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State of Maryland

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Named for Henrietta Maria, queen consort of King Charles I of England.

NICKNAME: The Old Line State and the Free State.

CAPITAL: Annapolis.

ENTERED UNION: 28 April 1788 (7th).

SONG: "Maryland, My Maryland."

MOTTO: Fatti maschii, parole femine (Manly deeds, womanly words).

FLAG: Bears the quartered arms of the Calvert and Crossland families (the paternal and maternal families of the founders of Maryland).

OFFICIAL SEAL: reverse: A shield bearing the arms of the Calverts and Crosslands is surmounted by an earl's coronet and a helmet and supported by a farmer and fisherman. The state motto (originally that of the Calverts) appears on a scroll below. The circle is surrounded by the Latin legend Scuto bonœ voluntatis tuœ; coronasti nos, meaning "With the shield of thy favor hast thou compassed us"; and "1632," the date of Maryland's first charter. obverse: Lord Baltimore is seen as a knight in armor on a charger. The surrounding inscription, in Latin, means "Cecilius, Absolute Lord of Maryland and Avalon New Foundland, Baron of Baltimore."

BIRD: Baltimore oriole.

FISH: Rockfish.

FLOWER: Black-eyed Susan.

TREE: White oak.

LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Presidents' day, 3rd Monday in February; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Columbus Day, 12 October; Veterans' Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November plus one day; Christmas Day, 25 December.

TIME: 7 AM EST = noon GMT.


Located on the eastern seaboard of the United States in the South Atlantic region, Maryland ranks 42d in size among the 50 states.

Maryland's total area10,460 sq mi (27,092 sq km)comprises 9,837 sq mi (25,478 sq km) of land and 623 sq mi (1,614 sq km) of inland water. The state extends 199 mi (320 km) e-w and 126 mi (203 km) n-s.

Maryland is bordered on the n by Pennsylvania; on the e by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean; on the s and sw by Virginia, the District of Columbia, and West Virginia (with the line passing through the Chesapeake Bay and Potomac River); and on the extreme w by West Virginia. Important islands in Chesapeake Bay, off Maryland's Eastern Shore (the Maryland sector of the Delmarva Peninsula), include Kent, Bloodsworth, South Marsh, and Smith.

The total boundary length of Maryland is 842 mi (1,355 km), including a general coastline of 31 mi (50 km); the total tidal shoreline extends 3,190 mi (5,134 km). The state's geographic center is in Prince George's County, 4.5 mi (7.2 km) nw of Davidsonville.


Three distinct regions characterize Maryland's topography. The first and major area, falling within the Atlantic Coastal Plain, is nearly bisected by the Chesapeake Bay, dividing Maryland into the Eastern Shore and the Western Shore. The Piedmont Plateau, west of the coastal lowlands, is broad, rolling upland with several deep gorges cut by rivers. Further west, from the Catoctin Mountains in Frederick County to the West Virginia border, is the Appalachian Mountain region, containing the state's highest hills. Backbone Mountain, in Garrett County in westernmost Maryland, is the state's highest point, at 3,360 ft (1,025 m). The mean elevation of the state is approximately 350 ft (107 m).

A few small islands lie in the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland's dominant waterway. Extending 195 mi (314 km) inland from the Atlantic and varying in width from 3 to 20 mi (5-32 km), the bay comprises 3,237 sq mi (8,384 sq km), of which 1,726 sq km (4,470 sq km) are under Maryland's jurisdiction. Principal rivers include the Potomac, forming much of the southern and western border; the Patapsco, which runs through Baltimore; the Patuxent, draining the Western Shore; and the Susquehanna, crossing the Pennsylvania border and emptying into the Chesapeake Bay in northeastern Maryland. The state has 23 rivers and other bays, as well as many lakes and creeks, none of any great size. The lowest point of the state is at sea level at the Atlantic Ocean.


Despite its small size, Maryland exhibits considerable climatic diversity. Temperatures vary from an annual average of 48°f (9°c) in the extreme western uplands to 59°f (15°c) in the southeast, where the climate is moderated by the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean. The annual average temperature for Baltimore is 56°f (13°c), ranging from 33°f (1°c) in January to 78°f (25°c) in July. The record high temperature for the state is 109°f (43°c), set on 10 July 1936 in Cumberland and Frederick counties; the record low, 40°f (40°c), occurred on 13 January 1912 at Oakland in Garrett County.

Precipitation averages about 49 in (124 cm) annually in the southeast, but only 36 in (91 cm) in the Cumberland area west of the Appalachians; Baltimore averaged 41.9 in (106 cm) annually 19712000. As much as 100 in (254 cm) of snow falls in western Garrett County, while 8-10 in (20-25 cm) is average for the Eastern Shore; and Baltimore receives about 20.8 in (52 cm).


Maryland's three life zonescoastal plain, piedmont, and Appalachianmingle wildlife characteristic of both North and South. Most of the state lies within a hardwood belt in which red and white oaks, yellow poplar, beech, blackgum, hickory, and white ash are represented; shortleaf and loblolly pines are the leading softwoods. Honeysuckle, Virginia creeper, wild grape, and wild raspberry are also common. Wooded hillsides are rich with such wild flowers as Carolina cranesbill, trailing arbutus, Mayapple, early blue violet, wild rose, and goldenrod. Seven plant species were listed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened or endangered in April 2006, including Canby's dropwort, sandplain gerardia, northeastern bulrush, and harperella.

The white-tailed (Virginia) deer, eastern cottontail, raccoon, and red and gray foxes are indigenous to Maryland, although urbanization has sharply reduced their habitat. Common small mammals are the woodchuck, eastern chipmunk, and gray squirrel. The brown-headed nuthatch has been observed in the extreme south, the cardinal and tufted titmouse are common in the piedmont, and the chestnut-sided warbler and rose-breasted grosbeak are native to the Appalachians. Among saltwater species, shellfishespecially oysters, clams, and crabshave the greatest economic importance. Eighteen Maryland animal species (vertebrates and invertebrates) were listed as threatened or endangered in 2006, including the Indiana bat, Maryland darter, bald eagle, Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel, three species of whale, and five species of turtle.


Maryland's Department of Natural Resources manages water allocation, fish and wildlife, state parks and forests, land reclamation and open space. The Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) serves as the state's primary environmental protection agency. MDE protects and restores the quality of Maryland's land, air, and water by assessing, preventing and controlling sources of pollution for the benefit of public health, the environment and future generations. MDE regulations control the storage, transportation, and disposal of hazardous wastes and ensure long-term, environmentally sound solid waste recycling and disposal capabilities. In 2003, 45.5 million lb of toxic chemicals were released in the state. Also in 2003, Maryland had 168 hazardous waste sites listed in the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) database, 17 of which were on the National Priorities List as of 2006, including Andrews Air Force Base, Curtis Bay Coast Guard Yard, and Patuxent River Naval Air Station. In 2005, the EPA spent over $962,000 through the Superfund program for the cleanup of hazardous waste sites in the state. The same year, federal EPA grants awarded to the state included $2.3 million to support various Chesapeake Bay ecosystem protection projects.

MDE has broad regulatory, planning, and management responsibility for water quality, air quality, solid and hazardous waste management, stormwater management, sediment control, wetlands and waterways management, and water allocation. MDE also plays a pivotal role in Maryland's initiatives to protect and restore the Chesapeake Bay and has divided the state into 10 major tributary watershed basins, each of which have specific nutrient reduction strategies designed to give the Bay added protection from the effects of stormwater run-off, airborne pollutants, and direct discharges. The Chesapeake Bay Estuarine Complex was designated as a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance in 1987. In total, Maryland has about 591,000 acres (239,169 hectares) of wetlands.

MDE operates an innovative infrastructure financing program that leverages federal, state, and local funds to upgrade wastewater treatment plants, connect residents to public sewer systems, and improve water supply facilities. In addition, the Maryland Environmental Service, a quasi-public agency, contracts with local governments to design, construct, finance, and operate wastewater treatment plants, water supply systems, and recycling facilities.

The Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR) is responsible for the management, enhancement, and preservation of the state's living and natural resources. Utilizing an ecosystem approach to land, waterway, and species management, DNR programs and services support the health of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries, sustainable populations of fishery and wildlife species, and an integrated network of public lands and open space.

The Maryland Office of Planning's mission is to plan for the most effective development of the state and all of its resources. The Office assists state agencies and local governments to more effectively achieve environmental, agricultural, and natural resource objectives by integrating them with comprehensive planning and land use management. The state has recently embarked on a Neighborhood Conservation and Smart Growth initiative to encourage population and economic growth in priority funding areas, and to use a Rural Legacy Program to preserve agricultural, forest, and other rural lands from development.


Maryland ranked 19th in population in the United States with an estimated total of 5,600,388 in 2005, an increase of 5.7% since 2000. Between 1990 and 2000, Maryland's population grew from 4,781,468 to 5,296,486, an increase of 10.8%. The population is projected to reach 6.2 million by 2015 and 6.7 million by 2025. In 2004 the median age was 36.8. Persons under 18 years old accounted for 25.1% of the population while 11.4% was age 65 or older.

The state's population doubled between 1940 and 1970 and increased 7.5% between 1970 and 1980. The enormous expansion of the federal government and exodus of people from Washington, DC, to the surrounding suburbs contributed to the rapid growth that made Maryland the 17th most populous state in 1980, with 4,216,446 residents. There was an increase of 13.4% between 1980 and 1990, when Maryland held the 19th ranking, with 4,781,468 people. The population density in 2004 was 572.3 persons per sq mi, the fifth-highest among the 50 states.

Almost all the growth since World War II has occurred in the four suburban counties around Washington, DC, and Baltimore. Metropolitan Baltimore, embracing Carroll, Howard, Hartford, Anne Arundel, and Baltimore counties, expanded from 2,244,700 to 2,491,254 between 1984 and 2000; the city of Baltimore, on the other hand, declined from 763,570 to 736,000 during the same period, and to an estimated 638,614 in 2002. Baltimore is the state's only major city; the estimated population in 2004 for the city prop-er was 636,251. The Baltimore metropolitan area has an estimated population of 2,639,213 in 2004. Several west-central counties belong to the Washington metropolitan area, and Cecil County, in the northeast, is part of metropolitan Wilmington, Delaware.


Blacks, numbering 1,477,411 in 2000, constitute the largest racial minority in Maryland. About one-third of Maryland's black population lives in the city of Baltimore. In 2004, 29.1% of the population was black.

Hispanics and Latinos, mostly from Puerto Rico and Central America, numbered 227,000 in 2000 (4.3% of the total population), up from 125,000. In 2004, 5.4% of the population was of Hispanic or Latino origin. In 2000, the Asian population was relatively large: 39,155 Koreans, 49,400 Chinese (nearly double the 1990 total of 26,479), 26,608 Filipinos, 6,620 Japanese, and 16,744 Vietnamese (up from 7,809 in 1990); the total Asian population was estimated at 210,929 in 2000. In 2004, 4.6% of the population was Asian. Pacific Islanders numbered 2,303 in 2000. In 2004, 0.1% of the population was of Pacific Island origin.

Foreign-born residents numbered 518,315, or 9.8% of the total population, in 2000, up from 313,494, or 6.5%, in 1990. Many immigrated to Maryland in the 1970s. A significant proportion of the state's German, Polish, and Russian immigrants were Jewish refugees arriving just before and after World War II. In 2000, the combined Native American population (including Eskimos and Aleuts) was estimated at 15,423. In 2004, 0.3% of the population was of American Indian or Native Alaskan origin.


Several Algonkian tribes originally inhabited what is now Maryland. There are some Indian place-names, such as Potomac, Susquehanna, and Allegheny.

The state's diverse topography has contributed to unusual diversity in its basic speech. Geographical isolation of the Delmarva Peninsula, proximity to the Virginia piedmont population, and access to southeastern and central Pennsylvania helped to yield a language mixture that now is dominantly Midland and yet reflects earlier ties to Southern English.

Regional features occur as well. In the northeast are found eastern Pennsylvania pavement (sidewalk) and baby coach (baby carriage). In the north and west are poke (bag), quarter till, sick on the stomach, openseed peach (freestone peach), and Pennsylvania German ponhaws (scrapple). In the southern portion are found light bread (white bread), curtain (shade), carry (escort), crop as /krap/, and bulge with the vowel of put. East of Chesapeake Bay are mosquito hawk (dragonfly), paled fence (picket fence), poor (rhyming with mower ), and Mary with the vowel of mate. In central Maryland, an earthworm is a baitworm.

In 2000, some 4,322,329 residents, or 87% of the population five years old or older (down from 91.1% in 1990) spoke only English at home.

The following table gives selected statistics from the 2000 Census for language spoken at home by persons five years old and over. The category "African languages" includes Amharic, Ibo, Twi, Yoruba, Bantu, Swahili, and Somali. The category "Other Asian languages" includes Dravidian languages, Malayalam, Telugu, Tamil, and Turkish. The category "Other Indic languages" includes Bengali, Marathi, Punjabi, and Romany.

Population 5 years and over 4,945,043 100.0
  Speak only English 4,322,329 87.4
  Speak a language other than English 622,714 12.6
Speak a language other than English 622,714 12.6
  Spanish or Spanish Creole 230,829 4.7
  French (incl. Patois, Cajun) 42,838 0.9
  Chinese 41,883 0.8
  African languages 36,967 0.7
  Korean 32,937 0.7
  German 23,796 0.5
  Tagalog 18,495 0.4
  Russian 17,584 0.4
  Vietnamese 14,891 0.3
  Italian 13,798 0.3
  Other Asian languages 12,405 0.3
  Persian 11,951 0.2
  Hindi 11,389 0.2
  Other Indic languages 11,345 0.2
  Greek 10,717 0.2
  Arabic 10,458 0.2


Maryland was founded as a haven for Roman Catholics, who still make up the largest single religious group in the states although their political supremacy ended in 1692, when Anglicanism (now the Episcopal Church) became the established religion. Laws against "popery" were enacted by 1704 and Roman Catholic priests were harassed; the state constitution of 1776, however, placed all Christian faiths on an equal footing. The state's first Lutheran church was built in 1729, the first Baptist church in 1742, and the earliest Methodist church in 1760. Jews settled in Baltimore in the early 1800s, with a much larger wave of Jewish immigration in the late 19th century.

As of 2000, there were 952,389 Roman Catholics in Maryland; the Archdiocese of Baltimore reported 517,679 Catholics in 2005. Adherents of the major Protestant denominations (with 2000 data) include United Methodists, 297,729 members; Southern Baptists, 142,401 members; Evangelical Lutherans, 103,644 members; and Episcopalians, 81,061 members. In 2000, there were an estimated 216,000 Jews and about 52,867 Muslims. Though membership numbers were unavailable, reports indicate there were about 32 Buddhist congregations and 26 Hindu congregations in 2000. Over 3 million people (about 56.7% of the population) were not counted as members of any religious organization.

The Lutheran World Relief organization is based in Baltimore as is World Relief, an affiliate of the National Association of Evangelicals. The Adventist Community Services relief program is based in Silver Springs.


Some of the nation's earliest efforts toward the development of a reliable transportation system began in Maryland. In 1695, a public postal road was opened from the Potomac River through Annapolis and the Eastern Shore to Philadelphia. Construction on the National Road (now US 40) began at Cumberland in 1811; within seven years, the road was a conduit for settlers in Ohio. The first commercial steamboat service from Baltimore started in 1813, and steamboats were active all along the Chesapeake during the 1800s. The Delaware and Chesapeake Canal, linking Chesapeake Bay and the Delaware River, opened in 1829.

Maryland's first railroad, the Baltimore and Ohio (B&O), was started in 1828. In 1835, it provided the first passenger train service to Washington, DC, and Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia). By 1857, the line was extended to St. Louis, and its freight capacity helped build Baltimore into a major center of commerce. In the 1850s, the Pennsylvania Railroad began to buy up small Maryland lines and provide direct service to northern cities.

CSX Transportation and Norfolk Southern are the Class I railroads operating in the state, along with one regional, five local, and two switching and terminal railroads. As of 2003, total rail miles in Maryland amounted to 1,153 mi (1,856 km), including about 835 mi (1,343 km) of Class I track. The Maryland Transportation Department's Railroad Administration subsidizes four commuter lines, as well as freight lines in western Maryland and on the Eastern Shore. As of 2006, Amtrak operated four stations in Maryland, providing east-west service from Washington DC to Chicago and north-south service on the Northeast Corridor main line.

The Maryland Mass Transit Administration inaugurated Baltimore's first subway line on 21 November 1983. The combined underground-elevated line ran for 8 mi (13 km) from downtown Baltimore to Reisterstown Plaza. Later, the Baltimore Metro was extended for 6 mi (10 km) to Owings Mills, just outside the city limits. The Metro cost nearly $1 billion to build. In 1984, the Washington, DC, mass transit system was extended to the Maryland suburbs, including Bethesda and Rockville.

About half of Maryland's roads serve metropolitan Baltimore and Washington. As of 2004, there were 30,809 mi (49,602 km) of public roadway. The major toll road is the John F. Kennedy Memorial Highway (I-95), linking Baltimore with Wilmington, Delaware, and the New Jersey Turnpike. There were 3,594,251 licensed drivers and 4.150 million motor vehicles of all types registered in Maryland as of 2004.

The Port of Baltimore handled 47.399 million tons of cargo in 2004, making it the 17th busiest port in the United States. Of that total, 24.950 million tons were imports that year. For that same year, Maryland had 532 mi (856 km) of navigable inland waterways. In 2003, waterborne shipments totaled 47.533 million tons.

In 2005, Maryland had a total of 221 public and private-use aviation-related facilities. This included 145 airports, 69 heliports, 1 STOLport (Short Take-Off and Landing), and 6 seaplane bases. Baltimore-Washington International (BWI) Airport is the state's main air terminal and also serves the Washington DC, area. In 2004, Baltimore-Washington had 10,103,563 enplanements, making it the 23rd-busiest airport in the United States.


The Indian tribes living in the region that was to become Maryland were Algonkian-speakers: the Accomac, Nanticoke, and Wicomico on the Eastern Shore, and the Susquehannock, Yacomico, and Piscataway on the Western Shore. The Susquehannock, the most powerful tribe at the time of English colonization, claimed all the land lying between the Susquehanna and Potomac rivers. Although the Algonkian Indians hunted for much of their food, many tribes (including the Susquehannock) also had permanent settlements where they cultivated corn (maize), vegetables, tobacco, and other crops. George Alsop, in his Character of the Province of Maryland (1666), noted that Susquehannock women "are the Butchers, Cooks, and Tillers of the ground but the men think it below the honour of a Masculine to stoop to any thing but that which their Gun, or Bow and Arrows can Command." European penetration of the Chesapeake region began early in the 16th century, with the expeditions of Giovanni da Verrazano, a Florentine navigator, and the Spaniard Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón. Captain John Smith, leader of the English settlement at Jamestown, Virginia, was the first English explorer of Chesapeake Bay (1608) and produced a map of the area that was used for years.

The founding of Maryland is intimately tied to the career of another Englishman, George Calvert. A favorite of King James I, Calvert left the Church of England in 1624 to become a Roman Catholic. He announced his conversion in 1625 andbecause Catholics were not allowed to hold public office in England at that timethen resigned his post as secretary of state and, against the king's wishes, retired from the royal court. As a reward for Calvert's service, the king bestowed upon him large Irish estates and a peerage with the title of Baron of Baltimore. Two years later, Calvert sailed for the New World, landing in Newfoundland, to which he had received title in 1621. After a severe winter, however, Calvert decided to seek his fortunes where the weather was warmerin Virginia. Not well-received there because of his religion, Calvert returned to England and asked King Charles I (James's successor) for land south of Virginia; instead he received a grant north of the Potomac. Virginia's agents in England contested Calvert's right to this land strenuously but unsuccessfully, and when he died in 1632, the title passed to his son Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore (usually called Lord Baltimore), who named the region Maryland after the queen consort of Charles I, Henrietta Maria. At this time, the land grant embraced not only present-day Maryland but also the present State of Delaware, a large part of Pennsylvania, and the valley between the north and south branches of the Potomac River. Not until the 1760s was the final boundary between Pennsylvania and Maryland (as surveyed by Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon) established by royal decree, and nearly a century passed before Maryland conceded to Virginia the land between the north and south branches of the Potomac.

The government of provincial Maryland was absolute, embodying the most extensive grant of royal powers to a colonial settlement. Lord Baltimore's main source of income as lord proprietary was the quitrents settlers paid for their land; in return for his authority, Calvert had to give the king only two Indian arrows yearly. Lord Baltimore assigned to his half-brother, Leonard Calvert, the task of organizing the settlement of the colony. On 22 November 1633, Calvert and approximately 250 settlers, including many Roman Catholics and two Jesuit priests, set sail for America on two ships, the Ark and the Dove. They landed at St. Clements Island on 25 March 1634. Two days later, Calvert purchased a site from the Indians, named it St. Marys (the first capital of Maryland), and assumed the governorship of the colony.

The early days of settlement were tumultuous. The refusal by a Virginia colonist, William Claiborne of Kent Island, to acknowledge Lord Baltimore's charter led to a small war that ended in 1638 with a temporary victory for Governor Calvert. The conflict in England during the 1640s found an echo in the struggle between Puritans and Roman Catholics in Maryland, a conflict that saw the two-year exile of Governor Calvert to Virginia, the assumption of power by English representatives (including Claiborne and one of the Puritan leaders) in 1652, a subsequent civil war, and finally the recognition of Lord Baltimore's charter by Oliver Cromwell in 1657.

Cecilius Calvert died in 1675. His successor was Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore and the next lord proprietary. His tenure, which lasted until 1715, saw a decisive change in the character of the province. In 1689, with Protestants ascendant in both England and Maryland, the British crown assumed direct control over the province, and in 1692, the Church of England became Maryland's established religion. When Charles Calvert died, his successor, Benedict Leonard Calvert, 4th Baron Baltimore, was granted full proprietary rightsbut only because he had embraced the Protestant faith. Proprietary rule continued through his legitimate heirs until the eve of the American Revolution.

Throughout this period, the upper and lower houses of the colonial assemblyconsisting, respectively, of the governor and his council and of delegates elected from the countiesquarreled over taxation and the extension of English statutes to free Marylanders. Having already secured most rights from the proprietor, the lower house was somewhat reluctant to vote for independence from the British crown, on whose authority the proprietary government now rested. After its initial hesitancy, however, Maryland cast its lot with the Revolution and sent approximately 20,000 soldiers to fight in the war. The Continental Congress met in Baltimore from December 1776 to March 1777 and in Annapolis from November 1783 to June 1784. These cities were thus among the eight that served as US capitals before the designation of a permanent seat of government in Washington, DC.

Maryland was one of the last states to sign the Articles of Confederation, not ratifying them until other states dropped their claims to what later became the Northwest Territory. On 28 April 1788, Maryland became the seventh state to ratify the federal Constitution. The state constitution, drawn up in 1776, was weighted heavily in favor of property holders and the rural counties, at the expense of the propertyless and the city of Baltimore; the legislature removed the property qualifications in 1810.

Maryland's prosperity during the colonial and early federal period waxed and waned according to the world price of tobacco, the staple crop of tidewater and southern Maryland. Planters increasingly employed slave labor on farms and plantations, and the black population grew rapidly in the 18th century. German immigrants began moving into western Maryland, where wheat became the primary crop. The cultivation of wheat also helped make Baltimore's fortune. Founded in 1729 and incorporated in 1796, the city of Baltimore was blessed with a harbor well suited to the export and import trade. As commerce developed, shipbuilding emerged as a major economic activity. By the early 19th century, Baltimore was already the state's major center of commerce and industry.

The city and harbor were the site of extensive naval and military operations during the War of 1812. It was during the bombardment of Ft. McHenry in 1814 that Francis Scott Key, detained on the British frigate, composed "The Star-Spangled Banner," which became the US national anthem in March 1931.

After the War of 1812, Maryland history was marked by the continued growth of Baltimore and increasing division over immigration, slavery, and secession. The chartering in 1827 of the Baltimore and Ohio (B and O) Railroad, which eventually linked Maryland with the markets of the Ohio Valley and the West, added to the city's economic vitality. But distrust of the thousands of newcomersespecially of Irish immigrants and their Roman Catholicismand fear of the economic threat they supposedly represented spurred the rise of nativist political groups, such as the Know-Nothings, who persecuted the immigrants and dominated Maryland politics in the 1850s.

Although not many Marylanders were in favor of secession, they were hostile to the idea of using force against the secessionist states. On 19 April 1861, as the 6th Massachusetts Regiment passed through Baltimore, it was attacked by a mob of southern sympathizers in a riot that left 4 soldiers and 12 civilians dead. Ten days later, the Maryland house of delegates, following the lead of Governor Thomas Hicks, rejected a bill of secession. Throughout the Civil War, Maryland was largely occupied by Union troops because of its strategic location and the importance for the northern cause of the B and O Railroad. Marylanders fought on both sides during the war, and one major battle took place on Maryland soilthe Battle of Antietam (1862), during which a Union army thwarted a Confederate thrust toward the north, but at an enormous cost to both sides. Confederate armies invaded the state on two other occasions, when General Robert E. Lee brought his troops through the state on the way to Gettysburg in 1863 and when Lieutenant general Jubal Early ravaged the Hagerstown area and threatened Baltimore in 1864. The Maryland legislature, almost totally pro-Union by 1864, passed a new constitution, which among other things abolished slavery.

The state's economic activity increased during Reconstruction, as Maryland, and especially Baltimore, played a major role in rebuilding the South. Maryland's economic base gradually shifted from agriculture to industry, with shipbuilding, steelmaking, and the manufacture of clothing and shoes leading the way. The decades between the Civil War and World War I were also notable for the philanthropic activities of such wealthy businessmen as John Hopkins, George Peabody, and Enoch Pratt, who endowed some of the state's most prestigious cultural and educational institutions. The years after World War I saw the emergence of a political figure without equal in Maryland's more recent history: Albert C. Ritchie, a Democrat who won election to the governorship in 1919 and served in that office until 1935, just one year before his death. Stressing local issues, states' rights, and opposition to prohibition, Ritchie remained in power until Harry W. Nice, a Republican but an advocate of New Deal reforms, defeated him in 1934.

The decades after World War II were marked by significant population growth. From 1980 to 1990 alone, Maryland grew by 13.4%, well above the national rate of 9.8%. Baltimore, which, though still the hub of the state's economy, had fallen into decay and became the focus of a redevelopment project. Much of the downtown area and harbor facilities were revitalized by urban projects, begun in the late 1970s and continued into the 21st century. These featured the Charles Center development, the waterfront renovation of the Inner Harbor, Oriole Park at Camden Yards, and a $150-million convention center at the Inner Harbor.

Although Maryland's economy declined less than those of other states during the recession of the late 1980s, the state suffered from the contraction of defense industry. Nevertheless, service indus-try employment, primarily in the Baltimore-Washington corridor, gave Maryland the fifth-highest state income in the country as of the mid-1990sa ranking it maintained as of 1998. Federal government and high-tech employment accounted for many of these jobs. As of 2004, Maryland had the third-highest median household income among the states, at $57,424, which is 29% higher than the national median. Maryland in 2004 ranked fourth among the states in per capita personal income ($39,247). Maryland had the sixth-lowest poverty rate in the nation in 2004, at 8.8%, compared with 13.1% for the nation as a whole.

Maryland's 370-year history of tobacco farming appeared to be drawing to a close in 2000. Nearly 90% of the state's tobacco farmers indicated they would accept a government buyout later that year. The crop that had settled the Chesapeake had become risky, with the tobacco industry under attack for the health hazards of its products. The state by 2003 had implemented a tobacco buyout program, whereby the state agreed to pay farmers $1 per pound of tobacco that they would sell for the following 10 years based on the average amount of tobacco they sold between 1996 and 1998. Farmers agree to plant alternative crops instead of tobacco. As of January 2004, 785 growers were to participate in the buyout program, representing 80% of eligible growers and 7.3 million lb of tobacco.

The environmental cleanup of Chesapeake Bay, begun in the mid-1980s, continued into the 21st century. In an effort to further protect the bay's ecosystem, in 1999 Maryland Governor Parris Glendening announced a plan to protect 60,000 forested acres on the Eastern Shore from development. Nevertheless, the bay faced more immediate threats such as the April 2000 oil spill into the Patuxent River, which flows into the Chesapeake. Federal officials faulted Maryland Power Company for its efforts to clean up the spill, the worst in the company's 104-year history. Governor Rob-ert L. Ehrlich Jr., elected in 2002, was continuing the cleanup of the Chesapeake Bay.

Maryland Presidential Vote by Political Parties, 19482004
*Won US presidential election.
1948 8 Dewey (R) 286,521 294,814 9,983 2,467 2,941
1952 9 *Eisenhower (R) 395,337 499,424 7,313
1956 9 *Eisenhower (R) 372,613 559,738
1960 9 *Kennedy (D) 565,808 489,538
1964 10 *Johnson (D) 730,912 385,495
1968 10 Humphrey (D) 538,310 517,995 178,734
1972 10 *Nixon (R) 505,781 829,305 18,726
1976 10 *Carter (D) 759,612 672,661
1980 10 Carter (D) 726,161 680,606 14,192
1984 10 *Reagan (R) 787,935 879,918 5,721
1988 10 *Bush (R) 826,304 876,167 5,115 6,748
IND. (Perot)
1992 10 *Clinton (D) 988,571 707,094 2,786 4,715 281,414
1996 10 *Clinton (D) 966,207 681,530 8,765 115,812
2000 10 Gore (D) 1,145,782 813,797 53,768 5,310 4,248
2004 10 Kerry (D) 1,334,493 1,024,703 3,632 6,094 11,854

In 2005, Governor Ehrlich announced conservation of 828 acres near Antietam Battlefield. The plan supported Maryland's $9.3 billion tourism industry, and provides environmental benefits for the state. Annually, 11 million visitors take advantage of Maryland's parks and natural, historic, and cultural resources.


Maryland's first state constitution was enacted in 1776. Subsequent constitutions were ratified in 1851, 1864, and 1867. By January 2005, it had 218 amendments.

Under the 1867 constitution, as amended, the General Assembly, Maryland's legislative body, consists of two branches: a 47-member Senate and a 141-member house of delegates. Legislative sessions begin the second Wednesday of January of each year and are limited to 90 calendar days. Special sessions, which are limited to 30 calendar days, may be called by a petition of the majority in each house. All legislators serve four-year terms and must have been citizens of the state for at least a year and of their district for at least six months prior to election. Senators must be at least 25 years old, delegates 21. The legislative salary was $31,509 in 2004.

Executives elected statewide are the governor and lieutenant governor (who run jointly), the comptroller of the treasury, and the attorney general; all serve four-year terms. The state treasurer is elected by joint ballot of the General Assembly, while the secretary of state is appointed by the governor. The governor, who may serve no more than two four-year terms in succession, also appoints other members of the executive council (cabinet) and the heads of major boards and commissions. The chief executive must be a US citizen at least 30 years old, must have been a resident of Maryland for five years before election, and must have been a reg-istered voter in the state for five years. As of December 2004, the governor's salary was $135,000.

Bills passed by majority vote of both houses of the assembly become law when signed by the governor or if left unsigned for six days while the legislature is in session or 30 days if the legislature has adjourned. The only exception is the budget bill, which becomes effective immediately upon legislative passage. Gubernatorial vetoes may be overridden by three-fifths votes of the elected members in both houses. Proposed constitutional amendments also require approval by three-fifths of both houses of the legislature before submission to the voters at the next general election.

Eligible voters are US citizens who are at least 18 years old and are residents of the Maryland county in which they will vote. Restrictions apply to convicted felons and those declared mentally incompetent by the court.


The Republican and Democratic parties are the dominant political groups in Maryland. Before the Civil War, the Democrats drew much of their strength from the slaveholding Eastern Shore, while their opponents, the Whigs, were popular in Baltimore and other centers of antislavery activity. The collapse of the Whigs on both the national and local levels corresponded with the rise in Maryland of the Native American ("Know-Nothing") Party, whose anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic attitudes appealed to Marylanders who saw their livelihood threatened by Roman Catholic immigrants. The Know-Nothings swept Baltimore in 1855 and won the governorship in 1857; Maryland was the only state to cast its electoral votes for the Know-Nothing presidential candidate, Millard Fillmore, in 1856. The Native American Party declined rapidly, however, and by 1860, Maryland was back in the Democratic column, voting for the secessionist John Breckinridge.

Revelations of influence peddling and corruption afflicted both major parties during the 1970s. In 1973, Republican Spiro T. Agnew, then vice president of the United States, was accused of taking payments from people who had done business with the state government while he was Baltimore County executive and then governor of Maryland until 1969. Agnew pleaded nolo contendere to a federal charge of income tax evasion and resigned from the vice-presidency on 10 October 1973. His gubernatorial successor, Democrat Marvin Mandel, was convicted of mail fraud and racketeering in 1977; he served 20 months of a 36-month prison sentence before receiving a presidential pardon in 1981.

Maryland was one of the few states carried by President Jimmy Carter in the November 1980 presidential election, but four years later the state went for President Ronald Reagan in the national Republican landslide. In 2000, Maryland gave 57% of its vote to Democrat Al Gore, 40% to Republican George W. Bush, and 3% to Green Party candidate Ralph Nader. In 2004, Democratic challenger John Kerry won 55.7% of the vote to incumbent Bush's 44.6%.

In the 1994 governor's race, one of the closest in Maryland history, Democrat Parris N. Glendening won; he was reelected in 1998. Republican Robert L. Ehrlich Jr. was elected governor in 2002. The two senators from Maryland, Paul S. Sarbanes and Barbara Mikulski, both Democrats, were reelected in 2000 and 2004, respectively. In 2004 there were 3,105,000 registered voters. In 1998, 58% of registered voters were Democratic, 20% Republican, and 12% unaffiliated or members of other parties.

Following the November 2004 elections, Maryland's US congressional delegation consisted of six Democrats and two Republicans. In mid-2005 there were 33 Democrats and 14 Republicans in the state Senate, and 98 Democrats and 43 Republicans in the state House. The state had 10 electoral votes in the 2000 presidential election.


As of 2005, there were 24 counties, 157 municipal governments, and 85 special districts in Maryland. Most counties have charter governments, in which voters elect a county executive and council members. The other counties, which tend to be rural, are governed by boards of county commissioners. County government is highly developed in Maryland, and there are numerous appointed county officials with responsibilities ranging from civil defense to liquor licensing.

The city of Baltimore is the only one in Maryland not contained within a county. It provides the same services as a county, and shares in state aid according to the same allocation formulas. The city (not to be confused with Baltimore County, which surrounds the city of Baltimore but has its county seat at Towson) is governed by an elected mayor and city council. Other cities and towns are each governed by a mayor, with or without a council, depending on the local charter. In 2005, Maryland had 25 public school systems.

In 2005, local government accounted for about 187,955 full-time (or equivalent) employment positions.


To address the continuing threat of terrorism and to work with the federal Department of Homeland Security, homeland security in Maryland operates under the authority of executive order; the homeland security director is designated as the state homeland security advisor.

The State Ethics Commission, established in 1979, monitors compliance by state officeholders and employees with the Maryland public ethics law in order to avoid conflicts of interest; the Joint Committee on Legislative Ethics, created in 1972, has similar responsibilities with respect to General Assembly members. The Fair Campaign Financing Commission provides for the public financing of elections and sets campaign spending limits.

The State Board of Education is an independent policymaking body whose 12 members are appointed by the governor; its responsibilities include selection of a superintendent of schools to run the Education Department. The growth and development of postsecondary institutions are the responsibility of the Maryland Higher Education Commission. The Department of Transportation oversees air, road, rail, bridge, and mass transit. The Department of Health and Mental Hygiene coordinates public health programs, regulates in-state medical care, and supervises the 24 local health departments. Social services and public assistance programs as well as employment security lie within the jurisdiction of the Department of Human Resources. The Department of Housing and Community Development assures the provision of low-cost housing. The Department of Business and Economic Development advances job opportunities and works to bring new businesses into the state. It also serves in a public relations capacity at home and abroad to stimulate international trade and tourism, and also invests in the arts and promotes sports events.

Maryland's Department of Public Safety and Correctional Services has statewide responsibility for the supervision and rehabilitation of adjudicated individuals, while the Department of Labor, Licensing, and Regulation supervises employment training, job match services, unemployment insurance, and many of the state's licensing and regulatory boards for businesses and trades. The Department of State Police enforces state motor vehicle and criminal laws, preserves public peace, maintains safe traffic on public streets and highways, enforces laws relating to narcotics, and incorporates the office of the State Fire Marshal. Other organizations include the departments of agriculture, assessments and taxation, natural resources, personnel, and rehabilitation services (for those with disabilities).


The Court of Appeals is Maryland's highest court. It is comprised of a chief judge and six associate judges. Each is appointed to the court by the governor, but must be confirmed by the voters within two years of appointment. Most criminal appeals are decided by the court of special appeals, consisting of a chief judge and 12 associate judges, selected in the same manner as judges of the high court. Each case must be heard by a panel of at least three judges of the high court. All state judges serve 10-year terms.

In 1971, 12 district courts took the place of all justices of the peace, county trial judges, magistrates, people's courts, and the municipal court of Baltimore. District courts handle all criminal, civil, and traffic cases, with appeals being taken to one of eight circuit courts. Circuit court judges are appointed by the governor and stand for election to 15-year terms. District court judges are appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Senate to 10-year terms. The city of Baltimore and all counties except Montgomery and Hartford have orphans' courts composed of two judges and one chief judge, all of them elected to four-year terms.

As of 31 December 2004, a total of 23,285 prisoners were held in Maryland's state and federal prisons, a decrease from 23,791 of 2.1% from the previous year. As of year-end 2004, a total of 1,180 inmates were female, down from 1,248 or 5.4% from the year before. Among sentenced prisoners (one year or more), Maryland had an incarceration rate of 406 per 100,000 population in 2004.

According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Maryland in 2004, had a violent crime rate (murder/nonnegligent manslaughter; forcible rape; robbery; aggravated assault) of 700.5 reported incidents per 100,000 population (third-highest among the states in the United States after Florida and South Carolina), or a total of 38,932 reported incidents. Crimes against property (burglary; larceny/theft; and motor vehicle theft) in that same year totaled 202,326 reported incidents or 3,640.2 reported incidents per 100,000 people. Maryland has a death penalty, of which lethal injection or lethal gas are the methods of execution. However, the latter method is open only to those inmates convicted of capital offenses that were committed on or after 25 March 1994. From 1976 through 5 May 2006, the state executed five persons, including one execution in 2005. As of 1 January 2006, Maryland had eight inmates on death row.

In 2003, Maryland spent $495,455,173 on homeland security, an average of $91 per state resident.


As of 2004, there were 35,531 active US military personnel in Maryland, 2,593 National Guard and Reserve, and 25,417 civilian personnel. Ft. Meade is located in Baltimore, and the Aberdeen Proving Ground is in Harford County. Perhaps Maryland's best-known defense installation is Andrews Air Force Base in Camp Springs, a military airlift center. Annapolis is the home of the US Naval Academy. Total military personnel at all naval facilities, including the National Naval Medical Center at Bethesda, was 7,335 in 2004. Federal defense contract awards to Maryland firms were approximately $9.2 billion in 2004, fourth-highest in the United States for that year. In addition, there was another $4.9 billion in defense payroll spending, including retired military pay.

There were 486,298 veterans of US military service in Maryland as of 2003, of whom 57,970 served in World War II; 46,740 in the Korean conflict; 142,266 during the Vietnam era; and 86,225 in the Gulf War. In 2004, expenditures on veterans exceeded $1.1 billion.

As of 31 October 2004, the Maryland State Police employed 1,575 full-time sworn officers.


Maryland's earliest white settlers were English; many of them farmed lands on the Eastern Shore. As tobacco crops wore out the soil, these early immigrants moved on to the fertile Western Shore and piedmont. During the 19th century, Baltimore ranked second only to New York as a port of entry for European immigrants. First to come were the Germans, followed by the Irish, Poles, East European Jews, and Italians; a significant number of Czechs settled in Cecil County during the 1860s. After the Civil War, many blacks migrated to Baltimore, both from rural Maryland and from southern states.

Since World War II, intrastate migration has followed the familiar urban/suburban pattern: both the Baltimore metropolitan area and the Maryland part of the metropolitan Washington, DC, area have experienced rapid growth while the inner cities have lost population. Overall, Maryland experienced a net loss from migration of about 36,000 between 1970 and 1980, much of it to Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Florida; the out-migration stopped during the 1980s, however, with a net gain of over 200,000 from 1980 to 1990. Between 1990 and 1998, Maryland had a net loss of 49,000 in domestic migration and a net gain of 118,000 in international migration. Maryland's foreign-born population totaled 412,000, or 8% of the total population, in 1996. In 1998, 15,561 foreign immigrants arrived in the statethe 10th-highest total of any state for that year. Between 1990 and 1998, the state's overall population increased 7.4%. In the period 200005, net international migration was 108,972 and net internal migration was 9,752, for a net gain of 118,724 people.


Maryland is active in several regional organizations, including the Southern Regional Education Board, Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council, Interstate Mining Compact Commission, Appalachian Regional Commission, Susquehanna River Basin Commission (with Pennsylvania and New York), and the Potomac River Fisheries Commission (with Virginia). Representatives of Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia form the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, which coordinates regional mass transit. Other cooperation focuses on the Chesapeake Bay, and on the creation of the Woodrow Wilson Bridge and Tunnel. The Delmarva Advisory Council, representing Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia, works with local organizations on the Delmarva Peninsula to develop and implement economic improvement programs. In fiscal year 2005, federal grants to Maryland totaled $8.589 billion, an estimated $8.892 billion in fiscal year 2006, before falling to an estimated $8.217 billion in fiscal year 2007.


Throughout the colonial period, Maryland's economy was based on one croptobacco. Not only slaves but also indentured servants worked the fields, and when they earned their freedom, they too secured plots of land and grew tobacco for the European market. By 1820, however, industry was rivaling agriculture for economic preeminence. Shipbuilding, metalworking, and commerce transformed Baltimore into a major city. Within 60 years, it was a leading manufacturer of men's clothing and had the largest steel making plant in the United States.

Although manufacturing output continues to rise, the biggest growth areas in Maryland's economy are government, construction, trade, and services. Maryland employees are the best educated in the nation, with more than one-third of those over age 25 possessing a bachelor's degree in 2000. With the expansion of federal employment in the Washington metropolitan area by 40% from 1961 to 1980, many US government workers settled in suburban Maryland, primarily Prince George's and Montgomery counties. Construction and services in those areas expanded accordingly. The growth of state government boosted employment in Anne Arundel and Baltimore counties. Also of importance to the economy are fishing and agriculture (primarily dairy and poultry farming) on the Eastern Shore and coal mining in Garrett and Allegheny counties. Manufacturing has shifted toward high technology, information, and health-related products. While manufacturing output (durable and nondurable goods) has continued to grow, its relative weight in the gross state product has fallen from 8.5% in 1997 to 6.1% in 2004. Annual growth rates averaged 6.2% 1998 to 2000, and only fell to 5.4% in the national recession and slowdown of 2001. Increased federal government spending, particularly in defense-related industries, is expected to assure Maryland's economic recovery in 2002, and into 2003.

Maryland's gross state product (GSP) was $227.991 billion in 2004, of which the real estate sector accounted for the largest portion at $34.763 billion or 15.2% of GSP, followed by professional and technical services at $22.780 billion (9.9% of GSP), and healthcare and social services at $16.815 billion (7.3% of GSP). In that same year, there were an estimated 477,233 small businesses in Maryland. Of the 137,338 businesses that had employees, a total of 134,095 or 97.6% were small companies. An estimated 21,751 new businesses were established in the state in 2004, up 5,1% from the year before. Business terminations that same year came to 20,636, down 4.9% from 2003. There were 417 business bankruptcies in 2004, down 20.3% from the previous year. In 2005, the state's personal bankruptcy (Chapter 7 and Chapter 13) filing rate was 618 filings per 100,000 people, ranking Maryland as the 19th highest in the nation.


In 2005 Maryland had a gross state product (GSP) of $245 billion which accounted for 2.0% of the nation's gross domestic product and placed the state at number 15 in highest GSP among the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, in 2004 Maryland had a per capita personal income (PCPI) of $39,631. This ranked fifth in the United States and was 120% of the national average of $33,050. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of PCPI was 4.5%. Maryland had a total personal income (TPI) of $220,402,185,000, which ranked 14th in the United States and reflected an increase of 6.8% from 2003. The 19942004 average annual growth rate of TPI was 5.5%. Earnings of persons employed in Maryland increased from $145,140,178,000 in 2003 to $155,190,491,000 in 2004, an increase of 6.9%. The 200304 national change was 6.3%.

The US Census Bureau reports that the three-year average median household income for 2002 to 2004 in 2004 dollars was $56,763 compared to a national average of $44,473. During the same period an estimated 8.6% of the population was below the poverty line as compared to 12.4% nationwide.


According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), in April 2006 the seasonally adjusted civilian labor force in Maryland numbered 2,997,700, with approximately 105,700 workers unemployed, yielding an unemployment rate of 3.5%, compared to the national average of 4.7% for the same period. Preliminary data for the same period placed nonfarm employment at 2,580,100. Since the beginning of the BLS data series in 1976, the highest unemployment rate recorded in Maryland was 8.3% in August 1982. The historical low was 3.3% in March 2000. Preliminary nonfarm employment data by occupation for April 2006 showed that approximately 7.3% of the labor force was employed in construction; 5.3% in manufacturing; 18.4% in trade, transportation, and public utilities; 6.2% in financial activities; 15% in professional and business services; 14% in education and health services; 9% in leisure and hospitality services; and 18.2% in government.

Baltimore was a leading trade union center by the early 1830s although union activity subsided after the Panic of 1837. The Baltimore Federation of Labor was formed in 1889, and by 1900, the coal mines had been organized by the United Mine Workers. In 1902, Maryland passed the first workers' compensation law in the United States. It was declared unconstitutional in 1904 but was subsequently revived.

The US Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that in 2005, a total of 337,000 of Maryland's 2,530,000 employed wage and salary workers were formal members of a union. This represented 13.3% of those so employed, up from 10.9% in 2004, and above the national average of 12%. Overall in 2005, a total of 379,000 workers (15%) in Maryland were covered by a union or employee association contract, which includes those workers who reported no union affiliation. Maryland is one of 28 states that do not have a right-to-work law.

As of 1 March 2006, Maryland had a state-mandated minimum wage rate of $6.15 per hour. In 2004, women in the state accounted for 48.1% of the employed civilian labor force.


Maryland ranked 36th among the 50 states in agricultural income in 2005, with estimated receipts of $1,666 million, about 41% of that in crops.

Until the Revolutionary War, tobacco was the state's only cash crop; in 2004, Maryland produced an estimated 1,870,000 lb of tobacco. Corn and cereal grains are grown mainly in southern Maryland. Production in 2004 included 65,025,000 bushels of corn for grain; 21,285,000 bushels of soybeans, $112,811,000; 8,555,000 bushels of wheat, $26,093,000, and 2,847,000 bushels of barley, $5,409,000. Commercial vegetables, cultivated primarily on the Eastern Shore, were valued at $36.6 million in 2004. Fruits are also cultivated.

Maryland had some 12,100 farms covering 2,050,000 acres (830,000 hectares) in 2004.


The Eastern Shore is an important dairy and poultry region; cattle are raised in north-central and western Maryland, while the central region is notable for horse breeding. In 2003, poultry farmers produced an estimated 6.4 million lb (2.9 million kg) of chickens and 1.37 billion lb (0.63 billion kg) of broilers for around $494.7 million. Also in 2003, Maryland farmers produced an estimated 813 million eggs worth around $46.2 million.

An estimated 1.2 billion lb (0.6 billion kg) of milk was produced in 2003 from 78,000 dairy cows. Maryland farms and ranches had an estimated 235,000 cattle and calves worth around $237 million in 2005. In 2004, there were an estimated 26,000 hogs and pigs, worth $2.6 million.


In 2004, Maryland had a total commercial catch of 49.5 million lb (22.5 million kg), valued at $49.2 million. Maryland is a leading source of oysters, clams, and crabs. About 19% of the nation's supply of hard blue crabs comes from Maryland. Ocean City is the state's leading fishing port.

In 2003, the state had 17 processing and 58 wholesale plants with a total of about 1,417 employees. In 2001, the commercial fleet had at least 32 vessels.

The Fisheries Administration of the Department of Natural Resources monitors fish populations and breeds and implants oysters. It also stocks inland waterways with finfish. The state has five cold water and four warm water hatcheries. Maryland had 362,181 licensed sport anglers in 2004.


Maryland's 2,566,000 acres (1,139,000 hectares) of forestland covers about 40% of the state's land area. More than 90% of that (2,372,000 acres/961,570 hectares) was classified as commercial forest, 90% of it privately owned. Hardwoods predominate, with red and white oaks and yellow poplar among the leading hardwood varieties. Lumber production in 2004 was 272 million board feet.

Forest management and improvement lie within the jurisdiction of the Maryland Department of Natural Resources Forest Service.


According to preliminary data from the US Geological Survey (USGS), the estimated value of nonfuel mineral production by Maryland in 2003 was $382 million, a decrease from 2002 of about 4.5%. The USGS data ranked Maryland as 33rd among the 50 states by the total value of its nonfuel mineral production, accounting for 1% of total US output.

Portland cement, crushed stone, and construction sand and gravel were the state's leading nonfuel minerals, by value, in 2003. Collectively, these three commodities (with crushed marble, shell and taprock) accounted for over 95% of the state's output of non-fuel minerals, by value.

According to preliminary figures from the USGS for 2003, the production of portland cement in Maryland totaled 1.9 million metric tons, and was valued at $143 million. Crushed stone output that same year stood at 21.8 million metric tons, and had a value of $138 million, while construction sand and gravel production totaled 11.4 million metric tons and was valued at $78.1 million). Maryland in 2003 was also a producer of dimension stone and common clays.


As of 2003, Maryland had 24 electrical power service providers, of which 5 were publicly owned and 3 were cooperatives. Of the remainder, four were investor owned, one was an owner of an independent generator that sold directly to customers, while six were generation only suppliers and five were delivery only service providers. As of that same year there were 2,295,305 retail customers. Of that total, 2,010,338 received their power from investor-owned service providers. Cooperatives accounted for 174,291 customers, while publicly owned providers had 32,111 customers. There was only one independent generator or "facility" customer. Generation-only suppliers had 78,564 customers. There was no data on the number of customers using delivery-only providers.

Total net summer generating capability by the state's electrical generating plants in 2003 stood at 12.472 million kW, with total production that same year at 52.244 billion kWh. Of the total amount generated, only 0.1% came from electric utilities, with the remaining 99.9% coming from independent producers and combined heat and power service providers. The largest portion of all electric power generated, 29.939 billion kWh (57.3%), came from coal-fired plants, with nuclear plants in second place at 13.690 billion kWh (18.9%) and petroleum fueled plants in third at 3.572 billion kWh (6.8%). Other renewable power sources accounted for 1.7%% of all power generated, with hydroelectric accounting for 5.1%, natural gas fueled plants at 2.3%, plants using other types of gases at 0.6%.

As of 2006, Maryland had one nuclear power generating facility, the Calvert Cliffs plant.

Coal, Maryland's lone fossil fuel resource, is mined in Allegheny and Garrett counties, along the Pennsylvania border. In 2004, Maryland had 19 producing coal mines, 16 of which were surface mines and 3 were underground. Coal production that year totaled 5,225,000 short tons, up from 5,056,000 short tons in 2003. Of the total produced in 2004, the state's three underground mines accounted for the bulk at 3,339,000 short tons. Recoverable coal reserves in 2001 totaled 17 million short tons. One short ton equals 2,000 lb (0.907 metric tons).

As of 2004, Maryland had no crude oil refineries, nor any proven reserves, or production.

In 2004, Maryland had seven producing natural gas and gas condensate wells. In 2003 (the latest year for which data was available), marketed gas production (all gas produced excluding gas used for repressuring, vented and flared, and nonhydrocarbon gases removed) totaled 48 million cu ft (1.36 million cu m). There was no data available on the state's proven reserves of natural gas.


During the early 1800s, Maryland's first industries centered around the Baltimore shipyards. Small ironworks cast parts for sailing vessels, and many laborers worked as shipbuilders. By the 1850s, Baltimore was also producing weather-measuring instruments and fertilizers, and by the 1930s, it was a major center of metal refining. The city remains an important manufacturer of automobiles and parts, steel, and instruments. Manufacturing is led by the printing and publishing industry, the food industry, the machinery industry, and the chemical industry.

According to the US Census Bureau's Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM) for 2004, Maryland's manufacturing sector covered some 19 product subsectors. The shipment value of all products manufactured in the state that same year was $36.489 billion. Of that total, computer and electronic product manufacturing accounted for the largest share at $5.839 billion. It was followed by food manufacturing at $5.477 billion; chemical manufacturing at $4.990 billion; transport equipment manufacturing at $2.394 billion; and fabricated metal product manufacturing at $2.175 billion.

In 2004, a total of 135,773 people in Maryland were employed in the state's manufacturing sector, according to the ASM. Of that total, 85,668 were actual production workers. In terms of total employment, the computer and electronic product manufacturing industry accounted for the largest portion of all manufacturing employees at 23,880, with 6,897 actual production workers. It was followed by printing and related support activities at 15,332 employees (11,195 actual production workers); food manufacturing at 14147 employees (10,187 actual production workers); fabricated metal product manufacturing at 12,297 employees (8,699 actual production workers); chemical manufacturing at 9,626 employees (5,694 actual production workers); machinery manufacturing at 8,224 employees (5,003 actual production workers); and plastics and rubber products manufacturing with 6,851 employees (5,189 actual production workers).

ASM data for 2004 showed that Maryland's manufacturing sector paid $6.309 billion in wages. Of that amount, the computer and electronic product manufacturing sector accounted for the largest share at $1.653 billion. It was followed by printing and related support activities at $556.758 million; chemical manufacturing at $528.906 million; fabricated metal product manufacturing at $490.015 million; and food manufacturing at $471.262 million.


According to the 2002 Census of Wholesale Trade, Maryland's wholesale trade sector had sales that year totaling $60.6 billion from 6,104 establishments. Wholesalers of durable goods accounted for 3,764 establishments, followed by nondurable goods wholesalers at 1,813 and electronic markets, agents, and brokers accounting for 527 establishments. Sales by durable goods wholesalers in 2002 totaled $30.8 billion, while wholesalers of nondurable goods saw sales of $22.8 billion. Electronic markets, agents, and brokers in the wholesale trade industry had sales of $6.9 billion.

In the 2002 Census of Retail Trade, Maryland was listed as having 19,394 retail establishments with sales of $60.06 billion. The leading types of retail businesses by number of establishments were: food and beverage stores (3,332); clothing and clothing accessories stores (2,918); miscellaneous store retailers (2,075); and motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers (1,746). In terms of sales, motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts dealers accounted for the largest share of retail sales at $16.3 billion, followed by food and beverage stores at $10.5 billion; general merchandise stores at $7.7 billion; building material/garden equipment and supplies dealers at $4.8 billion; and gasoline stations at $4.1 billion. A total of 285,561 people were employed by the retail sector in Maryland that year.

Most of Maryland's retail facilities are located in the Baltimore metropolitan area and Montgomery and Prince George's counties surrounding Washington, DC. These counties are home to about 90% of Maryland's 5 million residents. The Washington-Baltimore Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area is among the nation's top 10 retail markets.

Exports by Maryland companies totaled $7.1 billion in 2005. While export activities in established markets such as Europe and Canada are still predominant, strong inroads have been made in targeted trade areas of Asia and Latin America.


The state agency generally responsible for controlling unfair and deceptive trade practices is the Division of Consumer Protection within the Attorney General's Office. However, consumer complaints involving state-chartered financial institutions are the responsibility of the Office of Financial Regulation, while the state's automotive "Lemon Law" is the responsibility of the Motor Vehicle Administration, which is part of the Department of Transportation, although any litigation is handled by the Attorney General's Office.

When dealing with consumer protection issues, the state's Attorney General's Office can initiate civil and criminal proceedings (the latter must be done in conjunction with the local district attorney); administer consumer protection and education programs; handle formal consumer complaints; and exercise broad subpoena powers. However, the Attorney General cannot represent the state before state and federal regulatory agencies. In antitrust actions, the Attorney General's Office cannot act on behalf of those consumers who are incapable of acting on their own, but can initiate damage actions on behalf of the state in state courts; file criminal proceedings; and represent counties, cities and other governmental entities in recovering civil damages under state or federal law.

The Consumer Protection Division's main office is located in Baltimore, but it also has regional offices in Cumberland, Frederick, Hagerstown, Hughesville and Salisbury. County government consumer protection offices are located in Columbia and Rockville.


As of June 2005, Maryland had 113 insured banks, savings and loans, and saving banks, plus 11 state-chartered and 109 federally chartered credit unions (CUs). Excluding the CUs, the Washington DC-Arlington-Alexandria market area, the Baltimore-Tow-son-Alexandria market area accounted for the largest portion of the state's financial institutions and deposits in 2004, at 90 and $43.864 billion, respectively. As of June 2005, CUs accounted for 21.5% of all assets held by all financial institutions in the state, or some $13.558 billion. Banks, savings and loans, and savings banks collectively accounted for the remaining 78.5% or $49.420 billion in assets held.

All state-chartered banks, savings and loan associations and trusts are regulated by the state's Commissioner of Financial Regulation, within the Department of Labor, Licensing and Regulation.

In 2004, the median percentage of past-due and nonaccrual loans to total loans was 0.93%, down from 1.14% in 2003. As of fourth quarter 2005 that same rate had fallen further to 0.89%.


In 2004 there were over 3.47 million individual life insurance policies in force with a total value of about $275 billion; total value for all categories of life insurance (individual, group, and credit) was over $433 billion. The average coverage amount is $79,200 per policy holder. Death benefits paid that year totaled at over $1.17 billion.

As of 2003, there were 46 property and casualty and 10 life and health insurance companies domiciled in the state. In 2004, direct premiums for property and casualty insurance totaled $8.28 billion. That year, there were 54,882 flood insurance policies in force in the state, with a total value of $8 billion.

The Maryland Automobile Insurance Fund, a quasi-independent agency created in 1972, pays claims against uninsured motorists (i.e., hit-and-run drivers, out-of-state uninsured motorists, and state residents driving in violation of Maryland's compulsory automobile insurance law), and sells policies to Maryland drivers unable to obtain insurance from private companies.

In 2004, 61% of state residents held employment-based health insurance policies, 4% held individual policies, and 19% were covered under Medicare and Medicaid; 14% of residents were uninsured. In 2003, employee contributions for employment-based health coverage averaged at 23% for single coverage and 29% for family coverage. The state offers an 18-month health benefits expansion program for small-firm employees in connection with the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA, 1986), a health insurance program for those who lose employment-based coverage due to termination or reduction of work hours.

In 2003, there were over 3.7 million auto insurance policies in effect for private passenger cars. Required minimum coverage includes bodily injury liability of up to $20,000 per individual and $40,000 for all persons injured in an accident, as well as property damage liability of $15,000. Personal injury protection and uninsured motorist coverage are also mandatory. In 2003, the average expenditure per vehicle for insurance coverage was $890.86.

The State Insurance Division of the Department of Licensing and Regulation licenses all state insurance companies, agents, and brokers, and must approve all policies for sale in the state.


There are no securities or commodities exchanges in Maryland. In 2005, there were 2,450 personal financial advisers employed in the state and 3,600 securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents. In 2004, there were over 175 publicly traded companies within the state, with over 67 NASDAQ companies, 37 NYSE listings, and 13 AMEX listings. In 2006, the state had five Fortune 500 companies; Lockheed Martin (in Bethesda) ranked first in the state and 52nd in the nation with revenues of over $37.2 billion, followed by Constellation Energy (Baltimore), Marriott International (Bethesda), Coventry Health Care (Bethesda), and Black and Decker (Towson). All five companies are listed on the NYSE.


The state budget, prepared by the Department of Budget and Management, is submitted annually by the governor to the General Assembly for amendment and approval. The fiscal year (FY) runs from 1 July to 30 June.

Fiscal year 2006 general funds were estimated at $13.5 billion for resources and $12.3 billion for expenditures. In fiscal year 2004, federal government grants to Maryland were $8.8 billion.

In the fiscal year 2007 federal budget, Maryland was slated to receive: $178.5 million for the continued consolidation of Food and Drug Administration facilities at White Oak. The request includes funding for the Building One renovation and for construction of the Office of the Commissioner and Office of Regulatory Affairs office building, and for other infrastructure needs; $6 million for improvements at the Center for Veterinary Medicine in Laurel. These funds will support the replacement of the underground water distribution systems for a central utility plant and 13 laboratory buildings with a modern, high efficiency, high quality, and low maintenance system; $5.8 million for improvements at the Center for Devices and Radiological Health's (CDRH) White Oak site in Silver Spring. These funds will allow for the upgrade of the major mechanical systems of an old laboratory and convert it into a machine fabrication shop and a photo science laboratory for the CDRH.


In 2005, Maryland collected $13,497 million in tax revenues or $2,410 per capita, which placed it 14th among the 50 states in per capita tax burden. The national average was $2,192 per capita. Property taxes accounted for 3.9% of the total, sales taxes 21.4%, selective sales taxes 17.7%, individual income taxes 41.9%, corporate income taxes 6.0%, and other taxes 9.0%.

MarylandState Government Finances
(Dollar amounts in thousands. Per capita amounts in dollars.)
Abbreviations and symbols:zero or rounds to zero; (NA) not available; (X) not applicable.
source: U.S. Census Bureau, Governments Division, 2004 Survey of State Government Finances, January 2006.
Total Revenue 28,395,564 5,106.20
  General revenue 22,841,717 4,107.48
    Intergovernmental revenue 6,456,870 1,161.10
    Taxes 12,314,799 2,214.49
      General sales 2,945,060 529.59
      Selective sales 2,267,364 407.73
      License taxes 511,559 91.99
      Individual income tax 5,277,844 949.08
      Corporate income tax 447,487 80.47
      Other taxes 865,485 155.63
    Current charges 2,304,963 414.49
    Miscellaneous general revenue 1,765,085 317.40
  Utility revenue 107,076 19.25
  Liquor store revenue - -
  Insurance trust revenue 5,446,771 979.46
Total expenditure 25,343,680 4,557.40
  Intergovernmental expenditure 5,632,520 1,012.86
  Direct expenditure 19,711,160 3,544.54
    Current operation 14,025,013 2,522.03
    Capital outlay 1,624,740 292.17
    Insurance benefits and repayments 2,493,018 448.30
    Assistance and subsidies 697,114 125.36
    Interest on debt 871,275 156.68
Exhibit: Salaries and wages 4,011,309 721.33
Total expenditure 25,343,680 4,557.40
  General expenditure 22,299,005 4,009.89
    Intergovernmental expenditure 5,632,520 1,012.86
    Direct expenditure 16,666,485 2,997.03
  General expenditures, by function:
    Education 7,366,076 1,324.60
    Public welfare 5,490,400 987.30
    Hospitals 405,108 72.85
    Health 1,524,186 274.08
    Highways 1,655,814 297.75
    Police protection 418,856 75.32
    Correction 1,064,123 191.35
    Natural resources 484,135 87.06
    Parks and recreation 255,796 46.00
    Government administration 785,901 141.32
    Interest on general debt 871,275 156.68
    Other and unallocable 1,977,335 355.57
  Utility expenditure 551,657 99.20
  Liquor store expenditure - -
  Insurance trust expenditure 2,493,018 448.30
Debt at end of fiscal year 13,600,741 2,445.74
Cash and security holdings 44,014,692 7,914.89

As of 1 January 2006, Maryland had four individual income tax brackets ranging from 2.0 to 4.75%. The state taxes corporations at a flat rate of 7.0%.

In 2004, state and local property taxes amounted to about $6 billion or $1,082 per capita. The per capita amount ranks the state 17th highest nationally. Local governments collected $5,539,833,000 of the total and the state government $478,796,000.

Maryland taxes retail sales at a rate of 5%. Food purchased for consumption off-premises is tax exempt. The tax on cigarettes is 100 cents per pack, which ranks 19th among the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Maryland taxes gasoline at 23.5 cents per gallon. This is in addition to the 18.4 cents per gallon federal tax on gasoline.

According to the Tax Foundation, for every federal tax dollar sent to Washington in 2004, Maryland citizens received $1.44 in federal spending.


The Department of Business and Economic Development (DBED), created in 1995, encourages new firms to locate in Maryland and established firms to expand their in-state facilities, promotes the tourist industry, and disseminates information about the state's history and attractions. The department helps secure industrial mortgage loans for businesses that create new jobs, and also provides small-business loans, low-interest construction loads, assistance in plant location and expansion; and supports the Division of Business Development to allow companies to maximize their use of state services. In addition, the department assists local governments in attracting federal funds for economic development and maintains programs to encourage minority businesses, the marketing of seafood, and the use of Ocean City Convention Hall. In 2006, the DBED maintained international offices in Mexico City, Monterrey (Mexico), Beijing, Shanghai, Taipei, Singapore, Bangalore (India), Shorashim (Israel), and Paris. The Department of State Planning oversees state and regional development programs and helps local governments develop planning goals.

During the 1930s, Maryland pioneered in urban design with the new town of Greenbelt, in Prince George's County. A wholly planned community, Columbia, was built in Howard County during the 1960s. More recently, redevelopment of Baltimore's decaying inner city has been aggressively promoted. Harborplace, a waterside pavilion featuring hundreds of shops and restaurants, formally opened in 1980, and an industrial park was developed in a high-unemployment section of northwest Baltimore during the early 1980s. Not far from Harborplace are the 33-story World Trade Center and the National Aquarium. Urban restoration has also been encouraged by urban homesteading: a Baltimorean willing to make a commitment to live in an old brick building and fix it up can submit a closed bid to buy it. An analogous "shopsteading" program to attract merchants has also been encouraged.

In 1982, Maryland initiated a program of state enterprise zones to encourage economic growth by focusing state and local resources on designated areas requiring economic stimulus. Five of these enterprise zones were located in western Maryland, four in the central part of the state, and one on the Eastern Shore. There were 29 state enterprise zones in 2006. With Delaware, Virginia, and Washington DC, Maryland has been recognized as part of an international life sciences hub, dubbed the BioCapital hub. Maryland companies and agencies participate in bioscience "hotbed" campaigns, concerted efforts by groups made up of government development agencies, pharmaceutical and bioscience companies, research institutes, universities, and nonprofits to attract capital, personnel and resources to develop a life sciences cluster. Over 500 foreign-based businesses have been established in Maryland, creating over 75,000 jobs. The Office of International Business (OIB) within the DBED, offers assistance to foreign companies for location, relocation, and expansion, in addition to providing assistance to Maryland exporters.


The infant mortality rate in October 2005 was estimated at 8.2 per 1,000 live births. The birth rate in 2003 was 13.6 per 1,000 population. The abortion rate stood at 29 per 1,000 women in 2000. In 2003, about 83.7% of pregnant woman received prenatal care beginning in the first trimester. In 2004, approximately 80% of children received routine immunizations before the age of three.

The crude death rate in 2003 was 8.1 deaths per 1,000 population. As of 2002, the death rates for major causes of death (per 100,000 resident population) were: heart disease, 220; cancer, 190.4; cerebrovascular diseases, 51.5; chronic lower respiratory diseases, 35.6; and diabetes, 27.8. The mortality rate from HIV infection was 11.2 per 100,000 population, representing the second-highest rate in the country (following the District of Columbia at 40.8 per 100,000); the national HIV death rate was 4.9 per 100,000. In 2004, the reported AIDS case rate was at about 26.1 per 100,000 population, the fourth-highest rate in the country. In 2002, about 55.2% of the population was considered overweight or obese. As of 2004, about 19.5% of state residents were smokers.

In 2003, Maryland had 51 community hospitals with about 11,600 beds. There were about 645,000 patient admissions that year and 6.5 million outpatient visits. The average daily inpatient census was about 8,700 patients. The average cost per day for hospital care was $1,571. Also in 2003, there were about 243 certified nursing facilities in the state with 29,362 beds and an overall occupancy rate of about 86.1%. In 2004, it was estimated that about 75.8% of all state residents had received some type of dental care within the year. Maryland had 389 physicians per 100,000 resident population in 2004 and 875 nurses per 100,000 in 2005. In 2004, there were a total of 4,169 dentists in the state.

About 19% of state residents were enrolled in Medicaid and Medicare programs in 2004. Approximately 14% of the state population was uninsured in 2004. In 2003, state health care expenditures totaled $6.8 million.

Maryland's two medical schools are at Johns Hopkins University, which operates in connection with the Johns Hopkins Hospital and has superbly equipped research facilities, and at the University of Marylandboth located in Baltimore. Johns Hopkins Hospital ranked first on the Honor Roll of Best Hospitals 2005 by U.S. News & World Report ; in the same report, it ranked third for best pediatric hospitals and best care for cancer and heart disease. Federal health centers located in Bethesda include the National Institutes of Health and the National Naval Medical Center.


In 2004, about 109,000 people received unemployment benefits, with the average weekly unemployment benefit at $254. In fiscal year 2005, the estimated average monthly participation in the food stamp program included about 288,943 persons (131,556 households); the average monthly benefit was about $92.33 per person. That year, the total of benefits paid through the state for the food stamp program was about $320.1 million.

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), the system of federal welfare assistance that officially replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) in 1997, was reauthorized through the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. TANF is funded through federal block grants that are divided among the states based on an equation involving the number of recipients in each state. Maryland's TANF program is called the Family Investment Program (FIP). In 2004, the state program had 59,000 recipients; state and federal expenditures on this TANF program totaled $32 million in fiscal year 2003.

In December 2004, Social Security benefits were paid to 761,160 Maryland residents. This number included 499,620 retired workers, 75,210 widows and widowers, 86,860 disabled workers, 35,200 spouses, and 64,270 children. Social Security beneficiaries represented 13.7% of the total state population and 87.4% of the state's population age 65 and older. Retired workers received an average monthly payment of $962; widows and widowers, $923; disabled workers, $926; and spouses, $493. Payments for children of retired workers averaged $511 per month; children of deceased workers, $639; and children of disabled workers, $287. Federal Supplemental Security Income payments in December 2004 went to 92,776 Marylanders, averaging $408 a month. An additional $641,000 of state-administered supplemental payments were distributed to 2,973 residents.


Maryland has sought to preserve many of its historic houses. Block upon block of two-story brick row houses, often with white stoops, fill the older parts of Baltimore, and stone cottages built to withstand rough winters are still found in the western counties. Greenbelt and Columbia exemplify changing modern concepts of community planning.

There were an estimated 2,250,339 housing units in Maryland in 2004, of which 2,077,900 were occupied; 69.5% were owner-occupied. About 51.9% of all units are single-family, detached homes. Most units rely on utility gas and electricity for heating. It was estimated that 61,901 units lacked telephone service, 6,034 lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 5,885 lacked complete kitchen facilities. The average household had 2.61 members.

In 2004, 27,400 privately owned units were authorized for construction. The median home value was $216,529. The median monthly cost for mortgage owners was $1,406. Renters paid a median of $837 per month. In 2006, the state received over $8 million in community development block grants from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). The city of Baltimore received over $23.9 million in community development block grants.

The Department of Housing and Community Development, formed in 1987, oversees all housing and cultural resource areas, providing neighborhood rehabilitation and revitalization, development financing, historical and cultural programs, and information technology. The Maryland Housing Fund of the Department insures qualified lending institutions against losses on home mortgage loans.


As of 2004, 87.4% of Marylanders 25 years and older had completed high school compared the national average of 84%. Some 35.2% had at least four years of college, far surpassing the national average of 26%. Maryland students must pass state High School Assessments (HSA) in order to graduate from high school.

The total enrollment for fall 2002 in Maryland's public schools stood at 867,000. Of these, 610,000 attended schools from kindergarten through grade eight, and 256,000 attended high school. Approximately 50.4% of the students were white, 37.9% were black, 6.4% were Hispanic, 4.9% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 0.4% were American Indian/Alaskan Native. Total enrollment was estimated at 863,000 in fall 2003 and was expected to be 858,000 by fall 2014, a decline of 1% during the period 2002 to 2014. There were 149,253 students enrolled in 727 private schools. Expenditures for public education in 2003/04 were estimated at $8.7 billion. Since 1969, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has tested public school students nationwide. The resulting report, The Nation's Report Card, stated that in 2005 eighth graders in Maryland scored 278 out of 500 in mathematics, matching the national average.

As of fall 2002, there were 300,269 students enrolled in college or graduate school; minority students comprised 36% of total post-secondary enrollment. In 2005 Maryland had 63 degree-granting institutions. The institutions of higher education in Maryland are organized as follows: (1) the public four-year colleges and universities, (2) the community colleges, (3) the independent colleges and universities, and (4) the private career schools.

The state's public four-year institutions include the University of Maryland System, Morgan State University, and St. Mary's College of Maryland. The University of Maryland System is comprised of 13 separate degree-granting institutions located throughout the state. Included, there are two research and public service institutions reporting to the Systemthe Center for Environmental and Estuarine Studies and the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute. These institutions are governed by a single board of regents and a system administration. Morgan State University, the designated public urban teaching university, is governed by a single board of regents. Morgan is one of Maryland's four historically black institutions. St. Mary's College of Maryland, the State's public honors college, is the state's only "state-related" institution. As such, the college has more operational autonomy than the other public four-year institutions, particularly concerning procurement, budget, and personnel administration.

The 16 community colleges are two-year, open-admission institutions with courses and programs leading to certificates and associate degrees, as well as career-oriented and continuing education/community service programs. They receive their funding from three sources: 1) state funding through a funding formula; 2) local funding through a negotiated budget process; and 3) students' tuition and fees. Baltimore City Community College became a state institution in 1990/91 and receives the majority of its funding from the state. The state provides funding to independent colleges and universities in Maryland under a statutory formula. Eligible independent institutions must meet certain standards concerning the date of establishment, type of degrees conferred, accreditation, and affirmative action programs. St. John's College in Annapolis is known for its unique program that includes study of the ancient Greek and Latin classics in their original languages.

The Maryland Higher Education Commission serves as the state's agency that provides, as part of its primary mission, coordination, regulatory oversight, and program approval for Maryland's postsecondary education system. The State Scholarship Administration oversees state scholarship programs.


Although close to the arts centers of Washington, DC, Maryland has its own cultural attractions. Baltimore, a major theatrical center in the 1800s, still has many legitimate theaters. Center Stage in Baltimore is the designated state theater of Maryland, and the Olney Theatre in Montgomery County is the official state summer theater. Arts organizations are aided by the Maryland State Arts Council, established in 1967 and led by a body of 17 appointed citizens.

The state's leading orchestra is the Baltimore Symphony; it began in 1916 and is the only major American orchestra that started as an established branch of the municipal government. In early February 2005, the Baltimore Symphony began performing in the new Music Center at Strathmore. Baltimore is also the home of the Baltimore Opera Company, and its jazz clubs were the launching pads for such musical notables as Eubie Blake, Ella Fitzgerald, and Cab Calloway. Annapolis hosts a symphony, an opera company, and the Ballet Theatre of Maryland. The National Ballet (est. 1948) is the oldest professional ballet company in the state. One of the newest additions to the arts community is the Maryland Symphony Orchestra in Hagerstown, established in 1982. The Peabody Institute of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore is one of the nation's most distinguished music schools. As of 2006, the Peabody Institute's conservatory offered 26 major fields including opera, chamber music, composition, computer music, recording arts, and music education. Both the Maryland Ballet Company and Maryland Dance Theater are nationally known.

In 2005, the Maryland State Arts Council and other arts organizations received grants totaling 36 grants totaling $2,507,890 from the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA). The Maryland Humanities Council (MHC) was founded in 1973. The MHC reached approximately 900,000 Marylanders through their programs in 2004. As of 2006, MHC provided programs such as "Maryland Center for the Book" and the first annual Youth Film JAM in May 2006a festival providing free screenings of award-winning films followed by discussions with film critics and the festival advisory committee. In 2005, the state received 26 grants, totaling $2,645,201, from the National Endowment for the Humanities.


For the fiscal year ending June 2001, Maryland's 24 public library systems had 175 libraries, of which 158 were branches. In that same year, the system also operated 19 bookmobiles, had 15,323,000 volumes of books and serial publications on its shelves, and had a combined total circulation of 46,595,000. The system also had 774,000 audio and 443,000 video items, and 5,000 electronic format items (CD-ROMs, magnetic tapes, and disks). The center of the state library network is the Enoch Pratt Free Library in the city of Baltimore. Founded in 1886, it had 28 branches, over 2.8 million volumes, and a circulation of over 1.5 million in 1999. Each county also has its own library system. The largest academic libraries are those of Johns Hopkins University (2,507,232 volumes in 1999) and the University of Maryland at College Park (2.2 million). The Maryland Historical Society Library specializes in genealogy, heraldry, and state history. The Maryland State Archives houses government records, private manuscripts, maps, and photographs. Maryland is also the site of several federal libraries, including the National Agricultural Library at Beltsville, with over 2 million volumes; the National Library of Medicine at Bethesda, 2,200,000; and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Library at Rockville, with about 1 million volumes in 1999. In 2001, operating income for the state's public library system was $182,940,000, including $1,854,000 in federal grants and $24,406,000 in state grants.

Of the approximately 147 museums and historic sites in the state, the major institutions are the US Naval Academy Museum in Annapolis and Baltimore's Museum of Art, National Aquarium Seaport and Maritime Museum, Maryland Academy of Sciences, the Maryland Historical Society Museum, and Peale Museum, the oldest museum building in the United States. Important historic sites include Ft. McHenry National Monument and Shrine in Baltimore (inspiration for "The Star-Spangled Banner") and Antietam National Battlefield Site near Sharpsburg.


In 2004, 93.4% of Maryland's occupied housing units had telephones. Additionally, by June of that same year there were 3,575,747 mobile wireless telephone subscribers. In 2003, 66.0% of Maryland households had a computer and 59.2% had Internet access. By June 2005, there were 913,068 high-speed lines in Maryland, 822,436 residential and 90,632 for business.

The state had 12 major AM and 35 major FM radio stations in 2005. Maryland has 13 major television stations, including public broadcasting stations in Annapolis, Baltimore, Frederick, Hagerstown, Oakland, and Salisbury. Maryland also receives the signals of many Washington, DC. broadcast stations. The Baltimore area had almost 1 million television households, 68% of which received cable in 1999.


The Maryland Gazette, established at Annapolis in 1727, was the state's first newspaper. It wasn't until 1773 that Baltimore got its first paper, the Maryland Journal and Baltimore Advertiser, but by 1820 there were five highly partisan papers in the city. The Baltimore Sun, founded in 1837, reached its heyday after 1906, when H. L. Mencken became a staff writer. Mencken, who was also an important editor and critic, helped found the American Mercury magazine in 1924.

As of 2005, Maryland had 10 morning and 3 afternoon dailies, as well as 9 Sunday papers. The most influential newspaper published in Baltimore is the Sun (daily, 280,717; Sunday, 454,045). The Washington Post (707,690 daily; 1,007,487 Sundays) is also widely read in Maryland.


In 2006, there were over 6,690 nonprofit organizations registered within the state, of which about 4,804 were registered as charitable, educational, or religious organizations. National medically oriented organizations with headquarters in Maryland include the National Federation of the Blind, the American Urological Association, the American Occupational Therapy Association, National Foundation for Cancer Research, the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, the National Association of the Deaf, and the American Music Therapy Association.

Leading commercial, professional, and trade groups include the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, the American Fisheries Society, the International Association of Chiefs of Police, and the Retailer's Bakery of America.

Lacrosse, a major sport in the state, is represented by the Lacrosse Foundation in Baltimore and the US Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association in Chestertown. The National Amateur Baseball Federation, the American Tennis Association, and the National 4-H Council are also based in the state.

A number of military organizations are based in Maryland, including the Air Force Historical Foundation, the American Military Society, AMVETS (American Veterans of World War II, Korea, and Vietnam), the Black Military History Institute of America, the Vietnam Veterans of America, and the Blue Star Mothers of America. The National Flag Day Foundation is based in Baltimore.

Historical and cultural organizations include the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Historical Society, the Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore, and the Folk Alliance. There are also a number of county and regional historical societies. Education and research associations on the national level include the Jane Goodall Institute for Wildlife Research, Education, and Conservation, and the Wildlife Society.

Social action and civil rights organizations based in Maryland include the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Catholic Relief Services, and Goodwill Industries International.


In 2004, the state hosted over 21 million travelers. About 80% of all travelers were residents of one of the following states: Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, New York, New Jersey, Florida, North Carolina, California, Ohio, Delaware, and West Virginia.

Attractions include parks, historical sites, and national seashore (Assateague Island). Annapolis, the state capital, is the site of the US Naval Academy. On Baltimore's waterfront are monuments to Francis Scott Key and Edgar Allan Poe, historic Ft. McHenry, and many restaurants serving the city's famed crab cakes and other seafood specialties. Ocean City is the state's major seaside resort, and there are many resort towns along Chesapeake Bay. Camp David, in Thurmont, is the home of presidential retreat. The Richard M. Nixon Presidential Library is in College Park. The state's office of tourism developed a "Star Spangled Banner Tour"a 100-mi (160-km) scenic driving tour ending at Fort McHenry, where the national anthem was composed. Near Camden Yard (home of the Baltimore Orioles) is the childhood home of Babe Ruth, who played for the New York Yankees. Baltimore also features the National Aquarium. The Preakness Race (thoroughbred racing) is the second leg of the Triple Crown and is run at the State Fairgrounds in Baltimore. There are 19 state parks with camping facilities and 10 recreation areas. The Civil War battlefield at Antietam and other Civil War trails are located in Maryland.


Maryland has two major professional sports teams: the Baltimore Orioles of Major League Baseball and the Baltimore Ravens of the National Football League. The Ravens (formerly the Browns) moved from Cleveland after the 1995 season, and play in a downtown stadium, built in 1998, near Oriole Park at Camden Yards. The NFL's Washington Redskins play in a new stadium, Jack Kent Cooke Stadium, in Landover, but are still considered a team of the District of Columbia. The Orioles won the World Series in 1966, 1970, and 1983, and American League titles in 1969, 1971, 1979, and 1983.

There are several minor league baseball teams in the state, including teams in Bowie, Frederick, Delmarva, Aberdeen, and Hagerstown.

Ever since 1750, when the first Arabian thoroughbred horse was imported by a Maryland breeder, horse racing has been a popular state pastime. The major tracks are Pimlico (Baltimore), Bowie, and Laurel. Pimlico is the site of the Preakness Stakes, the second leg of racing's Triple Crown. Harness racing is held at Ocean Downs in Ocean City; quarter-horse racing takes place at several tracks throughout the state; and several steeplechase events, including the prestigious Maryland Hunt Cup, are held annually.

In men's collegiate basketball, the University of Maryland won the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Championship in 2002, the ACC Tournament title in 2004, and the National Invitation Tournament in 1972. The Maryland women's basketball team won the National Championship in 2006. Morgan State took the NCAA Division II title in 1974. Another major sport is lacrosse; Johns Hopkins, the Naval Academy, and the University of Maryland all have performed well in intercollegiate competition. In fact, Johns Hopkins has won the NCAA National Championship eight times, most recently in 2005.

Every weekend from April to October, Marylanders compete in jousting tournaments held in four classes throughout the state. In modern jousting, designated as the official state sport, horseback riders attempt to pick up small rings with long, lance-like poles. The state championship is held in October.

Babe Ruth, perhaps the greatest baseball player to ever play the game, was one of many star athletes to be born in the state.



Maryland's lone US vice president was Spiro Theodore Agnew (191896), who served as governor of Maryland before being elected as Richard Nixon's running mate in 1968. Reelected with Nixon in 1972, Agnew resigned the vice-presidency in October 1973 after a federal indictment had been filed against him. Roger Brooke Taney (17771864) served as attorney general and secretary of the treasury in Andrew Jackson's cabinet before being confirmed as US chief justice in 1836; his most historically significant case was the Dred Scott decision in 1856, in which the Supreme Court ruled that Congress could not exclude slavery from any territory.

Three associate justices of the US Supreme Court were also born in Maryland. Thomas Johnson (17321819), a signer of the Declaration of Independence, served as the first governor of the State of Maryland before his appointment to the Court in 1791. Samuel Chase (17411811) was a Revolutionary leader, another signer of the Declaration of Independence, and a local judicial and political leader before being appointed to the high court in 1797; impeached in 1804 because of his alleged hostility to the Jeffersonians, he was acquitted by the Senate the following year. As counsel for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Thurgood Marshall (190893), argued the landmark Brown v. Board of Education school desegregation case before the Supreme Court in 1954; President Lyndon Johnson appointed him to the Court 13 years later.

Other major federal officeholders born in Maryland include John Hanson (172183), a member of the Continental Congress and first president to serve under the Articles of confederation (178182); Charles Carroll of Carrollton (17371832), a signer of the Declaration of Independence and US senator from 1789 to 1792; John Pendleton Kennedy (17951870), secretary of the Navy under Millard Fillmore and a popular novelist known by the pseudonym Mark Littleton; Reverdy Johnson (17961876), attorney general under Zachary Taylor; Charles Joseph Bonaparte (18511921) secretary of the Navy and attorney general in Theodore Roosevelt's cabinet; and Benjamin Civiletti (b.New York, 1935), attorney general under Jimmy Carter. Among the many important state officeholders are William Paca (174099), a signer of the Declaration of Independence and later governor; Luther Martin (b.New Jersey, 17481826), Maryland's attorney general from 1778 to 1805 and from 1818 to 1822, as well as defense counsel in the impeachment trial of Chase and in the treason trial of Aaron Burr; John Eager Howard (17521827), Revolutionary soldier, governor, and US senator; and Albert C. Ritchie (18761936), governor from 1919 to 1935. William D. Schaefer (b.1921) was mayor of Baltimore from 197187; he was elected governor in 1987.

Lawyer and poet Francis Scott Key (17791843) wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner"now the national anthemin 1814. The prominent abolitionists Frederick Douglass (Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, 1817?95) and Harriet Tubman (1820?1913) were born in Maryland, as was John Carroll (17351815), the first Roman Catholic bishop in the United States and founder of Georgetown University. Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton (b.New York, 17741821), canonized by the Roman Catholic Church in 1975, was the first native-born American saint. Stephen Decatur (17791820), a prominent naval officer, has been credited with the toast "Our country, right or wrong!"

Business Leaders

Prominent Maryland business leaders include Alexander Brown (b.Ireland, 17641834), a Scotch-Irish immigrant who built the firm that is now the second-oldest private investment banking house in the United States; George Peabody (b.Massachusetts, 17951869), founder of the world-famous Peabody Conservatory of Music (now the Peabody Institute of Johns Hopkins University); and Enoch Pratt (b.Massachusetts, (180896) who endowed the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore. Benjamin Banneker (17311806), a free black, assisted in surveying the new District of Columbia and published almanacs from 1792 to 1797. Ottmar Mergenthaler (b.Germany, 185499), who made his home in Baltimore, invented the linotype machine.

Educators and Physicians

Financier-philanthropist Johns Hopkins (17951873) was a Marylander, and educators Daniel Coit Gilman (b.Connecticut, 18311908) and William Osler (b.Canada, 18491919, also a famed phy-sician), were prominent in the establishment of the university and medical school named in Hopkins' honor. Peyton Rous (18791970) won the 1966 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine.


Maryland's best-known modern writer was H(enry) L(ouis) Mencken (18801956), a Baltimore newspaper reporter who was also a gifted social commentator, political wit, and student of the American language. Edgar Allan Poe (b.Massachusetts, 180949), known for his poems and eerie short stories, died in Baltimore, and novelist-reformer Upton Sinclair (18781968) was born there. Other writers associated with Maryland include James M. Cain (18921976), Leon Uris (19242003), John Barth (b.1930), and Russell Baker (b.1925). Painters John Hesselius (b.Pennsylvania, 172878) and Charles Willson Peale (17411827) are also linked with the state.

Actors and Musicians

Most notable among Maryland actors are Edwin Booth (183393) and his brother John Wilkes Booth (183865), notorious as the assassin of President Abraham Lincoln. Maryland was the birthplace of several jazz musicians, including James Hubert "Eubie" Blake (18831983), William Henry "Chick" Webb (190739), and Billie Holiday (191559).

Sports Figures

Probably the greatest baseball player of all time, George Herman "Babe" Ruth (18951948) was born in Baltimore. Other prominent ballplayers include Robert Moses "Lefty" Grove (190075), James Emory "Jimmy" Foxx (190767), and Al Kaline (b.1934). Former lightweight boxing champion Joe Gans (18741910) was a Maryland native.


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Coursey, Denise Hawkins, and Matthew Coursey. Frommer's Maryland & Delaware. Foster City, CA: IDG Books Worldwide, 2000.

DeGrove, John Melvin. Planning Policy and Politics: Smart Growth and the States. Cambridge, Mass.: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2005.

FDIC, Division of Research and Statistics. Statistics on Banking: A Statistical Profile of the United States Banking Industry. Washington, D.C.: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, 1993.

Fuke, Richard Paul. Imperfect Equality: African Americans and the Confines of White Racial Attitudes in Post-Emancipation Maryland. New York: Fordham University Press, 1999.

Harp, David W. The Great Marsh: An Intimate Journey into a Chesapeake Wetland. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

Leone, Mark P. The Archaeology of Liberty in an American Capital: Excavations in Annapolis. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

Maryland, State of. Department of Economic and Community Development. Maryland Statistical Abstract 199394. Annapolis: State of Maryland, 1995.

Marzec, Robert P. (ed.). The Mid-Atlantic Region. Vol. 2 in The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures. West-port, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2004.

Riordan, Timothy B. The Plundering Time: Maryland and the English Civil War, 16451646. Baltimore, Md.: Maryland Historical Society, 2004.

US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US Census Bureau. Maryland, 2000. Summary Social, Economic, and Housing Characteristics: 2000 Census of Population and Housing. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 2003.

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MARYLAND. A small state on the Atlantic coast, midway between the northern and southern boundaries of the United States, Maryland embraces the Chesapeake Bay and extends narrowly westward into the Appalachian Mountains. When the first European settlers arrived in the area, there were a dozen or more Native American tribes, each with 200 or more members crisscrossing the land, living mostly on the seafood from the Chesapeake. For sixty years after European settlement, relations between the Indians and the settlers were tense but short of war, and during the 1690s most of the Indians of the area moved south or west.

Seventeenth-Century Settlement

Explorers arrived in the 1580s, and in 1607 the London Company, with a British title to the land that is now Maryland, settled at Jamestown. The Virginians mapped the Chesapeake, traded with the Indians, and in 1631 William Claibourne from Jamestown established a furtrading settlement at Kent Island. Maryland's existence as a separate colony, however, emerged from the Calvert family. George Calvert was a personal friend of King James I, liked by the king for his Roman Catholic faith and his devotion to conservative feudal ideals. King James elevated him to the peerage as Lord Baltimore and gave him title to lands in Newfoundland. From 1620 to 1629, Calvert invested in the colony that he called Avalon, but the climate was too severe and the colony failed. In 1632, Calvert persuaded King Charles I to reclaim from the London Company the Potomac River and the Virginia lands to the north, and to transfer this land to him. Calvert diplomatically named the grant for the king's wife.

George Calvert died before settlement could proceed, but his sons ably took up the project. The oldest son Cecil became the second Lord Baltimore and managed colonization from London. The second son Leonard led the expedition of the Arc and Dove that landed at St. Clement's Island in the Potomac on 25 March 1634 and proceeded a few days later to settle permanently at St. Mary's. The first settlers included about seventeen gentlemen-investors who were mostly Catholic, about thirty freemen, and about eighty indentured servants who were mostly Protestant. The expedition also included two Africans who boarded the ship in the Caribbean, presumably as indentures. The Calverts gave at least 2,000 acres to investors who paid the way of five or more servants, and they gave 100 acres to freemen who paid their own way. The Calverts sold additional land, and they collected quitrents on the lands they gave away or sold.

Within a few years the settlers were widely scattered, cultivating corn for subsistence and tobacco for sale to England. At least until the end of the century, life was extremely rude. The ratio of men to women was three to one, and life expectancy was far below that in England. Still, there was easy upward mobility for those who survived, and for those who bought servants and collected the land bounty for them, and newcomers kept arriving. In 1649 the Calverts made the most of their settlers' religious diversity, accepting an Act of Religious Toleration to encourage more settlers. It was one of the first such acts in the history of Christianity.

Life was harsh enough on this outer edge of civilization, and eight decades of intermittent warfare made it

harsher. From 1645 to 1660 Maryland repulsed at least three expeditions of attacking Virginians who proclaimed fear of their Catholic-led neighbors and who sought booty for themselves in the wilderness. Then, periodically, especially from 1689 to 1715, the colony was torn by civil war as younger planters revolted against the Calvert proprietors and their appointed governors. The rebellions expanded the power of the General Assembly over the governor, moved the capital from Catholic-leaning St. Mary's to Puritan-leaning Annapolis (1694), and repealed the Toleration Act in order to establish the Anglican Church (1702). The chastened Calverts—there were six generations from George Calvert to the American Revolution—joined the Anglican Church and regained most of their authority over the governor.

The Eighteenth Century and the American Revolution

The transition from rudeness to prosperity—from a population of 30,000 in 1700 to 340,000 in 1800—came largely with slavery. The Calvert proprietors and the settlers increasingly saw permanent bondage as an avenue toward stability and prosperity, and tolerance of slavery grew into active promotion. When slavery became fully legal in 1664, Africans numbered no more than 2 percent of the population, but their numbers surged to 20 percent in 1710, and 30 percent in 1750. The result was an economic takeoff—a surge in tobacco exports, and the rise of a money economy. A rich and stable planter class emerged, and fine Georgian country houses appeared. Scotch-Irish and Germans poured in, moving into the backcountry to establish new towns like Frederick and Hagerstown. Wheat came to supplement tobacco as an export crop, and Baltimore grew as a trade center. Artisan industry emerged and iron manufacturing began.

The new prosperity gave way to new tensions, less between settlers and proprietor than among classes, sections, ideas, and especially between America and the British Empire. New ideas found expression in a newspaper, the Maryland Gazette, and in able local leaders like Daniel Dulaney, Dr. Alexander Hamilton, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, Samuel Chase, and William Paca. Maryland planters and merchants howled against the British Stamp Act of 1765, and in June 1774, the anti-British faction in the General Assembly picked a fight with the proprietary governor who was enforcing the British laws. The patriot-secessionists formed a Provisional Convention that assumed control of the government. They drew up a conservative constitution that they adopted in 1776 without a referendum. It reestablished toleration for all Christians, and shifted taxes from a per capita base to land assessment, but it retained property qualifications for voting, limited voting to the election of delegates to the General Assembly, and actually increased property qualifications for holding office.

The General Assembly hesitated in calling out the state militia for its loyalty was doubtful, but numerous volunteers, encouraged by a state bounty, joined the Continental Army and gained renown as the "Maryland Line." Slave masters sometimes collected the bounty for enlistment, sent off their slaves to serve, and usually freed the slaves when the war ended. Maryland shipbuilders built warships for the Continental Navy, and Maryland shippers, with a subsidy from the General Assembly, armed their vessels to prey on British commerce.

Tobacco production declined after the Revolution, but otherwise the economy flourished and new institutions burgeoned—state banks, state-supported turnpikes and canals, organized medical and legal professions, and a multitude of colleges. In 1784 the Methodist Church was born in Maryland, the first formal separation from its Anglican parent. Marylanders were leaders in the establishment of American branches of the Catholic, Episcopal, Presbyterian, and African Methodist Churches. Maryland was a leader in calls for a stronger central government, a United States Constitution, and in the formation of political parties. Maryland happily ceded land for the new District of Columbia.

The Nineteenth Century and the City

The nineteenth century brought urbanization, democracy, industry, and the end of slavery. State population grew from 340,000 in 1800 to 1,200,000 in 1900, and Baltimore City grew from 8 percent of the total to 43 percent. The size and wealth of the city overwhelmed Annapolis and the state's long-established plantation culture.

The city—with its merchant, professional, artisan, and proletarian classes—led the statewide movement toward democracy and party politics. Property qualifications for voting ended in 1802; property qualifications for holding office ended in 1809; a public school system began, at least in theory, in 1825; Jews were allowed to vote in 1826; popular election of the governor came in 1837, election of city and county officials in 1851; African Americans were enfranchised in 1870; the secret ballot came in 1901; and women gained the vote in 1920. Actually, Maryland tended to lag behind other states in most of these reforms.

The city won its first notable struggle with the planters in the War of 1812. Federalist planters, eager to maintain their profitable trade with Great Britain, opposed the war, but Baltimore relished the alliance with France and another chance to loose its privateers on British commerce. When the British landed at Bladensburg in 1814, the planter-led militia let them pass; but three weeks later when the British attacked Baltimore, the city militia held firm. Francis Scott Key, watching the British bombardment, wrote a poem celebrating the victory over the British that became the words to the National Anthem. The planter-led Federalist party of Maryland never recovered.

Especially from the 1820s to the 1850s, Maryland's General Assembly, dominated by Whigs, promoted a frenzy of capital formation and construction projects. First came the turnpikes. The assembly gave rights-of-way to private companies to improve the roads, establish stagecoaches, and charge tolls. Most famous was the National Pike that, with its extensions, stretched from Baltimore to Ohio. Then came a craze for canals, the most famous of which was the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, designed to reach from Washington to Cincinnati. It nearly bankrupted the state and never got beyond Cumberland. The grandest and most successful of the projects were the railroads. The line from Baltimore to Ohio was one of the first and busiest in the country, and by 1840 other lines extended to Washington, Philadelphia, and central Pennsylvania.

Eventually urbanization, democracy, and capitalism came up against the continued existence of slavery. After the collapse of tobacco, slavery was barely profitable in Maryland, and by midcentury there were almost as many free blacks as slaves. African Americans like Richard Allen, Harriet Tubman, and Frederick Douglass were leaders of their people. Still, battered Maryland planters clung desperately to the institution. Roger B. Taney of Mary-land, Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court, was a powerful spokesman for slavery's expansion.

By the 1850s change was coming too fast and tensions were too great, and Maryland drifted toward chaos. Party structure collapsed, rioting turned Baltimore into mobtown, and for a while the Know-Nothings ruled the state with a platform that made a scapegoat of immigrants.

When the Civil War came, Maryland was overwhelmingly pro-slave; in the presidential election of 1860 only 2 percent of the votes went to Abraham Lincoln. But the state was also mostly opposed to secession. After his inauguration, Lincoln intervened forcibly, arresting some 3,000 community leaders who were Southern sympathizers and allowing many more to be disfranchised. Southern sympathy waned. About 50,000 Marylanders eventually enlisted in the Union army, including 9,000 African Americans. About 20,000 Maryland whites fled to join the army and navy of the Confederacy.

From 1864 to 1867, with pro-Southern Marylanders disfranchised, the state launched its own radical reconstruction, foreshadowing what was to come in the South. The radicals abolished slavery, threatened to seize slave-holders' property to pay for the war, and established an authoritarian and far-reaching school system for whites and former slaves. As the war ended, however, and as Southern sympathizers returned home, radicalism collapsed and conservative leadership reasserted itself.

After the war people were concerned mainly with things economic. The railroads, led by the aggressive John W. Garrett, spread into every county. Coal mining expanded in the western counties, oystering expanded on the Eastern Shore, and in Baltimore came vast steel mills, copper and tin smelting, a ready-to-wear clothing industry, canning, and meat packing. Immigrants poured into the city and state—Germans, Irish, Italians, Poles, Jews, and others—often into crowded tenements. Industry and labor sometimes fought; scores died in the Great Railroad Strike of 1877. Many people still lived on farms, although the farms were usually small and poor. The very rich provided grand philanthropies—the Garrett State Forests, the Enoch Pratt libraries, the Walters Art Gallery, and the great Johns Hopkins University. The two political parties—Democrats and Republicans—were nearly balanced after the war, both run by bosses who were closely allied with business, both offering generous patronage to faithful followers.

Twentieth-Century Suburbanization

Twentieth-century change was measurable in a demographic shift—the rise of the suburbs and the corresponding decline of the city and farm. Maryland population grew from 1,200,000 in 1900 to 5,200,000 in 2000, and the suburbs grew from 2 percent to about 80 percent of that total. People moved from factory and farm into middle-class, white-collar, and service occupations.

As the century began, the rising middle classes—doctors, lawyers, managers, engineers, accountants, bureaucrats—were asserting themselves as a Progressive movement, less concerned with creating new wealth than with its management, by people like themselves, for the benefit of all society. Working through both political parties, the Progressives forced through a mass of new laws in the 1900s and 1910s establishing nonpartisan citizen boards to replace politicians in control of the schools, parks, hospitals, and libraries. Other citizen boards gained control over rates charged by electric, water, telephone, railroad, and shipping companies. In 1904, in the midst of these reforms, much of Baltimore burned in what was until then the greatest conflagration in American history, but this only stimulated city planning and new housing codes. Progressivism, however, also had its dark side. The middle class was eager to disfranchise illiterate voters, especially African Americans. Disfranchisement failed in Maryland as blacks and immigrants joined to protect their right to vote, but the reforms succeeded in legalizing racial segregation in most public and commercial facilities. World War I provided a culmination of Progressivism as citizen commissions promoted war production and patriotism with equal fervor.

By the 1920s people were tired of reform and eager to enjoy themselves. Local police refused to enforce the national prohibition laws that lasted from 1919 to 1933, and illegal booze may have flowed more freely in Maryland than in any other state. Eubie Blake and Cab Calloway played in the local jazz clubs. Marylanders like H. L. Mencken, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Ogden Nash caught the mood of the times. Baseball was the rage, and its greatest hero was Baltimore's Babe Ruth, even if he played for New York. Maryland became famous for its horse racing and slot machines. Albert Ritchie was the state's all-time most popular governor, serving from 1919 to 1934. Aristocratic and autocratic, he believed in state rights and unfettered capitalism. Three times he tried to gain the Democratic nomination for president, arguing that Presidents Coolidge and Hoover were spendthrift radicals.

The Great Depression descended relentlessly, first to the farms, then to the city and suburbs. From 1929 to 1933, Maryland's per capita income dropped 45 percent, industrial production dropped 60 percent. Maryland received less from the New Deal than most states because of its unwillingness to provide matching funds. The New Deal built the model town of Greenbelt in Maryland, with cooperative housing and stores. The town was a success but opponents scuttled its experiment in socialism.

In World War II, Maryland, because of its location, became a center of military training, arms and aircraft production, and shipments abroad. African Americans and women made major inroads into the labor market, where they would remain. After the war, prosperity continued but politics grew shrill. A liberal governor, William P. Lane, enacted a sales tax and built airports and a spectacular bridge across the Chesapeake Bay; but a conservative General Assembly enacted the Ober Law, the country's most far-reaching loyalty oath and a forerunner of McCarthyism.

Meanwhile, burgeoning suburbanization was transforming the state's economic and political landscape. The movement began with the trolley lines of the 1890s and the automobile of the 1920s, mostly into affluent enclaves out from Washington and Baltimore. Then the suburban population doubled in the late 1940s, this time mostly into inexpensive housing tracts, bringing shopping strips and drive-in movies; it doubled again in the 1950s and 1960s with planned bedroom cities like Bowie and Columbia; it doubled again in the 1970s and 1980s, bringing beltways and malls; and it continued after that, bringing office towers, mass transit, and ethnic diversity.

The other side of suburban growth was urban and rural decline. Baltimore reached its peak about 1920 with half the state's population and by far its highest per capita income; but in 2000 it had fallen to 12 percent of the state population and by far the lowest per capita income. Urban renewal programs lurched forward by trial and error. In the 1970s, Mayor Donald Schaefer built a sparkling Harborplace development that attracted tourists into the city for spending and recreation.

Suburbanization provided a liberal tilt to Maryland politics, and Maryland kept pace and occasionally offered leadership to the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. African American leaders like Lillie Mae Jackson and Thurgood Marshall worked comfortably with Governors Theodore McKeldin and Millard Tawes. Baltimore was the first major segregated city to integrate its schools, a year before court requirements, and state laws were ahead of federal laws in promoting civil rights. The state suffered from race riots in the late 1960s, but the civil rights movement did not go backward for state agencies promoted school busing and affirmative action, and an ever larger portion of the African Americans entered the middle class.

Idealism slumped into malaise in the 1970s. Two successive governors, Spiro Agnew and Marvin Mandel, plus many other local officials, pled guilty to accepting bribes. They were caught between the old politics of favors and the newer middle-class ethic that was tinged with hostility to politics of all sorts.

The last decades of the century, however, were happy as personal income soared, especially for those already prosperous. Government and business bureaucracies expanded and clean high-tech industries grew. Government in the 1980s and 1990s was mostly corruption-free and progressive, with abundant funding for education and for the environment. Women increasingly entered politics. Universities, claiming to be the engines of the new economy, especially flourished. As the century ended, optimism prevailed.


Argersinger, Jo Ann E. Toward a New Deal in Baltimore: People and Government in the Great Depression. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Baker, Jean H. The Politics of Continuity: Maryland Political Parties from 1858 to 1870. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973. Brugger, Robert J. Maryland, A Middle Temperament, 1634–1980.

Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988. A full and excellent history. Callcott, George H. Maryland and America, 1940 to 1980. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985.

Carr, Lois Green, Russell R. Menard, and Louis Peddicord. Maryland—At the Beginning. Annapolis, Md.: Department of Economic Development, 1978.

Evitts, William J. A Matter of Allegiances: Maryland from 1850 to1861. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974.

Fields, Barbara Jeanne, Slavery and Freedom on the Middle Ground:Maryland During the Nineteenth Century. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1985.

Hoffman, Ronald. Spirit of Dissension: Economics, Politics, and theRevolution in Maryland. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.

Kulikoff, Alan. Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of SouthernCultures in the Chesapeake. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.

Land, Aubrey C. Colonial Maryland: A History. Millwood, N.Y.: KTO Press, 1981.

Main, Gloria L. Tobacco Colony: Life in Early Maryland, 1650–1720. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1982.

George H.Callcott

See alsoChesapeake Colonies ; Know-Nothing Party ; Toleration Acts .

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Maryland (mâr´ələnd), one of the Middle Atlantic states of the United States. It is bounded by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean (E), the District of Columbia (S), Virginia and West Virginia, largely across the Potomac River (S, W), and Pennsylvania (N).

Facts and Figures

Area, 10,577 sq mi (27,394 sq km). Pop. (2010) 5,773,552, a 9% increase since the 2000 census. Capital, Annapolis. Largest city, Baltimore. Statehood, Apr. 28, 1788 (7th of the original 13 states to ratify the Constitution). Highest pt., Backbone Mt., 3,360 ft (1,025 m); lowest pt., sea level. Nickname, Old Line State. Motto,Fatti Maschii, Parole Femine [Manly Deeds, Womanly Words]. State bird, Baltimore oriole. State flower, black-eyed Susan. State tree, white oak. Abbr., Md.; MD


A seaboard state, E Maryland is divided by Chesapeake Bay, which runs almost to the northern border; thus the region of Maryland called the Eastern Shore is separated from the main part of the state and is dominated by the bay. For the most part, the erratic course of the Potomac River separates the main part of Maryland from Virginia (to the south) and the long, narrow western handle from West Virginia (to the south and west). The District of Columbia cuts a rectangular indentation into the state just below the falls of the Potomac.

The main part of the state is divided by the fall line, which runs between the upper end of Chesapeake Bay and Washington, D.C.; to the north and west is the rolling Piedmont, rising to the Blue Ridge and to the Pennsylvania hills. The heavily indented shores of Chesapeake Bay fringe the land with bays and estuaries, which helped in the development of a farm economy relying on water transport. Flourishing in the mild winters and hot summers of the coastal plains are typically southern trees, such as the loblolly pine and the magnolia, while the cooler uplands have woods of black and white oak and beech. Maryland has nearly 3 million acres (l.2 million hectares) of forest land.

Annapolis, with its well-preserved Colonial architecture and 18th-century waterfront, is the capital; it is also the site of the U.S. Naval Academy. Baltimore, with a large percentage of the state's population, is the dominant metropolis. Tourists are attracted to the Antietam National Battlefield and the National Cemetery at Sharpsburg (see National Parks and Monuments, table); the Fort McHenry National Monument, near Baltimore's inner harbor; and the historic towns of Frederick and St. Marys City. Racing enthusiasts attend the annual Preakness and Pimlico Cup horse races in Baltimore. There are several military establishments, including Fort George G. Meade and Andrews Air Force Base. The National Institutes of Health in Bethesda is a government establishment. The 12,000-acre (4,856-hectare) National Agricultural Research Center is located at Beltsville.


Although the fishing industry is declining, the catch of fish and shellfish, chiefly from Chesapeake Bay, yielded an income of over $67 million in 1998, and the state's annual catch of crabs is the largest in the nation. The coastal marshes abound in wildfowl. Stone, coal, and iron, mined chiefly in the west of Maryland, are much less significant than in the 19th cent.

Leading manufactures include electrical and electronic machinery, primary metals, food products, missiles, transportation equipment, and chemicals. Shipping (Baltimore is a major U.S. port), tourism (especially along Chesapeake Bay), biotechnology and information technology, and printing and publishing are also big industries. Service industries, finance, insurance, and real estate are all important. Many Marylanders work for the federal government, either in offices in Maryland or in neighboring Washington, D.C.

Although manufacturing well exceeds agriculture as a source of income, Maryland's farms yield various greenhouse items, corn, hay, tobacco, soybeans, and other crops. Income from livestock (especially broiler chickens) and livestock products, especially dairy goods, is almost twice that from crops. Maryland is also famous for breeding horses.

Government, Politics, and Higher Education

Maryland is governed under a constitution adopted in 1867. The general assembly consists of 47 senators and 141 delegates, all elected for four-year terms. The governor, also elected for a four-year term, may succeed him- or herself once. The state elects two U.S. senators and eight representatives. It has 10 electoral votes. Democrats traditionally dominate state government; William D. Schaefer was elected governor in 1986 and 1990, Parris Glendening in 1994 and 1998. In 2002, however, a Republican, Robert Ehrlich, Jr., was elected to the office. Ehrlich was defeated (2006) for reelection by Democrat Martin O'Malley; he defeated Ehrlich again in 2010. In 2014 Republican Larry Hogan was elected governor.

Maryland's medical, educational, and cultural institutions greatly benefited from philanthropic gifts in the late 19th cent. from Johns Hopkins, George Peabody, and Enoch Pratt. Institutions of higher learning in the state include Goucher College and Towson Univ., at Towson; the Johns Hopkins Univ., the Univ. of Baltimore, and the Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, at Baltimore; St. John's College, at Annapolis; the Univ. of Maryland, at College Park; and the Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, at Catonsville (Baltimore County). See also Maryland, University System of.


Exploration and Colonization

Giovanni da Verrazano, an Italian navigator in the service of France, probably visited (1524) the Chesapeake region, which was certainly later explored (1574) by Pedro Menéndez Marqués, governor of Spanish Florida. In 1603 the region was visited by an Englishman, Bartholomew Gilbert, and it was charted (1608) by Capt. John Smith.

In 1632, Charles I granted a charter to George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, yielding him feudal rights to the region between lat. 40°N and the Potomac River. Disagreement over the boundaries of the grant led to a long series of border disputes with Virginia that were not resolved until 1930. The states still dispute the use of the Potomac River. The territory was named Maryland in honor of Henrietta Maria, queen consort of Charles I. Before the great seal was affixed to the charter, George Calvert died, but his son Cecilius Calvert, 2d Baron Baltimore, undertook development of the colony as a haven for his persecuted fellow Catholics and also as a source of income. In 1634 the ships Ark and Dove brought settlers (both Catholic and Protestant) to the Western Shore, and a settlement called St. Mary's (see Saint Marys City) was set up. During the colonial period the Algonquian-speaking Native Americans withdrew from the area gradually and for the most part peacefully, sparing Maryland the conflicts other colonies experienced.

Religious Conflict and Economic Development

Religious conflict was strong in ensuing years as the Puritans, growing more numerous in the colony and supported by Puritans in England, set out to destroy the religious freedom guaranteed with the founding of the colony. A toleration act (1649) was passed in an attempt to save the Catholic settlers from persecution, but it was repealed (1654) after the Puritans seized control. A brief civil war ensued (1655), from which the Puritans emerged triumphant. Anti-Catholic activity persisted until the 19th cent., when in an unusual reversal of the prevailing pattern many Catholic immigrants came to Baltimore.

In 1694, when the capital was moved from St. Mary's to Annapolis, those were the only towns in the province, but the next century saw the emergence of commercially oriented Baltimore, which by 1800 had a population of more than 30,000 and a flourishing coastal trade. Tobacco became the basis of the economy by 1730. In 1767 the demarcation of the Mason-Dixon Line ended a long-standing boundary dispute with Pennsylvania.

The Revolution and a New Nation

Economic and religious grievances led Maryland to support the growing colonial agitation against England. At the time of the American Revolution most Marylanders were stalwart patriots and vigorous opponents of the British colonial policy. In 1776 Maryland adopted a declaration of rights and a state constitution and sent soldiers and supplies to aid the war for independence; supposedly the high quality of its regular "troops of the line" earned Maryland its nickname, the Old Line State. The U.S. Congress, meeting at Annapolis, ratified the Treaty of Paris ending the Revolutionary War in 1783. A party advocating states' rights, in which Luther Martin was prominent, was unsuccessful in opposing ratification of the Constitution, and in 1791 Maryland and Virginia contributed land and money for the new national capital in the District of Columbia.

Industry, already growing in conjunction with renewed commerce, was furthered by the skills of German immigrants. The War of 1812 was marked for Maryland by the British attack of 1814 on Baltimore and the defense of Fort McHenry, immortalized in Francis Scott Key's "Star-Spangled Banner." After the war the state entered a period of great commercial and industrial expansion. This was accelerated by the building of the National Road, which tapped the rich resources of the West; the opening of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal (1829); and the opening (1830) of the Baltimore & Ohio RR, the first railroad in the United States open for public traffic.

The Coming of the Civil War

Southern ways and sympathies persisted among the plantation owners of Maryland, and as the rift between North and South widened, the state was torn by conflicting interests and the intense internal struggles of the true border state. In 1860 there were 87,000 slaves in Maryland, but industrialists and businessmen had special interests in adhering to the Union, and despite the urgings of Southern sympathizers, made famous in J. R. Randall's song, "Maryland, My Maryland," the state remained in the Union.

At the beginning of the Civil War, President Lincoln suspended habeas corpus and sent troops to Maryland who imprisoned large numbers of secessionists. Nevertheless, Marylanders fought on both sides, and families were often split. General Lee's Army of Northern Virginia invaded Maryland in 1862 and was repulsed by Union forces at Antietam (see Antietam campaign). In 1863, Lee again invaded the North and marched across Maryland on the way to and from Gettysburg. Throughout the war Maryland was the scene of many minor battles and skirmishes.


With the end of the Civil War, industry quickly revived and became a dominant force in Maryland, both economically and politically. Senator Arthur P. Gorman, a Democrat and the president of the Baltimore & Ohio RR, ran the controlling political machine from 1869 to 1895, when two-party government was restored. New railroad lines traversed the state, making it more than ever a crossing point between North and South. Labor troubles hit Maryland with the Panic of 1873, and four years later railroad wage disputes resulted in large-scale rioting in Cumberland and Baltimore. During the 20th cent., however, Maryland became a leader in labor and other reform legislation. The administrations of governors Austin L. Crowthers (1908–12) and Albert C. Ritchie (1920–35) were noted for reform. Ritchie, a Democrat, became nationally known for his efforts to improve the efficiency and economy of state government.

The great influx of people into the state during World War I was repeated and accelerated in World War II as war workers poured into Baltimore, where vital shipbuilding and aircraft plants were in operation. In addition, military and other government employees moved into the area around Washington, D.C.

Growth since World War II

Since World War II, public-works legislation, particularly that concerning roads and other traffic arteries, has brought major changes. The opening of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge in 1952 spurred significant industrial expansion on the Eastern Shore; a parallel bridge was opened in 1973. The Patapsco River tunnel under Baltimore harbor was completed in 1957, and the Francis Scott Key Bridge (1977), crosses the Patapsco. Other construction projects have included the Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, formerly called Friendship International Airport (1950), south of Baltimore, and the Baltimore-Washington Parkway (1954). The state gained a different kind of attention in 1968 when its governor, Spiro T. Agnew was elected vice president.

Maryland experienced tremendous suburban growth in the 1980s, especially in the metropolitan Washington, D.C., area. This growth occurred in spite of a decline in government jobs, as service sector employment rose dramatically. Suburban Baltimore grew as well although the city proper lost 6.4% of its population during the 1980s. Baltimore undertook major revitalization projects in the 1980s and the early 1990s, including the construction of Oriole Park at Camden Yards, the new home of the Baltimore Orioles baseball team.

Maryland has become increasingly popular as a vacation area—Ocean City is a popular seashore resort, and both sides of Chesapeake Bay are lined with beaches and small fishing towns. The Chesapeake Bay Bridge has brought the culture of the Eastern Shore, formerly quite distinctive, into a more homogeneous unity with that of the rest of the state; the area, however, is still noted for its unique rural beauty and architecture, strongly reminiscent of the English countryside left behind by early settlers.


See J. T. Scharf, History of Maryland from the Earliest Period to the Present Day (1967); F. V. W. Mason, The Maryland Colony (1969); J. E. Dilisio, Maryland: A Geography (1983); E. L. Meyer, Maryland Lost and Found (1986); V. F. Rollo, Your Maryland (5th rev. ed. 1993); W. S. Dudley, Maritime Maryland: A History (2010).

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Proprietor. George Calvert was a favorite of King James I, who had knighted him and appointed him a secretary of state. Calverts interest in America began long before he had a colony of his own. He bought stock in the Virginia Company in 1609 and in 1620 an interest in a group planning to settle Newfoundland. A trip to Newfoundland changed his mind about the merits of that islands climate, and he petitioned the king in 1629 for a grant of land in Virginia. By that time Calverts life had changed: he had converted to Roman Catholicism in 1625, a move that had cost him his royal positions and precluded any other official duty. In friendship and as a mark of compensation, James I had granted him the Irish title of Lord Baltimore. James I also, against the protests of many in England and in Virginia, granted Calverts petition for land in what was then thought of as northern Virginia. Calvert left it up to Charles I to name this new grantMarys Land, after Queen Henrietta Maria. Calvert did not live long enough to see his new project actually begin; Marylands charter was signed on 20 June 1643, a month after he died. It awarded the proprietary to Calverts son and heir, Cecilius, second Baron of Baltimore. The Lords Baltimore thus received the first proprietary grant issued by the English for lands in America. They undoubtedly hoped to make money from their new estate. They also hoped to provide a place in America where Roman Catholics could freely practice their religion and enjoy other political and legal freedoms.

Earliest Settlements. It is difficult to know who were among the 150 who sailed on the Ark and the Dove, the first ships to Maryland. A few women, mades which wee brought along, were among them. Unlike any other colony, however, those first settlers included a few Roman Catholic laymen and two Jesuit priests. They arrived at Saint Clements Island on 25 March, Lady Day, the Feast of the Annunciation, and celebrated Mass. They then moved on to settle at Saint Marys. Within the next few years large land grants called hundreds were worked by both tenants and paid laborers. The suitability of Marylands land for tobacco set it on a course much like Virginias economy. Those with some capital or connections amassed large landholdings, usually on one of the many rivers that eventually reached Chesapeake Bay. Those without came to work for them, often as indentured servantslaborers who had contracted to work for a set number of years. Most of these settlers were young men. By 1648 the civil war in England, which had reduced migration, and the disease environment, which killed off many of the settlers, had kept Maryland down to a mere 350 people. But immigration and natural reproduction helped the colonys population grow. Even so, life expectancies in Maryland were far lower than in New England. By 1660 the colony had an estimated 2,500 people; in 1675, 13,000; and in 1701, when an official census was undertaken, 32,000. By 1760 population estimates had reached 162,000. Most of these people lived in scattered settlements or villages with only one significant town, Annapolis.

Ethnicity and Race. Marylands earliest settlers were English, but as in almost all of the proprietary colonies, the owners tried to recruit as many colonists as possible. By the 1730s Irish, German, and Welsh were granted lands along the northern border that the Lords Baltimore disputed with the Penn family. Scottish merchants came to live along the coast as they began to dominate the tobacco trade in the 1750s. On the eve of the American Revolution, Maryland attracted more immigrants, many of them artisans from various parts of England, than any other colony. The major change in Marylands population patterns took place, however, around 1700 when slave labor began replacing white indentured labor, especially on the larger tobacco plantations. By 1760, 46 percent of planters owned slaves, with half of these whites holding five or fewer. Few planters owned large holdings of more than one hundred slaves, and these men, women, and children lived on smaller holdings called quarters. In the 1750s approximately forty-five thousand black slaves lived in Maryland.

Religious Pluralism. Just as the proprietors welcomed various nationalities in order to gain settlers, so they also allowed various religions. Maryland was founded as a haven for Roman Catholics, although Catholics were never a majority, even on the Ark and the Dove. Lord Baltimore tried

to protect his coreligionists by asking that no Christian be troubled [or] molested and that such protection be made law. Jews and other non-Christians were excluded from these legal rights. Catholic immigration to Maryland was meager, but other religious groups took advantage of toleration. In the 1650s the Quakers found a welcome. Presbyterians, Independents, Baptists, and the Church of England all were represented by the 1670s. This early toleration did not last, and Catholics lost the right to hold political office and to vote in the twenty or so years after 1692. Dissenting Protestants like the Quakers fared better.


Bernard Bailyn, Voyagers to the West: A Passage in the Peopling of America on the Eve of the Revolution (New York: Vintage, 1986);

Patricia U. Bonomi, Under the Cope of Heaven (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986);

Aubrey C. Land, Colonial Maryland: A History (Millwood, N.Y.: KTO Press, 1981).

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Annapolis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

Baltimore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319

The State in Brief

Nickname: Old Line State, Free State

Motto: Fatti maschii, parole femine (Manly deeds, womanly words)

Flower: Black-eyed susan

Bird: Baltimore oriole

Area: 12,407 square miles (2000; U.S. rank: 42nd)

Elevation: Ranges from sea level to 3,360 feet above sea level

Climate: Temperate, with mild winters and hot summers; cooler in mountains

Admitted to Union: April 28, 1788

Capital: Annapolis

Head Official: Governor Robert L. Ehrlich (R) (until 2007)


1980: 4,217,000

1990: 4,781,468

2000: 5,296,486

2004 estimate: 5,558,058

Percent change, 19902000: 10.8%

U.S. rank in 2004: 19th

Percent of residents born in state: 49.3% (2000)

Density: 541.9 people per square mile (2000)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 259,120

Racial and Ethnic Characteristics (2000)

White: 3,391,308

Black or African American: 1,477,411

American Indian and Alaska Native: 15,423

Asian: 210,929

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 2,303

Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 227,916

Other: 95,525

Age Characteristics (2000)

Population under 5 years old: 353,393

Population 5 to 19 years old: 1,139,572

Percent of population 65 years and over: 11.3%

Median age: 36 years (2000)

Vital Statistics

Total number of births (2003): 75,487

Total number of deaths (2003): 44,629 (infant deaths, 645)

AIDS cases reported through 2003: 12,911


Major industries: Electrical equipment, food products, transportation equipment, metals, tourism

Unemployment rate: 3.7% (December 2004)

Per capita income: $37,424 (2003; U.S. rank: 5th)

Median household income: $55,213 (3-year average, 2001-2003)

Percentage of persons below poverty level: 7.7% (3-year average, 2001-2003)

Income tax rate: Ranges from 2.0% to 4.75%

Sales tax rate: 5.0% (food and prescription drugs are exempt)

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Maryland State in e USA, on the Atlantic Ocean; the capital is Annapolis. The largest city is Baltimore. The first settlements were founded in 1634. Maryland (one of the 13 original states) was active in the drive towards American independence. In 1791 it ceded an area of land on the Potomac River to create the District of Columbia, the site of the national capital. During the American Civil War, Maryland was one of the border states that did not secede from the Union, but its citizens served in both armies. The w half of the state is part of the Piedmont plateau region. Chesapeake Bay and its coastal marshlands dominate Maryland. The rearing of cattle and chickens is the most important farming activity. Maize, hay, tobacco, and soya beans are the chief crops. Industries: iron and steel, shipbuilding, primary metals, transport equipment, chemicals, electrical machinery, fishing. Area: 25,316sq km (9775sq mi). Pop. (2000) 5,296,486.


Statehood :

April 28, 1788

Nickname :

Old Line State, Free State

State bird :

Baltimore oriole

State flower :

Black-eyed Susan

State tree :

White oak

State motto :

Manly deeds, womanly words

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Maryland's natural harbor on Chesapeake Bay, its moderate climate, and its adaptability for agriculture made it a desirable place for settlement in colonial days. The manner of settlement was very different from places like Virginia or Massachusetts. Unlike many other colonies, Maryland was established with an almost feudal system in which the land was considered the property of the English lord who governed it a proprietary colony. Maryland also had a higher proportion of Catholic settlers than most other colonies and experienced a higher proportion of religious wrangling. Its position as a slaveholding state which did not secede from the Union also set it apart from southern states during the Civil War (186165). In modern times, the state has thrived by creating a diversified economy that includes industry, maritime interests, agriculture, and the service sector.

The first Europeans to penetrate into the land which later became Maryland were the Italian Giovanni da Verrazano (14801527) and the Spaniard Lucas Vazquez de Ayllon in the sixteenth century. The first explorer of Chesapeake Bay, an area that would become vital to the commerce of Maryland, was Captain John Smith (15801631), who was leader of the colony that was established in Jamestown, Virginia. Smith's map of the Chesapeake was used for many years and was an important tool in the settlement of the area. By the time the European explorers arrived, Native Americans had established permanent settlements in Maryland, where they cultivated corn (maize), vegetables, tobacco, and other crops.

The territory was given as a proprietorship by England's King Charles I (16001641) to George Calvert (15801632), a favorite of the English court. Lord Calvert had resigned his position at the court because his Catholic religion prevented him from holding public office in England. Since the colony of Virginia also wanted the land, it opposed the king's decision, but Calvert prevailed. Later he left the land to his son, Cecilius, who is better known as Lord Baltimore (16051675). He named the region Maryland after the queen consort of Charles I, Henrietta Maria of France. This land grant encompassed not only the area that later became Maryland, but also Delaware, part of Pennsylvania, and the valley between the north and south branches of the Potomac River.

As a sole proprietorship, the colony of Maryland was fully under the control of Lord Baltimore, who derived his income from the quitrents, which were money payments that took the place of feudal duties, like military service. The settlers paid them as a kind of rent for the land. Baltimore's financial obligations to the king were minimal. The colony's early years were marked by feuding between Puritans and Roman Catholics. The feuds were settled only when Benedict Leonard Calvert (16061647), the fourth Baron of Baltimore, embraced the Protestant faith and was granted proprietary rule.

Maryland was a somewhat reluctant participant in the American Revolution (17751783) but finally sent 20,000 soldiers to fight in the war. It was the seventh state to ratify the federal Constitution. Maryland provided the home for the Continental Congress in two cities, Baltimore and Annapolis, before the permanent capital was established in Washington, DC. Maryland's first state constitution favored owners of large rural estates over people who owned no property.

Tidewater and southern Maryland provided the state's main staple crop, tobacco. It was grown with the help of slave labor and indentured servants. German immigrants in western Maryland helped develop the wheat economy. The city of Baltimore was founded in 1729. The city prospered because of its magnificent harbor, which provided access to the import and export trade. Shipbuilding also grew rapidly in the Baltimore area. During the War of 1812 (18121814) many naval and military operations took place in the area, and Francis Scott Key wrote the Star-Spangled Banner during the British siege of Fort McHenry in Baltimore harbor

Baltimore harbor provided the first transportation access to Maryland; but other networks developed in due time. The first national highway was known as the National Road (now U.S. Route 40). The highway began at Cumberland in 1811, providing access to Ohio within seven years. The Delaware and Chesapeake Canal opened in 1829, linking Chesapeake Bay and the Delaware River. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad opened in 1828, soon providing the first passenger train to Washington, DC, and Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now in West Virginia). The line extended to St. Louis by 1857 and precipitated the growth of freight service, which helped Baltimore grow into a metropolis. The Pennsylvania Railroad began providing service to northern cities in the 1850s.

Maryland did not support secession in the Civil War but remained one of the border states that still harbored many southern supporters. In spite of its sympathy to the South, in 1864 the Maryland legislature voted to abolish slavery, which caused a problem after the war, since its economy had been based on slave labor. It was estimated that the value of Mary-land's slaves in 1860 approached $35 million. Tobacco plantations in Prince Georges and other southern counties were hit hard by abolition. Tobacco never made a full recovery as a staple crop. Truck farms grew instead, helped by the proximity to water and rail transportation. The Maryland legislature even resorted to an advertising campaign to help economic development. In 1867 it commissioned a pamphlet titled A Succinct Exposition of the Industrial Resources and Agricultural Advantages of the State of Maryland.

The economy did recover, and enabled Maryland to participate in the rebuilding of the south. The state's economic base shifted gradually from agriculture to industry, led by shipbuilding, steel-making, clothing manufacturing, and shoemaking. The state's economic success allowed for philanthropy. Millionaires who had made their fortunes between the Civil War and World War I (19141918) endowed cultural and educational institutions. Banker and financier Johns Hopkins (17951873) founded Johns Hopkins University. Merchant and banker George Peabody (17951869) financed the Peabody Conservatory of Music; and Enoch Pratt (18081896), a manufacturer and merchant, endowed the Pratt Free Library.

The city of Baltimore was the industrial center of the state. By 1890 its population had grown to 434,000, employing people in manufacturing and mechanical industries, trade, transportation, and personal and professional services. The city attracted a variety of ethnic groups, especially African American descendants of slaves. But there were a large proportion of Germans and Irish as well. Baltimore developed its ethnic neighborhoods like many other cities during the Gilded Age. The neighborhoods were filled with low-paid factory workers, who often worked in local sweatshops that manufactured men's clothing.

World War I provided another boost to Mary-land's economy; but soon the Great Depression of the 1930s brought hardship to many people. The depression spelled the end of the political career of longtime Democratic Governor Albert C. Ritchie (18761936). His successor Harry W. Nice was a Republican. However, Nice supported the New Deal program of Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945). Like most of the nation, Maryland was only brought out of the economic doldrums by the manufacturing boom created by World War II (19391945). The shipyards of BethlehemFairfield and Maryland Drydock in Baltimore had to hire an additional 12,000 employees in 1942 to keep up with war demands. The Martin Company, which manufactured aircraft, added 6,000 employees. People in search of good wages swarmed to the city, not only from Maryland itself, but from Appalachia and the South.

During the latter part of the Depression, Maryland became the site of an experiment in city planning. The experiment resulted in the creation of "New Towns." One of the towns was Greenbelt, Maryland, designed as a conveniently arranged, pleasant place to live, with proportional representation from all kinds of ethnic and religious groups. Later a developer named James Rouse (19141996) built the village of Cross Keys in northwest Baltimore along similar lines. He also began to plan for the city of Columbia in Howard County. Columbia, which was begun in the mid-1960s, was planned as a cluster of villages, each with a collection of shops and strategically placed schools. Businesses and industrial parks flanked the village centers. Life in Columbia was never as idyllic as its planner had imagined it, but despite some difficulties during the 1970s the city continued to thrive.

The state of Maryland grew by 13.4 percent during the 1980s, well over the national average of 9.8 percent. The expansion of U.S. government is in part responsible for the growth. Many federal workers have settled in Prince Georges and Montgomery counties, Maryland suburbs of Washington, DC. The headquarters of the Social Security Administration is located in Baltimore. The most significant economic improvements during the 1980s and 1990s, however, were undoubtedly related to the economic redevelopment of Baltimore. The Charles Center development, the renewed Inner Harbor, the World Trade Center, the National Aquarium, and the new Baltimore Oriole Park at Camden Yards created a boom in retailing and hotels. These improvements brought hundreds of thousands of people to the city. The state suffered somewhat from the recession of the 1980s but has increased employment in the service sector. That gave Maryland the fifth highest state income in the country during the mid-1990s. The state ranked sixth in per capita income in 1996.

See also: Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Colony (Proprietary), National Road, Tidewater, Tobacco


Bode, Carl. Maryland: A Bicentennial History. New York: Norton, 1978.

Council of State Governments. The Book of the States, 19941995 Edition. Vol. 30. Lexington, KY: The Council of State Governments, 1994.

Dozer, Donald. Portrait of the Free State: A History of Maryland. Cambridge, MD: Tidewater, 1976.

Schmittroth, Linda, and Mary Kay Rosteck, eds. Cities of the United States. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale Research, 1994.

Walsh, Richard, and William Lloyd Fox, eds. Maryland: A History. Baltimore: Maryland Hall of Records, 1983.

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