rittenhouse (173296) was a distinguished astronomer. John Bartram (16991777) and his son William (17391823) won international repute as botanists. Benjamin Rush (17451813) was Pennsylvania's most distinguished physician. Philip Syng Physick (17681837) was a leading surgeon, and Nathaniel Chapman (b.Virginia, 17801853) was the first president of the American Medical Association. Rachel Carson (190764), a marine biologist and writer, became widely known for her crusade against the use of chemical pesti-cides. Noted inventors born in Pennsylvania include steamboat builder Robert Fulton (17651815) and David Thomas (17941882), the father of the American anthracite iron industry.

Pennsylvania played a large role in the economic development of the United States. In addition to Mellon, outstanding bankers include Stephen Girard (b.France, 17501831), Nicholas Biddle (17861844), Anthony J. Drexel (182693), and John J. McCloy (18951985). Andrew Carnegie (b.Scotland, 18351919) and his lieutenants, including Henry Clay Frick (18491919) and Charles M. Schwab (18621939), created the most efficient steel-manufacturing company in the 19th century. Wanamaker, Frank W. Woolworth (b.New York, 18521919), and Sebastian S. Kresge (18671966) were pioneer merchandisers.

Other prominent businessmen born in Pennsylvania are automobile pioneer Clement Studebaker (18311901), chocolate manufacturer Milton S. Hershey (18571945), and retired Chrysler chairman Lee A. Iacocca (b.1924).

Pennsylvania labor leaders include Uriah S. Stephens (182182) and Terence V. Powderly (18491924), leaders of the Knights of Labor; Philip Murray (b.Scotland, 18861952), president of the CIO; and David J. MacDonald (190279), leader of the steel-workers. Among economic theorists, Henry George (183997) was the unorthodox advocate of the single tax. Florence Kelley (18591932) was an important social reformer, as is Bayard Rustin (19101987).

Important early religious leaders, all born in Germany, include Henry Melchior Muhlenberg (171187), organizer of Pennsylvania's Lutherans; Count Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf (17001760), a Morovian leader; and Johann Conrad Beissel (16901768), founder of the Ephrata Cloister. Charles Taze Russell (18521916), born a Congregationalist, founded the group that later became Jehovah's Witnesses. Among the state's outstanding scholars are historians Henry C. Lee (18251909), John Bach McMaster (18521932), Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer (18681936), and Henry Steele Commager (190298); anthropologist Margaret Mead (190178); behavioral psychologist B(urrhus) F(rederic) Skinner (19041990); urbanologist Jane Jacobs (19162006); and language theorist Noam Chomsky (b.1928). Thomas Gallaudet (b.17871851) was a pioneer in education of the deaf.

Pennsylvania has produced a large number of distinguished journalists and writers. In addition to Franklin, newspapermen include John Dunlap (b.Ireland, 17471812), Benjamin Franklin Bache (176998), William L. McLean (18521931), and Moses L. Annenberg (18781942). Magazine editors were Sarah Josepha Buell Hale (b.New Hampshire, 17881879), Cyrus H. K. Curtis (b.Maine, 18501933), Edward W. Bok (b.Netherlands, 18631930), and I(sidor) F(einstein) Stone (19071989). Ida M. Tarbell (18571944) was perhaps Pennsylvania's most famous muckraker. Among the many noteworthy Pennsylvania-born writers are Charles Brockden Brown (17711810), Bayard Taylor (182578), novelist and physician Silas Weir Mitchell (18291914), Charles Godfrey Leland (18241903), Owen Wister (18601938), Richard Harding Davis (18641916), Gertrude Stein (18741946), Mary Roberts Rinehart (18761958), Hervey Allen (18891949), Christopher Morley (18901957), Conrad Richter (18901968), John O'Hara (190570), Donald Barthelme (193189), and John Updike (b.1932). James Michener (b.New York, 190797) was raised in the state. Pennsylvania playwrights include James Nelson Barker (17841858), Maxwell Anderson (18881959), George S. Kaufman (18891961), Marc Connelly (18901980), Clifford Odets (190663), and Ed Bullins (b.1935). Among Pennsylvania poets are Francis Hopkinson (173791), Philip Freneau (b.New York, 17531832), Thomas Dunn English (18191902), Thomas Buchanan Read (182272), and Wallace Stevens (18791955).

Composers include Stephen Collins Foster (182664), Ethelbert Woodbridge Nevin (18621901), Charles Wakefield Cadman (18811946), and Samuel Barber (191081). Among Pennsylvania painters prominent in the history of American art are Benjamin West (17381820), renowned as the father of American painting; Charles Willson Peale (17411827), who was also a naturalist; Thomas Sully (b.England, 17831872); George Catlin (17961872); Thomas Eakins (18441916); Mary Cassatt (18451926); Man Ray (18901976); Andrew Wyeth (b.1917); and Andy Warhol (192787). Outstanding sculptors include William Rush (17561833), George Grey Barnard (18631938), and Alexander Calder (18981976).

Pennsylvania produced and patronized a host of actors, including Edwin Forrest (180672) Lionel (18781954), Ethel (18791959), and John (18821942) Barrymore; W. C. Fields (William Claude Dukenfield, 18801946); Ed Wynn (Isaiah Edwin Leopold, 18861966); William Powell (18921987); Ethel Waters (18961977); Janet Gaynor (190684); James Stewart (190897); Broderick Crawford (19111986); Gene Kelly (191296); Charles Bronson (Charles Buchinsky, b.1922); Mario Lanza (192559); Shirley Jones (b.1934); and comedian Bill Cosby (b.1937). Film directors Joseph L. Mankiewicz (19091993), Arthur Penn (b.1922), and Sidney Lumet (b.1924) and film producer David O. Selznick (190265) also came from Pennsylvania.

Pennsylvania has produced outstanding musicians. Four important Pennsylvania-born vocalists are Marian Anderson (b.18971993), Blanche Thebom (b.1919), Marilyn Horne (b.1934), and Anna Moffo (19342006). Pianists include the versatile Oscar Levant (190672) and jazz interpreters Earl "Fatha" Hines (190583) and Erroll Garner (192177). Popular band leaders include Fred Waring (190084), Jimmy Dorsey (190457) and his brother Tommy (190556), and Les Brown (19122001). Perry Como (19132001), Daryl Hall (b.1949), and John Oates (b.New York, 1948) have achieved renown as popular singers. Dancers and choreographers from Pennsylvania include Martha Graham (18931991), Paul Taylor (b.1930), and Gelsey Kirkland (b.1952).

Of the many outstanding athletes associated with Pennsylvania, Jim Thorpe (b.Oklahoma, 18881953) was most versatile, having starred in Olympic pentathlon and decathlon events and football. Baseball Hall of Famers include Honus Wagner (18741955), Stan Musial (b.1920), and Roy Campanella (19211993). Outstanding Pennsylvania football players include Harold "Red" Grange (190391), George Blanda (b.1927), John Unitas (19332002), Joe Namath (b.1943), and Tony Dorsett (b.1954). Other stars include basketball's Wilt Chamberlain (193699); golf's Arnold Palmer (b.1929), tennis's Bill Tilden (18931953); horse racing's Bill Hartack (b.1932); billiards' Willie Mosconi (191393); swimming's Johnny Weissmuller (190484); and track and field's Bill Toomey (b.1939).

Pennsylvania has also been the birthplace of a duchessBessie Wallis Warfield, the Duchess of Windsor (18961986)and of a princessGrace Kelly, Princess Grace of Monaco (192982).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Blockson, Charles L. African Americans in Pennsylvania: A History and Guide. Baltimore: Black Classic, 1994.

Bremer, Francis J., and Dennis B. Downey (eds.). A Guide to the History of Pennsylvania. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1994.

Council of State Governments. The Book of the States, 2006 Edition. Lexington, Ky.: Council of State Governments, 2006.

Doherty, Craig A. Pennsylvania. New York: Facts On File, 2005.

Harper, Steven Craig. Promised Land: Penn's Holy Experiment, the Walking Purchase, and the Dispossession of Delawares, 16001763. Bethlehem, Pa.: Lehigh University Press, 2006.

Marzec, Robert P. (ed.). The Mid-Atlantic Region. Vol. 2 in The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2004.

Miller, Arthur P. Jr., and Marjorie L. Miller. Pennsylvania Battle-fields and Military Landmarks. Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 2000.

Miller, E. Willard (ed.). A Geography of Pennsylvania. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995.

Root, Douglas. Pennsylvania. Oakland, Calif.: Compass American Guides, 2000.

Trumbauer, Lisa. Voices from Colonial America. Pennsylvania, 16431776. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2005.

US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US Census Bureau. Pennsylvania, 2000. Summary Social, Economic, and Housing Characteristics: 2000 Census of Population and Housing. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 2003.

Wright, Robert E. The First Wall Street: Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, and the Birth of American Finance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

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Pennsylvania

PENNSYLVANIA

PENNSYLVANIA. The geography of Pennsylvania is complex, and the physical differences among the commonwealth's different regions have helped shape its history. Early colonists would have first encountered the coastal plain in what is now southeast Pennsylvania, along the Delaware River. This area is flat and fertile. Beyond the coastal plain is the Piedmont region, which covers most of southeastern Pennsylvania, and is very productive farmland. In the middle of Pennsylvania are the Appalachian Ridge and the Great Valley, the latter consisting of many small valleys that also provide good farmland. In the far northwest is the Lake Erie Lowland, the sandy soil of which has proven good for growing tubers such as potatoes and other vegetables.

Early History

The earliest human remains in the state indicate that a nomadic people archaeologists call Paleo-Indians began passing through Pennsylvania between 12,000 and 10,000 b.c. They hunted with spears, pursuing large game such as bison, and they may have trapped smaller game. Around a.d. 1000, modern Native Americans settled Pennsylvania, favoring the lowlands over the rough central plateau. They used bows and arrows more often than spears for hunting. They introduced the wigwam, a domed hut made of branches overlaid with tree bark or animal skins, and lived in small communities consisting of a few families.

By the time European colonists arrived, the Native Americans had developed the longhouse, a big structure made of branches and bark that housed several families. The longhouse was very important to the development of sophisticated Native American communities because it encouraged large groups of people to live and cooperate together.

European Settlement

When the first Europeans visited the area that is now Pennsylvania, the Native Americans of the region lived in a settled, complex mix of cultures. In the far east of Pennsylvania, on both sides of the Delaware River, lived the Leni-Lenapes (variously translated "the Original People," "the True People," and "the Real People"; they were also known as the Delawares). They sold their lands to English colonists and drifted westward.

In a large region around the Susquehanna River lived the Susquehannocks, a culturally Iroquois tribe that valued its independence. At the time Europeans arrived in their territory, the Susquehannocks were being exterminated by the Iroquois Confederacy, which came close to killing all the Susquehannocks by 1675. The few survivors of the Susquehannocks joined the Conestoga tribe. South of Pennsylvania were the Shawnees, who began migrating in the 1690s into the region formerly occupied by the Susquehannocks. Under pressure from colonists, they slowly migrated westward. Along the shore of Lake Erie lived the Erie tribe. During the era of colonial settlement, many other tribes lived in or moved through Pennsylvania, including the Munsees and the Mingos, who lived on the Allegheny Plateau. The Mahicans were driven out of their homes in New York by the Iroquois Confederacy and fled south, eventually joining the Leni-Lenapes in their westward migration.

Both England and the Netherlands claimed what are now Pennsylvania and Delaware by the end of the first decade of the seventeenth century, with English explorers having visited the area as early as 1497. In 1608, England's John Smith traveled up the Susquehanna River, where he met some of the Susquehannock tribe. In 1609, Henry Hudson, sailing for the Dutch, sailed into what would be named Delaware Bay a year later, when Virginia's Samuel Argall sailed into it and named it for Thomas West, lord De La Warr, then the governor of Virginia. In the late 1630s, Swedes settled near the mouth of the Delaware River, and in 1643 they moved their settlement to Tinicum Island, which was near where Philadelphia would eventually be established.

The Dutch of New Amsterdam were unhappy with the Swedes' move into territory that they wanted for themselves. In 1647, they established a trading post in what is now Pennsylvania, part of a planned southward movement in which they hoped to claim the territories all the way to Virginia. By then, the Swedes were calling their small colony "New Sweden" and were establishing trading relationships with the local Native Americans. The Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant had armed parties move downriver in 1655, seizing the Swedish colony on Tinicum. He declared the region to be part of New Amsterdam. In 1664, England blunted the Dutch colony's ambitions by seizing the area east of the Susquehanna River in the name of the duke of York, the brother of Charles II. The Dutch regained control from 1673 through 1674, but were driven out by the English. In 1676, the duke of York declared the region to be under English law.

William Penn the elder had been a close friend and an admiral in service to Charles II of England. He had loaned Charles II £16,000, which became due to his heirs when he died. His son, William Penn the younger, had converted to Quakerismand been imprisoned for not honoring the Church of England. William Penn told the king that instead of repayment of the £16,000 owed to his father, he wanted a land grant in North America where he could establish a home for the Quakers. Wiping out the debt and getting rid of some of the troublesome Quakers seemed a good deal to Charles II, particularly since the area Penn wanted was considered to be of little value. The Charter of Pennsylvanianamed by the king for young Penn's fatherwas granted 4 March 1681, and William Penn was named the territory's proprietor, meaning the land actually belonged to him. Any governor of Pennsylvania would actually serve Penn.

William Penn wanted Pennsylvania to be a place where people would not be jailed or otherwise persecuted for their religious beliefs, and he published advertisements urging oppressed people to move there. He drew up the First Frame of Government as the colony's first constitution. He sent his cousin William Markhamto Pennsylvania in April 1681 as his deputy. Penn arrived on the ship Welcome in the colony in October 1682. He picked the site for Philadelphia, "city of brotherly love," which was to be the capital city, and drew up a street plan for the city, with all avenues straight and meeting at right angles. On 4 December 1682, he summoned the first General Assembly, which became the colony's legislative body. On 7 December, the General Assembly enacted the Great Law, which was a statement of civil rights for the people of Pennsylvania. In 1683, the second General Assembly

adopted a Second Frame of Government, which more plainly laid out what form Pennsylvania's government would take.

Pennsylvania was the twelfth of the original thirteen American colonies to be founded, but it quickly grew to be the second most populous after Virginia. Quakers, Mennonites, Amish, Presbyterians, and Roman Catholics from Great Britain, Germany, Ireland, Sweden, and the Netherlands flocked to Pennsylvania, where they could worship in peace. Although the Quakers and many other colonists opposed slavery, Pennsylvania had about 4,000 slaves by 1730. However, thousands of African Americans were free in Pennsylvania, and they began founding their own Christian churches. Jews, too, found homes in Pennsylvania, adding to the cosmopolitan atmosphere of Philadelphia and other cities. In the first half of the eighteenth century, Philadelphia was the second most populous English-speaking city in the world after London, although German, Swedish, and other languages were often spoken as well. In the farms of the Piedmont region, the dialect Pennsylvania Dutch evolved out of German (the word "Dutch" coming from Deutsche, the German word for the German language).

Revolution

In the 1750s, France made a strong bid to control western Pennsylvania by erecting and manning a series of forts in the frontier. An allied army of French and Native American forces ambushed a British army at Monongahela in 1755, destroying it. The French built Fort Duquesne at the site of modern-day Pittsburgh, and Pennsylvania might have lost about one-third of its territory had not combined British and colonial forces led by General John Forbes recaptured the area and seized the fort. In the early 1760s, Chief Pontiac of the Ottawas formed a coalition of tribes and tried to force colonists out of the western frontier; he was defeated in the Battle of Bushy Run by colonial forces led by Colonel Henry Bouquet in August 1763.

Although Philadelphia had not been the center of revolutionary fervor, in the 1770s it seemed the logical place for representatives of the rebellious colonies to meet, in part because it was a city open to peaceful divergence of opinions. It had become known as the "Athens of America," and was chosen to be the new nation's capital when the Continental Congress declared independence from Britain on 4 July 1776. By then, Pennsylvania had already renounced allegiance to England. On 28 September 1776, the state convention wrote a new state constitution, which included a "Declaration of Rights," intended to protect individual civil liberties.

For nine months in 1777, the British occupied Philadelphia, a severe blow to the young nation. From December 1777 to June 1778, the Continental Army camped in Valley Forge. The army lost about one-fourth of its troops to exposure and starvation, yet by June it was able to force the British to abandon Philadelphia, where the Continental Congress thereafter met. Native American allies of the British raided western Pennsylvania, killing farmers and burning hamlets, but in 1779 expeditions led by Daniel Brodhead and John Sullivan against the Iroquois Confederacy drove the Native American forces away.

In 1779, the government of Pennsylvania officially seized all lands owned by Penn family members. In 1780, while the Revolutionary War (17751783) was still underway, Pennsylvania's legislature passed a law providing for the "gradual abolition of slavery." Anyone born within Pennsylvania's borders was automatically free, regardless of ancestry.

On 17 September 1787, the Constitutional Convention, meeting in Philadelphia, offered a new national constitution for ratification by the American states. On 12 December 1787, Pennsylvania became the second state to ratify it. The new nation needed funds and therefore levied taxes. One tax was on whiskey, which resulted in Pennsylvanians creating one of the first major challenges to federal authority. Farmers in the Allegheny Plateau found shipping their grain to markets in the east to be very expensive because of numerous hills and valleys in their region, so they made whiskey at home; the new tax on whiskey forced them to stop making their own and to lose money shipping grain to whiskey makers in the east. In 1791, they rebelled, chasing away tax collectors. By 1794, they were a threat to the security of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. President George Washington raised an army of 13,000 troops, which marched on the rebels. Fighting was brief, one man was killed, the Whiskey Rebellion leaders were jailed (but soon released), and the new federal government had made its point.

Philadelphia served as America's capital from 1790 to 1800, when the capital moved to Washington, D.C. The state capital moved to Lancaster in 1799, and then to Harrisburg in 1812.

Industry and Labor

Pennsylvania created "Donation Lands," territory it gave for free to Revolutionary War veterans. This helped to spread the state's population westward. Presbyterian Irish immigrants seemed to have a preference for frontier lands, and as Pennsylvania became more populous, they moved westward. In the 1840s, a potato famine impelled a great migration of Irish to America, and many of them settled in Pennsylvania. Yet, Pennsylvania's traditionally open attitude was changing for the worse. In 1838, a mob burned down Pennsylvania Hall soon after its construction as a meeting place for antislavery activists and others. In the same year, African American citizens had their right to vote taken away. In 1844, there were riots in Kensington against Roman Catholics.

A state constitutional convention was called in 1837, and the new 1838 constitution established three years as a governor's term of office and added new constitutional offices. Although it seemed to enhance the voice of voters in governmental affairs by increasing the powers of the legislature while curtailing those of the governor, it included outrages such as denying black Americans the vote. Even so, a staunch abolitionist, David Wilmot, was elected to the U.S. Congress, where he fought in 1846 to make the new state of Texas a free state. Wilmot reflected the anxiety of many Pennsylvanians over the issue of slavery. Pennsylvania had a law that made capturing fugitive slaves and sending them back to slavery kidnapping, but in 1842 the U.S. Supreme Court in Prigg v. Pennsylvania overturned the law, opening the way for the bounty hunting of escaped slaves in free states. In defiance, Pennsylvania made it illegal to use its jails to hold fugitive slaves. The federal Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 was meant to be a compromise between antislavery and proslavery forces in the United States, but it resulted in riots in Pennsylvania against its implementation; the Christiana Riot of 1851 against slave hunters was notorious for its violence.

In 1860, the Republicans, composed of antislavery groups encompassing disaffected Democrats and remnants of the Whigs, as well as Independents, won control of Pennsylvania's government. The Pennsylvanian James Buchanan was elected president of the United States in 1856, serving from 1857 to 1861. He tried to forge compromises between slave and free states, but the pending creation of more free states in America's western frontier spawned a revolt in his Democratic Party; the rebels ran a candidate of their own, splitting the Democratic vote and throwing the election to Abraham Lincoln. Among Buchanan's last acts as president was to send reinforcements to army posts in slave states.

During the Civil War (18611865), Confederate cavalry sometimes raided towns in Pennsylvania, and in June 1863, General Robert E. Lee tried to separate the Union's supply lines by driving toward Harrisburg. Pennsylvania was a major supplier of raw materials for the Union, and arms and other supplies moved through it south to the Army of the Potomac and west to armies led by Ulysses S. Grant. By taking control of central Pennsylvania, the Confederates could cut off Washington, D.C., from supply and threaten New England. The Union could be forced to sue for peace. The Union General George Meade had stationed infantry on high ground in Gettysburg, just in case Lee moved his men in that direction, and the citizens of Harrisburg fortified their city, burning a bridge between them and Lee's army. The two armies met at Gettysburg. After three days of relentless combat from 1 to 3 July, Lee retreated while trying to hold together his nearly shattered army. It was in Gettysburg that Lincoln made his famous address that declared America a nation "of the people."

After the Civil War, Pennsylvania became more industrialized, becoming a major source of coal and petroleum. In 1874, the state created a new constitution, which set the office of governor to one four-year term. Women's rights came to the fore in political debates. In some areas, Pennsylvania was a leader in women's rights. In 1850, the Women's Medical College was founded in Philadelphia, and other women's colleges were created. The National Woman Suffrage Association was organized in Philadelphia in 1868. Yet, efforts to extend the right to vote to women failed; as late as 1915, a state constitutional amendment passed by the Assembly was voted down in a general election. On the other hand, in August 1920, Pennsylvania was the seventh state to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which gave women the right to vote.

Another difficult area involved labor disputes. The industries of coal mining and steel production became dominant in the state, employing hundreds of thousands of people. As early as the 1840s, Pennsylvania passed laws to protect workers, but abuses persisted. The secretive Molly Maguires (named for a similar organization in Ireland whose members dressed in women's clothes as a disguise) organized coal miners in Pennsylvania. They terrorized owners, bosses, and foremen, sometimes murdering them. In 1877, the Molly Maguire organization was broken by private investigators hired by mine and railroad owners; several members of the group were convicted of murder.

In 1902, a coal strike created severe hardships for miners and those whose jobs depended on coal. President Theodore Roosevelt's intervention in the strike helped owners and union members to reach a peaceful agreement and set the precedent for presidential intercession in labor disputes. Laws slowly brought relief to workers. Whereas workers in some factories had to work ten hours a day, seven days a week in 1900, in the 1920s the government mandated eight-hour days, five days a week. Pennsylvania was fertile ground for the growth of unions, among the most powerful of which was the United Mine Workers.

Pennsylvania produced about 50 percent of America's steel in the first half of the twentieth century and was home to other industries as well. It maintained a strong farming culture and developed a powerful food processing industry. The Hershey Chocolate Company was started in 1894 as a subsidiary of Milton S. Hershey's Lancaster Caramel Company. The forerunner of the H. J. Heinz Company was founded in 1869 and built model factories that were well ventilated, spacious, and full of light. Railroads were also important, and George Westinghouse got his start by designing safety equipment for trains. Road building became an important source of income for workers during the depression of the 1930s, and in 1940, the Pennsylvania Turnpike was opened. Pennsylvania was a pioneer in communications, with the nation's first commercial radio station, KDKA of Pittsburgh, beginning broadcasting on 2 November 1920. The first all-movie theater opened on 19 June 1905 in Pittsburgh.

Modern Era

The economy of Pennsylvania did fairly well during World War II (19391945) because of demand for steel and coal, but after the war it had many problems. Steel strikes in 1952 were damaging to the nation's economy, inspiring President Harry S. Truman to try to nationalize the steel industry. Another steel strike in 1959 brought the intervention of President Dwight D. Eisenhower and inspired new federal laws restricting union activities. In the 1970s, union strength in Pennsylvania waned, in part because Pennsylvania's coal was high in sulfur and thus too polluting to meet the standards of the federal Clean Air Act of 1970. In 1957, America's first commercial nuclear power plant opened in Shippingport. In March 1979, the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant had an accident, during which a small amount of radioactive gas was released into the atmosphere. This was another blow to the state economy.

In 1968, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania created yet another new constitution. This one allowed governors to seek reelection and modified some offices of the executive branch. There had been race riots in Philadelphia in 1964, and thus many Pennsylvanians took it as a good sign of racial harmony when W. Wilson Goode, an African American, was elected mayor of that city in 1983.

By 2000, Pennsylvania had a population of 12,281,054, although its population growth was one of the lowest in the United States, probably because of a large population of retirees. There were about 500,000 more women than men in the commonwealth. Although Pennsylvania was founded by Quakers, only about 15,000 lived in the state. The production of aluminum, the manufacturing of helicopters and small airplanes, and the processing of food were all major industries. Even so, big industries such as steel had declined markedly, with steel production dwindling to about 8 percent of national production. On the other hand, Pennsylvania's numerous scenic wonders, its mix of cultures, and its cosmopolitan cities drew tourists by the millions. Agriculture became the backbone of Pennsylvania's economy, marking a shift to farming after many decades of industrial growth, with over 51,000 farms. The Amish, still using farming techniques from the eighteenth century, had some of the most productive farms in the commonwealth.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Beers, Paul B. Pennsylvania Politics Today and Yesterday: The Tolerable Accommodation. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1980.

Forrey, William C. History of Pennsylvania's State Parks. Harrisburg: Bureau of State Parks, Department of Environmental Resources, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1984.

Fradin, Dennis B. The Pennsylvania Colony. Chicago: Children's Press, 1988.

Heinrichs, Ann. Pennsylvania. New York: Children's Press, 2000.

Kent, Donald H. History of Pennsylvania Purchases from the Indians. New York: Garland, 1974.

Klein, Philip S., and Ari Hoogenboom. A History of Pennsylvania. 2d and enl. ed. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1980.

Stevens, Sylvester K. Pennsylvania, Birthplace of a Nation. New York: Random House, 1964.

Wills, Charles A. A Historical Album of Pennsylvania. Brookfield, Conn.: Milbrook Press, 1996.

Kirk H. Beetz

See also Christiana Fugitive Affair ; Coal Mining and Organized Labor ; Duquesne, Fort ; Great Law of Pennsylvania ; Pennsylvania, Invasion of .

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Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania (pĕnsəlvā´nyə), one of the Middle Atlantic states of the United States. It is bordered by New Jersey, across the Delaware River (E), Delaware (SE), Maryland (S), West Virginia (SW), Ohio (W), and Lake Erie and New York (N).

Facts and Figures

Area, 45,333 sq mi (117,412 sq km). Pop. (2010) 12,702,379, a 3.4% increase since the 2000 census. Capital, Harrisburg. Largest city, Philadelphia. Statehood, Dec. 12, 1787 (2d of the original 13 states to ratify the Constitution). Highest pt., Mt. Davis, 3,213 ft (980 m); lowest pt., sea level. Nickname, Keystone State. Motto, Virtue, Liberty, and Independence. State bird, ruffed grouse. State flower, mountain laurel. State tree, hemlock. Abbr., Pa.; PA

Geography

The Great Lakes Plain meets the Appalachian Plateau in the extreme northwestern part of the state. The Appalachian Plateau stretches across the western and northern sections of Pennsylvania and covers more than half the area of the state. The Allegheny Mts. line the eastern edge of the plateau and run southwest to northeast, overlooking the Great Appalachian Valley. The Jacks, Tuscarora, and Blue Mts. comprise a ridge and valley section bordered by the Great Appalachian Valley to the southeast and east. The Piedmont Plateau gives way to the Atlantic Coastal Plain in the extreme southeastern portion of the state.

In the east Pennsylvania is drained by the Delaware and the Susquehanna river systems; in the west by the Allegheny and the Monongahela rivers, which join at Pittsburgh to form the Ohio River; and in the central part by the West Branch of the Susquehanna, which crosses the state and empties into Chesapeake Bay. These turbulent streams and rivers have cut beautiful water gaps, natural passageways for roads and rail lines.

The great forests and lush vegetation that once covered the entire state were transformed during the Carboniferous period into deposits of anthracite coal in the northeast and extensive bituminous beds in the west. Large areas of woodland remain and, in some isolated sections, have retained an almost primitive wildness. Of the many historic sites and parks that have been preserved, those under federal ownership include Fort Necessity National Battlefield, Gettysburg National Military Park, and Independence and Valley Forge national historical parks (see National Parks and Monuments, table). Harrisburg, the state capital, is located between the metropolitan areas of Philadelphia, the largest city, and Pittsburgh.

Economy

Iron smelting, made possible by abundant supplies of ore and of hardwoods for the furnaces, became important in the 18th cent. In the 19th cent., after the Bessemer process made the use of its great bituminous deposits economical, Pennsylvania quickly emerged as the nation's leading steel producer, but the industry has since declined dramatically. Another Pennsylvania resource, anthracite coal, found in the northeast, long made the state a dominant force in American railroading. In the early 21st cent., shale gas has driven a drilling boom in N and W Pennsylvania. Heavy industry has declined in general, but the state still manufactures metal products, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, machinery, chemicals, and a wide variety of plastic, rubber, stone, clay, and glass products.

The Pittsburgh and Philadelphia metropolitan areas, situated at opposite ends of the state and dominating the commercial and industrial life of their regions, present startling contrasts in production and culture. Other leading cities are Allentown, Bethlehem, Erie, Reading, Scranton, and Wilkes-Barre.

Agriculture is concentrated in the fertile counties of the southeast, and prized farmlands lie in the Great Appalachian Valley, rich with limestone soils; here the Pennsylvania Dutch farmer built a culture that is identified with the bountiful agrarian life. Principal agricultural products include dairy products, cattle, hay, corn, wheat, oats, mushrooms, poultry, potatoes, and fruit.

Government and Higher Education

Pennsylvania is governed under the constitution adopted in 1873 and amended extensively since then. The governor serves a four-year term and may be reelected for one additional term. Thomas Ridge, a Republican, was elected in 1994 and reelected in 1998. Ridge resigned in 2001 to head the U.S. Office of Homeland Security; he was succeeded by Lieutenant Governor Mark S. Schweiker. A Democrat, Ed Rendell, was elected to the office in 2002 and reelected in 2006. In 2010 Tom Corbett, a Republican, was elected governor, but in 2014 he lost to Democrat Tom Wolf. The state legislature, called the general assembly, consists of a senate of 50 members and a house of representatives of 203 members. Pennsylvania sends 2 senators and 18 representatives to the U.S. Congress and has 20 electoral votes.

Among the state's many universities and colleges are Bryn Mawr College, at Bryn Mawr; Bucknell Univ., at Lewisburg; Carnegie-Mellon Univ., the Univ. of Pittsburgh, and Duquesne Univ., at Pittsburgh; Dickinson College, at Carlisle; Drexel Univ., Temple Univ., the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Saint Joseph's Univ., and La Salle College, at Philadelphia; Franklin and Marshall College, at Lancaster; Haverford College, at Haverford; Lafayette College, at Easton; Lehigh Univ., at Bethlehem; Lincoln Univ., at Oxford; Pennsylvania State Univ., mainly at University Park; Swarthmore College, at Swarthmore; Villanova Univ., at Villanova; and the 14 universities in the state system.

History

Exploration and Early Settlement

In the early 1600s the English, Dutch, and Swedes disputed the right to the region of Pennsylvania. Explorations were confined to the Delaware River vicinity, where fur trading with the Native Americans was carried on. The original permanent settlement was established on Tinicum Island (1643) in the Delaware River by Johan Printz, governor of New Sweden, and was followed in the succeeding years by the neighboring colony of Uppland.

Swedish jurisdiction was short-lived as the Dutch, operating from their stronghold in New Amsterdam, succeeded in gaining control of the Middle Atlantic region in 1655. In turn the Dutch were overpowered by the British forces of Col. Richard Nicolls, acting for the duke of York (later James II), and in 1664 the British took over the Delaware area. The duke of York remained in control until 1681, when, in payment of a royal debt, William Penn was granted proprietary rights to almost the whole of what is now Pennsylvania, and, in addition, leased the three Lower Counties (see Delaware).

Penn's Colony

A devout Quaker who had suffered for his beliefs, Penn viewed his colony as a holy experiment, designed to grant asylum to the persecuted under conditions of equality and freedom. In 1681 he sent William Markham as his deputy to establish a government at Uppland and sent instructed commissioners to plot the City of Brotherly Love (Philadelphia), which was laid out a few miles north of the confluence of the Delaware and the Schuylkill rivers.

Penn carefully constructed a constitution, known as the Frame of Government, that gave Pennsylvania the most liberal government in the colonies. Religious freedom was guaranteed to all who believed in God, a humane penal code was adopted, and the emancipation of slaves was encouraged. However, under the representative system that it established, the popular assembly was left in an inferior position in relation to the executive branches controlled by the proprietors. In 1682 Penn arrived at Uppland (renamed Chester). Shortly thereafter he met with the chiefs of the Delaware tribes and a famous treaty was signed that promoted long-lasting goodwill between the Native Americans and the European settlers. After Penn's death in 1718 proprietary rights were held by his heirs.

By this time Pennsylvania had developed into a dynamic and growing colony, enriched by the continuous immigration of numerous different peoples. The Quakers, English, and Welsh were concentrated in Philadelphia and the eastern counties, where they acquired great commercial and financial power through foreign trade and where they achieved a political dominance which they held until the time of the American Revolution. Philadelphia had by then become the finest city in the nation, a leader in the arts and the professions. The Germans (Pennsylvania Dutch)—largely of the persecuted religious sects of Mennonites (including Amish), Moravians, Lutherans, and Reformed—settled in the farming areas of SE Pennsylvania, where they retained their cohesion and to a considerable extent their language, customs, architecture, and superstitions.

Western Settlement and Native American Resistance

After 1718 the Scotch-Irish began colonizing in the Cumberland Valley and gradually pushed the frontiers toward W Pennsylvania. Their rugged independence and the peculiarities of their frontier problems made them rebellious against the established order. Throughout the province agriculture was the chief occupation, although industry was spurred by abundant water power and plentiful natural resources.

In the west settlement was hindered by a growing unrest among the Native Americans. Penn's heirs lacked both the good sense and the ethical values that prompted Penn's fair and considerate treatment. Resentful of encroachment on their lands and of the land purchase made by the Albany Congress (1754), the Native Americans allied themselves with the French, who were then fortifying positions in the Ohio valley (see French and Indian Wars). The frontier settlements were severely ravaged until, after several reverses, the French abandoned (1758) Fort Duquesne to British and American forces under Gen. John Forbes.

The power of the Native Americans was not completely broken until the suppression of the uprising of 1763 (see Pontiac's Rebellion). The inept defenses provided by the Quaker-controlled assembly during the crisis aroused bitter resentment and intensified efforts to overturn proprietary rule. The struggle between proprietary and antiproprietary parties was soon overshadowed, however, by the opposition to British imperial policies that culminated in the American Revolution.

The American Revolution and a New Nation

Important Pennsylvanians of both dominant political parties emerged as leaders of the Revolutionary movement—Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin Rush, Joseph Reed, Thomas Mifflin, John Dickinson, Robert Morris, and Haym Salomon. In 1776 a provincial convention dominated by radical patriots created the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania under one of the most democratic of the new state constitutions.

The state was invaded by British troops, and notable engagements were fought in 1777 on the Brandywine (see Brandywine, battle of) and at Germantown. Philadelphia was occupied by the British, while Valley Forge witnessed the heroic endurance of Washington's troops in the winter of 1777–78, making the site a shrine of patriotism. In the postwar period, Pennsylvania's role as the geographical keystone of the new nation was strengthened by its resolution of boundary disputes that had persisted throughout the colonial period: agreement was reached with Maryland in 1784 by acceptance of the Mason-Dixon line; with Virginia and New York in 1786; with the United States and the Iroquois Confederacy in 1789; and with Connecticut in 1799 after bitter dissension in the Wyoming Valley.

Philadelphia, host to the First and Second Continental Congresses (1774, 1775–81) and scene of the signing of the Declaration of Independence, was for many years the nation's leading city. It was the site of the Constitutional Convention of 1787, served as the seat of the new federal government from 1790 to 1800, and became a financial center through the organization of the First Bank of the United States (1791) and the U.S. Mint (1792). In 1790 it was also the site of a convention that replaced the radical state constitution of 1776 with a more conservative one patterned after the federal Constitution, while retaining such liberal achievements as the act (1780) providing for the gradual abolition of slavery. Philadelphia was not, however, typical of the state as a whole.

From the Whiskey Rebellion to the Civil War

Opposition to federal taxation in rural Pennsylvania led to violence in the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 and the Fries Rebellion of 1798 (see Fries, John), while anti-eastern sentiment forced removal of the state capital to Lancaster in 1799, then to Harrisburg in 1812. Western influence in state affairs increased as the rapid movement of settlers into the Ohio country created new markets, stimulated the growth of new industries, and assured the importance of Pittsburgh and Erie as commercial centers. The economic and social development of W Pennsylvania also encouraged programs of internal improvements. The turnpike era, initiated by the incorporation of the Lancaster Turnpike in 1792, was followed by an extensive canal-building program in the 1820s and 30s and, after the introduction of steam power, by an era of extensive railroad construction.

Adequate provisions for free public education, championed by Gov. George Wolf and Thaddeus Stevens, emerged in the Free School Act of 1834, which was implemented in 1849 by legislation making attendance by those of school age compulsory. Much of the early education was denominational, and many schools remained church-affiliated.

In political life the Democratic party was generally dominant, and in 1857 Pennsylvania gave the nation a Democratic president in James Buchanan. However, a split within the party over its opposition to slavery and the desire for a high protective tariff to protect the state's growing industries led to a Republican victory in 1860 and began Pennsylvania's long affiliation with the Republican party. Because of Pennsylvania's location near the South, it was the scene of several battles in the Civil War, notably the Gettysburg campaign of 1863.

The Rise of Industry and the Labor Movement

With the close of the war came the rapid emergence of the state as a mighty industrial commonwealth. Supported by high protective tariffs, the industries found favorable markets and a constant supply of immigrant labor. The first oil well was dug at Titusville in 1859, and a number of fortunes, particularly that of the Rockefeller family, was founded on petroleum. But it was steel that became the basic industry, using iron ore from the Lehigh valley and the Bethlehem area and the native Pennsylvania coal. Later the iron ore was transported in massive amounts across the Great Lakes. Under the manipulation of such men as Andrew Carnegie, Henry Frick, Charles Schwab, and J. Pierpont Morgan (1837–1913; see under Morgan, family) numerous interests were merged into vast combines with state and national influence.

In the face of this increasing concentration of power, labor struggled to achieve safer working conditions, higher wages, and shorter hours. The campaign brought bloodshed during the fight between mine owners and the radical Molly Maguires and reached a climax in the strike at Homestead (see Homestead strike) in 1892. The miners, under the leadership of John Mitchell and aided by the intervention of Theodore Roosevelt, achieved a qualified victory in the anthracite strike of 1902, but the great steel strike of 1919 was broken. During the 1930s the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) successfully promoted unionization in many new areas and somewhat weakened the strength of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). By 1941 the CIO had succeeded in organizing the steel industry, while the United Mine Workers had acquired increasing strength among the workers in the coal fields.

Government Reform and Economic Restructuring

The powerful and corrupt political machine that had been built by Simon Cameron continued into the 20th cent. under the leadership of such bosses as Boies Penrose. Gifford Pinchot, a Progressive Republican and a vigorous "dry," was governor for two terms (1923–27, 1931–35) and did much to repair government through a new administrative code, an improved budget system, and pioneer work in conservation.

In 1979 the state suffered a near-disaster as an accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear facility near Harrisburg resulted in a partial meltdown. Pennsylvania's population has grown slowly since the 1940s, when it was the second largest state in the union; it was the sixth most populous state after the 2000 census. After losing hundreds of thousands of manufacturing jobs in the 1980s, the state's economy experienced a notable shift to the service sector. Some of Pennsylvania's enterprises did grow, however, and in recent years such high-tech industries as biotechnology and pharmaceuticals have flourished, largely in the suburbs of Philadelphia and Pittsburgh.

Bibliography

See S. G. Fisher, The Making of Pennsylvania (2d ed. 1969); A. S. Bolles, Pennsylvania, Province and State: A History from 1609 to 1790 (2 vol., 1970); P. H. Gibbons, Pennsylvania Dutch (3d ed. 1971); W. H. Egle, Pennsylvania Women in the American Revolution (1898, repr. 1972); C. A. Hanna, The Wilderness Trail (2 vol., 1911; repr. 1972); P. S. Klein and A. Hoogenboom, A History of Pennsylvania (2d ed. 1980); E. W. Miller, Pennsylvania: Keystone to Progress (1986); D. J. Cuff et al., Atlas of Pennsylvania (1989).

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"Pennsylvania." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. 2016. Encyclopedia.com. 31 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania

Sources

Proprietorship. Pennsylvania, like Maryland, New York, and the Carolinas, was a proprietary colony, the gift of the monarch to an individual or group of individuals. In the case of Pennsylvania the land north of Maryland and west of the Jerseys repaid a debt that the Crown owed to the Penn family. Adm. Sir William Penn aided the Stuart princes in exile during the English Civil War. The admirals son, William, was a friend of both Charles, who would be restored to the throne in 1660 as Charles II, and his younger brother James, Duke of York, later James II. William Jr. had also become a Quaker, a religious sect feared and persecuted in England. With the grant of territory in 1681 Charles II had repaid a debt without it actually costing him anything

PROMOTIONAL LITERATURE

One of the ways that proprietors and land speculators lured settlers to America was through published descriptions of the richness of the lands. Some descriptions were clearly fantastic, promising health, wealth, and happiness with little work. Women usually made only half of what men made in wages, and the marrying age for women was in their early twenties. Notwithstanding the facts, Gabriel Thomas, hoping to lure both men and women to Pennsylvania, wrote in 1698:

They pay no Tithes [church taxes] and their Taxes are inconsiderable.... I shall add another reason why Womens Wages are so exorbitant: they are not yet very numerous, which makes them stand upon high Terms for their several Services in Sempstering [seamstress], Washing, Spinning, Knitting, Sewing, and in all the other parts of their Imployments... moreover they are usually Marryd before they are Twenty Years of Age, and when once in that Noose, are for the most part a little uneasie, and make their Husbands so too, till they procure them a Maid Servant to bear the burden of the Work, as also some measure to wait on them too.

The Christian children born here are generally wellfavoured, and Beautiful to behold; I never knew any come into the World with the least blemish on any part of its Body, being in the general, observd to be better Naturd, Milder, and more tender Hearted than those born in England.

Source: An Historical and Geographical Account of Pensilvania and of West-New-Jersey, by Gabriel Thomas, 1698, in Narratives of Early Pennsylvania, West New Jersey and Delaware 16301707, edited by Albert Cook Myers (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1967), pp. 329, 332.

since he had never invested in American lands. He also provided a means of getting rid of Quakers because Admiral Penn gave the proprietorship to his son. Penn and his heirs were granted large powers over their new land, but they found, as did the Lords Baltimore and the Carolina proprietors, that having this authority on paper and being able to exercise it were different things. Politically, the proprietors and the settlers were often at odds. Penn, a genuine reformer and true believer in religious toleration for most groups, understood that his familys fortune depended upon his attracting settlers to his colony. Promotional literature extolled the richness of the land, healthiness of the air, and convenience of river transportation and ocean access for trade. But Penn also promised personal and religious freedoms, thereby attracting not only Quakers but also other persecuted minorities. Upon his death in 1718 the proprietorship descended to his son, Thomas.

Philadelphia. William Penn realized that his colony needed a port city that would attract merchants and artisans as well as provide a market where farmers could sell their goods. It helped that many of those who became Quakers in England had urban backgrounds and skills. The model he did not want to follow was overcrowded, dirty, disease-ridden, and dangerous London. To this end Philadelphia (the name means brotherly love in Greek), unlike Boston or New York, was a planned city, and Penn sent commissioners to find a good location and provide the knowledge necessary to lay out his green country town. They chose a peninsula between the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, thus giving water access both to the Atlantic Ocean and to the hinterland. The peninsula lent itself to the grid plan that Penn and his surveyor, Thomas Holme, chose as the best way to order the city. A one-hundred-foot-wide street in the middle (Market) intersected another one-hundred-foot-wide street that ran lengthwise (Broad) with smaller streets at regular intervals. Rather than honor human beings, the streets were either named after trees (Chestnut, Walnut) or given numbers (First, Second). The middle of town had a square. In 1683 the town had 600 people and 100 houses; two years later there were 357 houses, divers of them large, well built, with good Cellars, three stories, and some with balconies. The town also had seven ordinaries, inns which served food, rented rooms, and most important, gave men a place to drink. Philadelphia would become the major port and largest city in British America on the eve of the Revolution with some 31,500 people, of whom about 850 were blacks, slave and free.

Quakers. The people called the Society of Friends, or Quakers, began in England in the early 1650s, when George Fox, a cobbler and shepherd, received what he felt to be an immediate awakening to the Inner Light, Truth, and God. These were years of civil strife in England, and Foxs message was one of pacifism. The Friends were also evangelical, spreading the good news of their beliefs and calling on those around them to renounce the Church of England, or state church, and follow them. The Restoration of the monarchy in 1660 brought to power those who saw Quakers as a threat to the church and the state. Fox and many of those around him spent time in jail. Some of the wealthier and more well connected followers, such as William Penn, began to look for a place of refuge where Quakers could worship as they likedwithout baptism, liturgy, and ministersbut also where they could make decent livings for their families. They first looked to West New Jersey, part of the holdings of James, Duke of York. James had given this land away already, but Quakers still settled there. The proprietorship of Penn held out more promise in the long run. He arrived at his colony in 1681 with other Friends, and his land policies encouraged wealthy Quaker merchants and farmers to come to America. English, Irish, and Welsh Quakers flocked to Pennsylvania. They quickly established meetings (congregations) along the lines that Fox had laid out in England. Tightly

organized, Quaker meetings did well in Pennsylvania. The Quaker elite also kept its power base in the legislature, the only colony where Quakers were politically important. They managed to keep Pennsylvania out of the colonial wars until they were forced to compromise in the 1750s. Their basic tolerance of other religious and ethnic groups made Pennsylvania attractive to Europeans. It was the fastest growing colony of the eighteenth century.

Diversity. The area of land that became Pennsylvania had hosted European settlement long before Penn was granted his charter. New Sweden, founded in 1638, was conquered by the Dutch in 1655. After the conquest Dutchmen, Germans, and Scandinavians settled in the region. In 1685, four years after Penns grant, he wrote, The People are a Collection of divers Nations in Europe: As, French, Dutch, Germans, Swedes, Danes, Finns, Scotch, Irish and English; and of the last equal to all the rest. These people were also of various religions that included Swedish Lutherans, Dutch Reformed, German Lutherans, Anglicans, Quakers, Anabaptists, and Presbyterians. In the eighteenth century German Mennonites and Moravians, Presbyterian Scots, and Welsh Baptists filed into Pennsylvanias backcountry. Indentured servants served as laborers in Philadelphia and on the farms in the counties that supplied the city. While there were no large settlements of Roman Catholics or Jews, there were enough individuals to hold small religious services in private homes. In 1744 the Maryland physician and gentleman Alexander Hamilton, traveling north for his health, dined att a tavern with a very mixed company of different nations and religions. There were Scots, English, Dutch, Germans, and Irish; there were Roman Catholicks, Church men [Church of England], Presbyterians, Quakers, Newlightmen [evangelicals], Methodists, Seventh day men, Moravians, Anabaptists, and one Jew. The whole company consisted of 25 planted round an oblong table in a great hall. Pennsylvanias ethnic diversity created the audience and the market for a German-language press. The large numbers of non-English speakers in Pennsylvania had some, such as Benjamin Franklin, worried. In the end he was unable to convince the legislature to take steps against immigrants. Most realized, as had Penn, that a provinces prosperity lay in its people. An open and tolerant society brought in people to work the land and provide the grains and beef upon which Pennsylvanias economy was built. They in turn provided the markets for goods made by artisans in the colony and merchandise imported from Britain through the great and wealthy merchants of Philadelphia. Finally, Pennsylvania was also home to those who had never wanted to come at allAfrican slaves. While Quakers became increasingly uncomfortable with slavery from the 1750s onward, they were slave owners up until the eve of the Revolution. Non-Quakers had fewer doubts about the morality of owning other human beings. Pennsylvania did not take any censuses during the colonial period. Estimates from the 1770s and data from the first federal census of 1790 place the white population at about three hundred thousand and the black at about ten thousand.

Sources

Hugh Barbour and J. William Frost, The Quakers (New York: Greenwood Press, 1988);

Joseph Illick, Colonial Pennsylvania: A History (New York: Scribners, 1976);

Sally Schwartz, A Mixed Multitude: The Struggle for Toleration in Colonial Pennsylvania (New York: New York University Press, 1987);

Jean R. Soderlund, Black Importation and Migration into Southeastern Pennsylvania, 16821810, The Demographic History of the Philadelphia Region 16001860, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, edited by Susan E. Klepp, 133 (1989): 144153.

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Pennsylvania

PENNSYLVANIA


Allentown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393

Erie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403

Harrisburg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413

Lancaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425

Philadelphia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437

Pittsburgh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451

Scranton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469

The State in Brief

Nickname: Keystone State

Motto: Virtue, liberty, and independence

Flower: Mountain laurel

Bird: Ruffled grouse

Area: 46,055 (2000; U.S. rank: 33rd)

Elevation: Ranges from sea level to 3,213 feet

Climate: Cold winters, warm summers, abundant precipitation

Admitted to Union: December 12, 1787

Capital: Harrisburg

Head Official: Governor Ed Rendell (D) (until 2007)

Population

1980: 11,863,895

1990: 11,881,643

2000: 12,281,054

2004 estimate: 12,406,292

Percent change, 19902000: 3.4%

U.S. rank in 2004: 6th

Percent of residents born in state: 77.7% (2000)

Density: 274 people per square mile (2000)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 350,466

Racial and Ethnic Characteristics (2000)

White: 10,484,203

Black or African American: 1,224,612

American Indian and Alaska Native: 18,348

Asian: 219,813

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 3,417

Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 394,088

Other: 188,437

Age Characteristics (2000)

Population under 5 years old: 727,804

Population 5 to 19 years old: 2,542,780

Percent of population 65 years and over: 15.6%

Median age: 38 years (2000)

Vital Statistics

Total number of births (2003): 142,287

Total number of deaths (2003): 126,404 (infant deaths, 981)

AIDS cases reported through 2003: 15,178

Economy

Major industries: Manufacturing, services, tourism, transportation, mining, high technology, agriculture

Unemployment rate: 4.9% (April 2005)

Per capita income: $31,706 (2003; U.S. rank: 18th)

Median household income: $43,869 (3-year average, 2001-2003)

Percentage of persons below poverty level: 9.9% (3-year average, 2001-2003)

Income tax rate: 3.07%

Sales tax rate: 6%

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Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania State in e USA; one of the Middle Atlantic states; the capital is Harrisburg. The chief cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Scranton, Bethlehem, Wilkes-Barre and Erie. Swedish and Dutch settlements were made along the Delaware River in the mid-17th century. By 1664, the area was controlled by the English, and in 1681 William Penn received a charter from Charles II for what is now Pennsylvania. It was one of the 13 original states of the Union. The Declaration of Independence was signed and the US Constitution was ratified in Philadelphia, which was also the national capital from 1790 to 1800. The Union victory at the Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863 was a turning point in the American Civil War. Apart from small low-lying areas in the nw and se, the state is composed of mountain ridges and rolling hills with narrow valleys. Farming is concentrated in the se; the principal crops are cereals, tobacco, potatoes and fruit, and dairy products are important. Pennsylvania has rich deposits of coal and iron ore. The State has long been a leading producer of steel, which today accounts for about 25% of the nation's output. Industries: chemicals, cement, electrical machinery, metal goods. Area: 117,412sq km (45,333sq mi). Pop. (2000) 11,881,643.

Statehood :

December 12, 1787

Nickname :

The Keystone State

State bird :

Ruffed grouse

State flower :

Mountain laurel

State tree :

Hemlock

State motto :

Virtue, liberty and independence

http://www.state.pa.us

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"Pennsylvania." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. 31 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Pennsylvania." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. (July 31, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O142-Pennsylvania.html

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Pennsylvania

PENNSYLVANIA


In Charles Andrews' The Colonial Period of American History, Pennsylvania's founder, William Penn (16441718), is quoted as saying, "I abhor contention, niceties, doubtful disputation, divisions, etc., and am for patience, forbearance, long suffering and all true moderation." While Pennsylvania did not fulfill all of William Penn's high ideals as a "holy experiment" in tolerance and diversity, it certainly developed in very diverse ways. Its urban areas soon became some of the most influential in the nation, while its rural areas and vast forests remained unspoiled. Its unmatched transportation network and abundant natural resources helped the state to become an industrial powerhouse in the late nineteenth century. Nonetheless, Pennsylvania retained its agricultural base. It weathered declines in manufacturing after World War II (19391945) but managed to retain much of its economic health in the 1990s by diversifying its economic base.

In 1614 Cornelis Jacobssen, sailing for the Dutch fur trade, was probably the first European to reach Pennsylvania. Swedes also settled there, surrendering to the English in 1664. The colony was granted by King Charles II in 1681 as a proprietorship to William Penn.

Penn, a Quaker who espoused pacifism, tolerance, and equality, was given broad powers to make laws and run the colony as he saw fit. Penn however gave up his lawmaking powers and set up a form of representative government. Many immigrants came to this tolerant colony. The Declaration of Independence was declared from Philadelphia, the state house in 1776, and the new Congress continued to meet there. Philadelphia would serve as the U.S. capital following the American Revolution (17751783) until 1783, and again from 1790 to 1800. Pennsylvania was the second state to join the Union, in 1780.

Pennsylvania's destiny as an industrial powerhouse was sealed when iron was discovered there. The first iron furnace was built in 1792, and coal began to be exploited as an energy resource. The early nineteenth century also saw the completion of the Main Line of Public Works, a canal and railroad system, which connected Philadelphia with Pittsburgh. Another aid to economic development was the stock company, which Pennsylvania encouraged to promote local enterprise. Pennsylvania chartered the Insurance Company of North America (INA) and the Insurance Company of the State of Pennsylvania in 1794, both of which profited mostly from marine and fire casualty policies. The Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike was also chartered and was completed in 1794, cutting the cost of moving goods from Lancaster to Philadelphia by about two-thirds.

Meanwhile Philadelphia was becoming the commercial center of the state. According to historian Thomas C. Cochran, political and economic business could be conducted there very conveniently: "Such compactness, possible for a city of less than 75,000 people, meant that business could be conducted reasonably expeditiously without telephone, telegraph, or a clearing house for the four banks." By the time President Thomas Jefferson (18011809) declared an embargo on foreign imports in 1807, Pennsylvania's financial institutions and insurance companies were ready to meet the challenge, as were local industries, including Philadelphia's many shipbuilders.

By the early 1800s Philadelphia had become the nation's financial center. It was the home of the nation's first stock exchange (1790), the First Bank of the United States (1791), the Second Bank of the United States (1816), and a number of other financial institutions. Under its powerful director Nicholas Biddle (17861844), the Second Bank became the only important rival to New York's financial institutions. Philadelphia, however, lost its preeminence as a financial center when President Andrew Jackson (18291837) vetoed the Second Bank's re-charter in 1831.

In the mid-nineteenth century Pennsylvania continued to tap its abundant natural resources, creating a center for the iron industry and other manufacturers and developing a transportation network which was matched by no other state by 1840. Both Philadelphia and Pittsburgh became major commercial centers. Several more roads were built, and Pennsylvania also benefited from a section of the old National Road, which passed south of Pittsburgh. By the 1840s the improvements to canals and other waterways in the state also exceeded anything which had been done elsewhere.

It was in railroad building however, that Pennsylvania really excelled. By the 1850s lines connected Philadelphia with Germantown; Trenton, New Jersey; the Lehigh Valley; and New York City. In 1852 the Pennsylvania Central connected Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, solidifying these two cities as transportation meccas. In 1857 the powerful Pennsylvania Railroad purchased the State Works, virtually eliminating state competition and tolls. Following the American Civil War (18611865), the Pennsylvania Railroad dominated economic life in the state and held sway over most Republican Party politicians. By 1880 it was the world's largest corporation, with more than 30,000 employees and $400 million in capital.

For the next two decades Pennsylvania was the chief producer of coal, iron, and steel and a major supplier of petroleum and lumber. Immigrants from other states and from abroad came in droves to the coal regions and urban centers to find work in mines, mills, and factories.

No story of the development of Pennsylvania industries would be complete without mention of Andrew Carnegie (18351919). A Scottish immigrant, he worked various jobs before being employed by the Pennsylvania Railroad. There he advanced rapidly, laying the foundations for his future fortune by investing wisely. After serving in the Civil War, he formed a company that produced iron railroad bridges and then founded a steel mill. One of the first to use the Bessemer process, Carnegie succeeded quickly, buying up several other steel companies and soon controlling a quarter of the steel production in the United States. In 1901 he sold his Carnegie Steel Company to United States Steel Corporation for $250 million. After his retirement Carnegie was well-known for his philanthropy, endowing many educational and cultural institutions. He is best known to the general public for his gifts to nearly 1,700 public libraries across the nation and in Great Britain.

With Carnegie Steel, and with the financial expertise of banker Andrew Mellon (18551937), Pittsburgh retained its position as the preeminent industrial city in the region. The city and the state, however, were not without labor problems. Over a period of years many violent strikes occurred in both the coal and the steel industries. In 1892 a lockout at the Carnegie-owned Homestead Steel plant caused a bloody clash between workers and the Pinkerton guards hired to keep them out. Another strike in 1919, involving 50 percent of U.S. steelworkers, shut down the industry for more than three months.

During the 1920s Pennsylvania barely held its own economically, with a low growth rate and industrial products selling below normal levels. The Great Depression (19291939) brought even more economic grief to the state. Democratic Governor George H. Earle, breaking the longtime hold of the Republican party over the state, initiated a "Little New Deal," following the policies of President Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) in supporting labor and farmers, regulating utilities, and building public works. Industrial workers came out of this period with a renewed ability to challenge industry. During World War II (19391945) Pennsylvania returned to a high level of prosperity as it turned out large volumes of munitions, ships, steel, and other materials for the war effort.

Republican and Democratic governors following the war continued efforts to support and encourage industry in the state. Not until the governorship of William W. Scranton (19631967), however, did Pennsylvania return to full economic health. Through increased taxes for state services, more federal aid for economic programs, and steady increases in support for economic development, the state was able to bring its high unemployment rate to below the national average by 1966.

By the mid-1980s, Pennsylvania found itself in the throes of converting from an industrial to a service economy. Pittsburgh, long known for its iron and steel (not to mention its dirty air), became a prototype of a city which made the transition successfully, even converting the sites of its former steel plants and railroad yards to parkland, retail shopping, hotels, and other service-oriented industries. Areas such as Wilkes-Barre which remained depressed were helped in the late 1980s by Governor Robert Casey's attempts to assist ailing industries. In the 1990s steel had been replaced as a major industry by food processing and chemicals, particularly pharmaceuticals. Pittsburgh became a center for corporate headquarters, and Philadelphia, a Mecca for high-technology industries.

By 1996 Pennsylvania ranked eighteenth in per capita personal income in the nation. Nearly 27 percent of the state's workers belonged to labor unions, the sixth highest percentage in the United States. Though primarily known for its industries, Pennsylvania also remains an important agricultural state, producing large quantities of staple crops in addition to livestock. Another important economic sector is forestry. Pennsylvania's numerous historic sites and natural recreation areas have also made tourism the second-largest employer in the state.

See also: Bank of the United State (First National Bank), Bank of the United States (Second National Bank), Andrew Carnegie, Homestead Steel Strike, Steel Industry


FURTHER READING

Billinger, Robert D. Pennsylvania's Coal Industry. Gettysburg, PA: Pennsylvania Historical Association, 1954.

Bremer, Francis J. and Dennis B. Downey, eds. A Guide to the History of Pennsylvania. Westport, CN: Greenwood, 1994.

Cochran, Thomas. Pennsylvania: A Bicentennial History. New York: Norton, 1978.

Klein, Philip S. and Ari Hoogenboom. A History of Pennsylvania, rev. ed. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1980.

Pennsylvania, Commonwealth of. Department of General Services. The Pennsylvania Manual, 1995, vol. 112. Harrisburg, PA: 1995.

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Pennsylvania

PennsylvaniaCampania, Catania, pannier •apnoea •Oceania, Tanya, Titania •biennia, denier, quadrennia, quinquennia, septennia, triennia •Albania, balletomania, bibliomania, crania, dipsomania, egomania, erotomania, kleptomania, Lithuania, Lusitania, mania, Mauritania, megalomania, miscellanea, monomania, nymphomania, Pennsylvania, Pomerania, pyromania, Rainier, Romania, Ruritania, Tasmania, Transylvania, Urania •Armenia, bergenia, gardenia, neurasthenia, proscenia, schizophrenia, senior, SloveniaAbyssinia, Bithynia, curvilinear, Gdynia, gloxinia, interlinear, Lavinia, linear, rectilinear, Sardinia, triclinia, Virginia, zinnia •insignia • Sonia • insomnia • Bosnia •California, cornea •Amazonia, ammonia, Antonia, Babylonia, begonia, bonier, Catalonia, catatonia, Cephalonia, Estonia, Ionia, Laconia, Livonia, Macedonia, mahonia, Patagonia, pneumonia, Rondônia, sinfonia, Snowdonia, valonia, zirconia •junior, petunia •hernia, journeyer

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