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Treaty of Paris

Treaty of Paris

The treaty of paris of 1783 ended the war of independence and granted the thirteen colonies political freedom. A preliminary treaty between Great Britain and the United States had been signed in 1782, but the final agreement was not signed until September 3, 1783.

Peace negotiations began in Paris, France, in April 1782. The U.S. delegation included benjamin franklin, john adams, john jay, and Henry Laurens, while the British were represented by Richard Oswald and Henry Strachey. The negotiators concluded the preliminary treaty on November 30, 1782, but the agreement was not effective until Great Britain concluded treaties with France and Spain concerning foreign colonies.

In the final agreement, the British recognized the independence of the United States. The treaty established generous boundaries for the United States; U.S. territory now extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River in the west, and from the Great Lakes and Canada in the north to the 31st parallel in the south. The U.S. fishing fleet was guaranteed access to the fisheries off the coast of Newfoundland with their plentiful supply of cod.

Navigation of the Mississippi River was to be open to both the United States and Great Britain. Creditors of both countries were not to be impeded from collecting their debts, and Congress was to recommend to the states that loyalists to the British cause during the war should be treated fairly and their rights and confiscated property restored.

Treaty of Paris

In the name of the most holy and undivided Trinity.

Source: United States. Department of State, Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America, 1776–1949 (compiled under the direction of Charles I. Bevans), vol. 12 (1974), pp. 8–12.

It having pleased the Divine Providence to dispose the hearts of the most serene and most potent Prince George the Third, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, duke of Brunswick and Lunebourg, arch-treasurer and prince elector of the Holy Roman Empire etc., and of the United States of America, to forget all past misunderstandings and differences that have unhappily interrupted the good correspondence and friendship which they mutually wish to restore, and to establish such a beneficial and satisfactory intercourse, between the two countries upon the ground of reciprocal advantages and mutual convenience as may promote and secure to both perpetual peace and harmony; and having for this desirable end already laid the foundation of peace and reconciliation by the Provisional Articles signed at Paris on the 30th of November 1782, by the commissioners empowered on each part, which articles were agreed to be inserted in and to constitute the Treaty of Peace proposed to be concluded between the Crown of Great Britain and the said United States, but which treaty was not to be concluded until terms of peace should be agreed upon between Great Britain and France and his Britannic Majesty should be ready to conclude such treaty accordingly; and the treaty between Great Britain and France having since been concluded, his Britannic Majesty and the United States of America, in order to carry into full effect the Provisional Articles above mentioned, according to the tenor thereof, have constituted and appointed, that is to say his Britannic Majesty on his part, David Hartley, Esqr., member of the Parliament of Great Britain, and the said United States on their part, John Adams, Esqr., late a commissioner of the United States of America at the court of Versailles, late delegate in Congress from the state of Massachusetts, and chief justice of the said state, and minister plenipotentiary of the said United States to their high mightinesses the States General of the United Netherlands; Benjamin Franklin, Esqr., late delegate in Congress from the state of Pennsylvania, president of the convention of the said state, and minister plenipotentiary from the United States of America at the court of Versailles; John Jay, Esqr., late president of Congress and chief justice of the state of New York, and minister plenipotentiary from the said United States at the court of Madrid; to be the plenipotentiaries for the concluding and signing the present definitive treaty; who after having reciprocally communicated their respective full powers have agreed upon and confirmed the following articles.

ARTICLE 1

His Britannic Majesty acknowledges the said United States, viz., New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, to be free sovereign and independent states, that he treats with them as such, and for himself, his heirs, and successors, relinquishes all claims to the government, propriety, and territorial rights of the same and every part thereof.

ARTICLE 2

And that all disputes which might arise in future on the subject of the boundaries of the said United States may be prevented, it is hereby agreed and declared, that the following are and shall be their boundaries, viz.: from the northwest angle of Nova Scotia, viz., that angle which is formed by a line drawn due north from the source of St. Croix River to the highlands; along the said highlands which divide those rivers that empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence, from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the northwesternmost head of Connecticut River; thence down along the middle of that river to the forty-fifth degree of north latitude; from thence by a line due west on said latitude until it strikes the river Iroquois or Cataraquy; thence along the middle of said river into Lake Ontario; through the middle of said lake until it strikes the communication by water between that lake and Lake Erie; thence along the middle of said communication into Lake Erie, through the middle of said lake until it arrives at the water communication between that lake and Lake Huron; thence along the middle of said water communication into the Lake Huron, thence through the middle of said lake to the water communication between that lake and Lake Superior; thence through Lake Superior northward of the Isles Royal and Phelipeaux to the Long Lake; thence through the middle of said Long Lake and the water communication between it and the Lake of the Woods, to the said Lake of the Woods; thence through the said lake to the most northwestern point thereof, and from thence on a due west course to the river Mississippi; thence by a line to be drawn along the middle of the said river Mississippi until it shall intersect the northernmost part of the thirty-first degree of north latitude. South, by a line to be drawn due east from the determination of the line last mentioned in the latitude of thirty-one degrees north of the equator, to the middle of the river Apalachicola or Catahouche; thence along the middle thereof to its junction with the Flint River, thence straight to the head of Saint Mary's River; and thence down along the middle of Saint Mary's River to the Atlantic Ocean; east, by a line to be drawn along the middle of the river Saint Croix, from its mouth in the Bay of Fundy to its source, and from its source directly north to the aforesaid highlands which divide the rivers that fall into the Atlantic Ocean from those which fall into the river Saint Lawrence; comprehending all islands within twenty leagues of any part of the shores of the United States, and lying between lines to be drawn due east from the points where the aforesaid boundaries between Nova Scotia on the one part and East Florida on the other shall, respectively, touch the Bay of Fundy and the Atlantic Ocean, excepting such islands as now are or heretofore have been within the limits of the said province of Nova Scotia.

ARTICLE 3

It is agreed that the people of the United States shall continue to enjoy unmolested the right to take fish of every kind on the Grand Bank and on all the other banks of Newfoundland, also in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and at all other places in the sea, where the inhabitants of both countries used at any time heretofore to fish. And also that the inhabitants of the United States shall have liberty to take fish of every kind on such part of the coast of Newfoundland as British fishermen shall use, (but not to dry or cure the same on that island) and also on the coasts, bays, and creeks of all other of his Britannic Majesty's dominions in America; and that the American fishermen shall have liberty to dry and cure fish in any of the unsettled bays, harbors, and creeks of Nova Scotia, Magdalen Islands, and Labrador, so long as the same shall remain unsettled, but so soon as the same or either of them shall be settled, it shall not be lawful for the said fishermen to dry or cure fish at such settlement without a previous agreement for that purpose with the inhabitants, proprietors, or possessors of the ground.

ARTICLE 4

It is agreed that creditors on either side shall meet with no lawful impediment to the recovery of the full value in sterling money of all bona fide debts heretofore contracted.

ARTICLE 5

It is agreed that Congress shall earnestly recommend it to the legislatures of the respective states to provide for the restitution of all estates, rights, and properties, which have been confiscated belonging to real British subjects; and also of the estates, rights, and properties of persons resident in districts in the possession of his Majesty's arms and who have not borne arms against the said United States. And that persons of any other description shall have free liberty to go to any part or parts of any of the thirteen United States and therein to remain twelve months unmolested in their endeavors to obtain the restitution of such of their estates, rights, and properties as may have been confiscated; and that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several states a reconsideration and revision of all acts or laws regarding the premises, so as to render the said laws or acts perfectly consistent not only with justice and equity but with that spirit of conciliation which on the return of the blessings of peace should universally prevail. And that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several states that the estates, rights, and properties, of such last mentioned persons shall be restored to them, they refunding to any persons who may be now in possession the bona fide price (where any has been given) which such persons may have paid on purchasing any of the said lands, rights, or properties since the confiscation.

And it is agreed that all persons who have any interest in confiscated lands, either by debts, marriage settlements, or otherwise, shall meet with no lawful impediment in the prosecution of their just rights.

ARTICLE 6

That there shall be no future confiscations made nor any prosecutions commenced against any person or persons for, or by reason of, the part which he or they may have taken in the present war, and that no person shall on that account suffer any future loss or damage, either in his person, liberty, or property; and that those who may be in confinement on such charges at the time of the ratification of the treaty in America shall be immediately set at liberty, and the prosecutions so commenced be discontinued.

ARTICLE 7

There shall be a firm and perpetual peace between his Britannic Majesty and the said states, and between the subjects of the one and the citizens of the other, wherefore all hostilities both by sea and land shall from henceforth cease. All prisoners on both sides shall be set at liberty, and his Britannic Majesty shall with all convenient speed, and without causing any destruction, or carrying away any Negroes or other property of the American inhabitants, withdraw all his armies, garrisons, and fleets from the said United States, and from every post, place, and harbor within the same; leaving in all fortifications, the American artillery that may be therein; and shall also order and cause all archives, records, deeds, and papers belonging to any of the said states, or their citizens, which in the course of the war may have fallen into the hands of his officers, to be forthwith restored and delivered to the proper states and persons to whom they belong.

ARTICLE 8

The navigation of the river Mississippi, from its source to the ocean, shall forever remain free and open to the subjects of Great Britain and the citizens of the United States.

ARTICLE 9

In case it should so happen that any place or territory belonging to Great Britain or to the United States should have been conquered by the arms of either from the other before the arrival of the said Provisional Articles in America, it is agreed that the same shall be restored without difficulty and without requiring any compensation.

ARTICLE 10

The solemn ratifications of the present treaty expedited in good and due form shall be exchanged between the contracting parties in the space of six months or sooner, if possible, to be computed from the day of the signature of the present treaty. In witness whereof we the undersigned, their ministers plenipotentiary, have in their name and in virtue of our full powers, signed with our hands the present definitive treaty and caused the seals of our arms to be affixed thereto.

Done at Paris, this third day of September in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three.

D. Hartley [Seal]

John Adams [Seal]

B. Franklin [Seal]

John Jay [Seal]

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Paris, Treaty of

Treaty of Paris, any of several important treaties, signed at or near Paris, France.

The Treaty of 1763

The Treaty of Paris of Feb. 10, 1763, was signed by Great Britain, France, and Spain. Together with the treaty of Hubertusburg, it terminated the Seven Years War. France lost its possessions on the North American continent by ceding Canada and all its territories east of the Mississippi to Great Britain, and by ceding W Louisiana to its ally, Spain, in compensation for Florida, which Spain yielded to Great Britain. France retained the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon and recovered Guadeloupe and Martinique in the West Indies from Great Britain, in exchange for which it ceded Grenada and the Grenadines to the English.

In East India the French were permitted to return to their posts, but they were forbidden to maintain troops or build forts in Bengal; India thus virtually passed to Great Britain. In Africa France yielded Senegal to Great Britain. Cuba and the Philippines were restored to Spain. In Europe the French and Spanish returned Minorca to Great Britain, and France withdrew its troops from Germany. From this treaty dated the colonial and maritime supremacy of Great Britain.

The Treaty of 1783

By the Treaty of Paris of Sept. 3, 1783, Great Britain formally acknowledged the independence of the United States, and the warring European powers, Britain against France and Spain, with the Dutch as armed neutrals, effected a large-scale peace settlement. The preliminary Anglo-American articles (which went unchanged) were signed on Nov. 30, 1782, after months of tortuous negotiations, in which the chief American plenipotentiaries, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay, acquitted themselves so well that their achievement has been labeled "the greatest triumph in the history of American diplomacy."

France and Spain signed separate preliminary articles with Great Britain on Jan. 20, 1783, and the Dutch and British signed theirs on Sept. 2, 1783. These preliminary agreements (except the Anglo-Dutch one, which was not ratified by both powers until June, 1784) were signed as definitive treaties on Sept. 3, 1783.

The Anglo-American settlement fixed the boundaries of the United States. In the Northeast the line extended from the source of the St. Croix River due north to the highlands separating the rivers flowing to the Atlantic from those draining into the St. Lawrence River, thence with the highlands to lat. 45°N, and then along the 45th parallel to the St. Lawrence. From there the northern boundary followed a line midway through contiguous rivers and lakes (especially the Great Lakes) to the northwest corner of the Lake of the Woods, thence "due west" to the sources of the Mississippi (which were not then known).

The Mississippi, south to lat. 31°N, was made the western boundary. On the south the line followed the 31st parallel E to the Chattahoochee River and its junction with the Flint River, then took a straight line to the mouth of the St. Marys River, and from there to the Atlantic. The navigation of the Mississippi was to be open to the citizens of both nations.

Another section of the treaty granted Americans fishing rights off Newfoundland and the privilege of curing fish in the uninhabited parts of Labrador, Nova Scotia, and the Magdalen Islands, but not in Newfoundland. A third part provided that creditors of either side would be unimpeded in the collection of lawful debts. In a fourth section the American government promised to recommend to the several states that they repeal their confiscation laws, provide for restitution of confiscated property to British subjects, and take no further proceedings against the Loyalists.

In the treaty with France, Britain relinquished the restrictions that had been imposed on the French naval port of Dunkirk, but aside from minor adjustments in the West Indies and Africa, the territorial dispositions made in the Treaty of Paris of 1763 were generally continued. Spain, however, in its treaty with Britain, reacquired the Floridas in America and the island of Minorca in the Mediterranean, while the British retained Gibraltar.

The Treaty of 1814

The Treaty of Paris of May 30, 1814, was concluded between France on the one hand and Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia on the other after the first abdication of Napoleon I. France was confined to its boundaries of 1792. No indemnity was exacted, and England returned all the French colonies save Tobago, St. Lucia, and Mauritius. Britain also kept Malta. A general conference was to be called for the territorial settlement in Europe (see Vienna, Congress of). The leniency of the treaty to defeated France was chiefly due to the diplomatic skill of Talleyrand, who had engineered the restoration of Louis XVIII on the French throne.

The Treaty of 1815

After Napoleon's return, his defeat at Waterloo, and his second abdication, a new peace treaty was signed at Paris on Nov. 20, 1815. This treaty was much sterner than the one of the previous year. France was reduced to the boundary of 1790, was required to pay 700 million francs in reparations, and was made to pay for the maintenance of an Allied army of occupation in NE France, which was to remain for a maximum of five years. All the provisions of the treaty of 1814 not expressly revoked were to remain binding, as was the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna. On the same day Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia renewed the Quadruple Alliance.

Other Treaties

For the Treaty of Paris of 1856, see Paris, Congress of. For the Treaty of Paris of 1898, see Spanish-American War. After World War I several treaties were signed in 1919 and 1920 in or near Paris (see Versailles, Treaty of; Saint-Germain, Treaty of; Neuilly, Treaty of; Trianon, Treaty of; Sèvres, Treaty of). Again, after World War II, peace treaties were signed in Paris in 1947 between the Allies and Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Finland. Each treaty is a separate document.

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Paris, Treaty of (1783)

PARIS, TREATY OF (1783)

PARIS, TREATY OF (1783). This treaty between Great Britain and the United States, signed in Paris on 3 September 1783, marked the consummation of American independence. At the same time, Great Britain also signed peace treaties with France, an ally of the United States, and Spain, an ally of France; it had signed a treaty with the Netherlands the previous day. More important, the treaty is rightly considered the greatest triumph in the history of American diplomacy.

To secure its independence, the new United States had entered into an alliance with France (after the tremendous victory over Burgoyne at Saratoga in October 1777), and France, in turn, had agreed to an alliance with Spain. While America had achieved its goal—since Britain had, in principle, accepted the idea of American independence—Spain had not gained its objective, the re-capture of Gibraltar. And, given these entangling alliances, the conflict dragged on, though the fighting had largely ended in North America.

There were other issues as well. Spain, for example, also wanted to limit the size of the new United States well east of the Mississippi River, to protect Spanish holdings along the Gulf Coast in the area that became Florida and Texas. Britain also wanted to limit the size of the United States, to protect its position in Canada and with the Native American tribes. France wanted to weaken its traditional opponent, Britain, as much as possible, which required a stronger United States to compete with Britain in North America.

America's diplomats John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, and Henry Laurens engaged in a shrewd negotiation. Beginning in March 1782 (Cornwallis had surrendered at Yorktown on 19 October 1781), they opened negotiations first with the government of Prime Minister Charles Rockingham and later with the government of the earl of Shelburne, Sir William Petty. They achieved success with a preliminary, conditional treaty, signed on 30 November 1782, which would not take effect until Britain reached a settlement with France, and France delayed until Britain and Spain achieved a settlement. Again, Spain wanted Gibraltar, which the British were not willing to return.

The conditional British-American treaty fixed the boundaries of the United States to the northeast and northwest, established the Mississippi River as the western


boundary (a great and grand achievement) and secured navigation along the Mississippi for British and American citizens (although the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico flowed through Spanish-controlled New Orleans); the treaty also granted Americans fishing rights off Newfoundland's Grand Banks and the right to cure fish in uninhabited parts of nearby landfall, but not in Newfoundland itself. The treaty also committed the U.S. government to guarantee repayment of debts to British creditors and to improve the treatment of American Loyalists, including the restitution of property seized during the revolutionary fighting.

While these negotiations were taking place, the British stiffened their position after learning that Spain's long siege of Gibraltar had failed. John Jay, in particular, had great fear that France and its minister Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes, might seek a separate peace with Britain, at America's expense, to satisfy France's ally Spain. There were the typical machinations associated with such important diplomatic maneuverings. But Benjamin Franklin, though sick with gout, managed to imply to Vergennes that further French opposition to the treaty he had helped negotiate with Britain could drive America back into British arms; he also wrote to Vergennes that the Americans and French would not want the British to see them divided, and thus France should support what the United States had achieved in its separate negotiation. For Vergennes, this helped him out of a difficult situation, since he could not tie France's foreign policy to Spain's longtime quest to regain Gibraltar. Vergennes was able to use America's initiative to convince the Spanish to sign its treaty.

And, thus, on 3 September 1783, this intricate conflict came to a close and the United States achieved its independence and, by gaining land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River, laid the ground for what would become a vast country.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bemis, Samuel Flagg. The Diplomacy of the American Revolution. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1983.

Dull, Jonathan R. A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1985.

Hutson, James H. John Adams and the Diplomacy of the American Revolution. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1980.

Kaplan, Lawrence S. Colonies into Nation: American Diplomacy, 1763–1801. New York: Macmillan, 1972.

Charles M.Dobbs

See alsoRevolution, Diplomacy of the .

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Treaty of Paris

TREATY OF PARIS

The Treaty of Paris of 1783 ended the U.S. Revolutionary War and granted the thirteen colonies political independence. A preliminary treaty between Great Britain and the United States was signed in 1782, but the final agreement was not signed until September 3, 1783.

The surrender of the British army at Yorktown, Virginia, on October 19, 1781, ended the major military hostilities of the Revolutionary War, but sporadic fighting, mostly in the south and west, continued for more than a year. The defeat led to the resignation of the British prime minister, Lord North. The coalition cabinet formed after North's resignation decided to begin peace negotiations with the colonial revolutionaries.

The negotiations began in Paris, France, in April 1782. The U.S. delegation included benjamin franklin, john adams, john jay, and Henry Laurens, while the British were represented by Richard Oswald and Henry Strachey. The negotiators concluded the preliminary treaty on November 30, 1782, but the agreement did not take effect until Great Britain concluded treaties with France and Spain concerning other British colonies.

The United States ratified the preliminary treaty on April 15, 1783. In the final agreement that was signed in September 1783, the British recognized the independence of the United States. The treaty established generous boundaries for the United States: U.S. territory would extend from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River in the west, and from the Great Lakes and Canada in the north to the thirty-first parallel in the south. The U.S. fishing fleet was guaranteed access to the fisheries off the coast of Newfoundland.

Under the treaty navigation of the Mississippi River was to be open to both the United States and Great Britain. Creditors of both countries were not to be impeded from collecting their debts, and Congress was to recommend to the states that loyalists to the British cause during the war be treated fairly and have their rights and confiscated property restored.

further readings

Brecher, Frank W. 2003. Securing American Independence: John Jay and the French Alliance. Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

cross-references

"Treaty of Paris" (Appendix, Primary Document); War of Independence.

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Paris, Treaty of (1898)

PARIS, TREATY OF (1898)

PARIS, TREATY OF (1898). The Paris Treaty of 1898 terminated the Spanish-American War. Under its terms Spain relinquished all authority over Cuba and ceded to the United States Puerto Rico, the Philippine Islands, and Guam in exchange for $20 million as the estimated value of public works and nonmilitary improvements in the Philippines. Hostilities had been suspended 12 August, and on 1 October the five U.S. commissioners, headed by former Secretary of State William R. Day, opened negotiations with the Spanish commissioners in Paris. The most difficult questions encountered were the disposition of the Philippines, which Spain was reluctant to relinquish, and of the $400 million Spanish debt charged against Cuba, which the Spanish wished assumed by either Cuba or the United States. Eventually Spain yielded on both points. An attempt by the U.S. commissioners to secure the island of Kusaie in the Carolines was blocked by Germany, which had opened negotiations for the purchase of these islands. The treaty was signed 10 December. The Senate, after bitter debate over the adoption of an imperialistic policy, exemplified in the annexation of the Philippines, consented to ratification by a close vote on 6 February 1899. The United States subsequently fought a three-year war to suppress the Filipino independence movement.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Beisner, Robert L. Twelve against Empire: The Anti-Imperialists, 1898–1900. Chicago: Imprint Publications, 1992.

Pratt, Julius W. Expansionists of 1898: The Acquisition of Hawaii and the Spanish Islands. New York: P. Smith, 1951.

Julius W.Pratt/t. g.

See alsoPhilippine Insurrection ; Philippines ; Spain, Relations with ; Spanish-American War ; Treaties with Foreign Nations .

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Paris, Treaty of (1763)

PARIS, TREATY OF (1763)

PARIS, TREATY OF (1763). The Paris Treaty of 1763, forged among Great Britain, France, and Spain, brought to an end the French and Indian War. At the war's close Britain had achieved military supremacy over the French in North America. The terms of the treaty reflected Britain's dominant position: France ceded all of Canada to Great Britain, the British advanced the boundary of their continental colonies westward to the Mississippi River, and the British received full navigation rights to the river. Cuba, conquered by the British, was returned to Spain, which in return ceded East Florida and West Florida to Britain. As compensation for its losses, Spain received from France by the Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762) all the territory west of the Mississippi River and the island and city of New Orleans. France retained only the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon off the south coast of Newfoundland, together with the privilege of fishing and drying fish along the northern and western coasts of Newfoundland, as provided in the Treaty of Utrecht (1713). In the West Indies, Great Britain retained the islands of Saint Vincent, Tobago, and Dominica; Saint Lucia, Martinique, and Guadeloupe were returned to France. The Treaty of Paris left only two great colonial empires in the Western Hemisphere, the British and the Spanish.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Anderson, Fred. Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766. New York: Vintage Books, 2001.

Gipson, Lawrence H. The British Empire before the American Revolution. New York, 1936.

MaxSavelle/t. g.

See alsoCanada, Relations with ; Canadian-American Waterways ; France, Relations with ; French and Indian War .

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Paris, Treaty of

Paris, Treaty of (1898).The Treaty of Paris, signed on 20 December 1898, between Spain and the United States, ended one war and set the stage for another. Following the U.S. military victories at Manila Bay in May 1898 and in Cuba in early July, Madrid asked for an armistice that began in August. Peace negotiations followed in Paris, the main sticking point being the future of the Philippine Islands, a Spanish colony since 1564. President William McKinley insisted that Spain cede sovereignty to the United States. The treaty gave the United States temporary control over Cuba (Congress had rejected annexation in the Teller Amendment when it declared war) and actual possession of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. Spain received $20 million.

The U.S. Senate ratified the treaty in February 1899 by one vote more than the necessary two‐thirds. By that time, some Filipino nationalists, angry at U.S. intentions, had launched attacks that opened the Philippine War, which lasted several years, became a bitter guerrilla struggle, and ended in defeat for the native fighters. The Treaty of Paris marked the high tide of late nineteenth‐century colonialism in the United States. The euphoria of victory over Spain turned into significant popular unhappiness and doubt about a protracted war against the Filipinos.
[See also Caribbean and Latin America, U.S. Military Involvement in; Cuba, U.S. Military Involvement in; Spanish‐American War.]

Bibliography

Lewis L. Gould , The Presidency of William McKinley, 1980.

Lewis L. Gould

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Paris, treaty of

Paris, treaty of, 1814. The treaty was concluded between France and the victorious allies (Austria, Great Britain, Portugal, Prussia, Russia, Spain, and Sweden) on 30 May. Napoleon Bonaparte had abdicated on 6 April and the allies wished to offer a generous peace to help the restored king, Louis XVIII. France was allowed to keep her frontiers as on 1 January 1792, thus retaining some of the gains of the revolutionary period. With some exceptions, she regained her colonies. She was to return archives but not the looted art treasures to the countries she had conquered. By a secret clause, the former Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) were to be united with Holland, under the Dutch king. Switzerland was to be neutral. Germany and Italy, which had been reconquered from the French, were to be reconstituted as mosaics of separate states. Details of the territorial settlement were to be determined at a congress to meet shortly in Vienna.

Muriel Evelyn Chamberlain

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"Paris, treaty of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Paris, treaty of

Paris, treaty of, 1856. This treaty was signed at the end of the Crimean War by Austria, France, Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, Sardinia, and Turkey. It was meant to strengthen the security of the Ottoman (Turkish) empire and limit the power of Russia. The other powers undertook to respect the integrity of Turkey and admitted her to the Concert of Europe: in return the sultan promised good treatment of his Christian subjects. The Black Sea was to be neutralized, its waters open to the merchant ships of all nations, but closed to warships. This meant the dismantling of the Russian Black Sea fleet. The free navigation of the Danube was guaranteed and, in return, Russia ceded some territory, mainly in Bessarabia, to Turkey. In 1870 Russia unilaterally abrogated the Black Sea clauses.

Muriel Evelyn Chamberlain

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Paris, treaty of

Paris, treaty of, 1763. Though the treaty of Paris, which brought to an end the Seven Years War, gave Britain great gains, including Canada, supremacy in India, Grenada, St Vincent, Dominica, Tobago, Senegal, and Minorca, it was denounced by the opposition as wholly inadequate and the duke of Bedford, chief negotiator, was accused of betraying his country. Pitt complained that Britain had abandoned its ally Frederick of Prussia and that the treaty ‘obscured all the glories of the war and surrendered the dearest interests of the nation’. A more plausible view is that it was so triumphant that it invited Spanish and French revenge and European jealousy, which was given its opportunity in the War of American Independence.

J. A. Cannon

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Paris, treaty of

Paris, treaty of, 1295. In 1292 Edward I placed John Balliol on the throne of Scotland. Two years later, when war broke out between Edward and Philip IV of France, Edward called on Balliol to give him support. But a number of Scottish barons sent to France and on 23 October 1295 signed a treaty of mutual assistance which became the basis for the long-lasting Franco-Scottish alliance, the ‘Auld Alliance’. Balliol threw in his lot with the pro-French party, refused a summons to join Edward at Newcastle and in 1296 was defeated and deposed. But the Scottish Wars of Independence were only beginning.

J. A. Cannon

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Paris, treaty of

Paris, treaty of, 1727. Philip V of Spain was far from reconciled to the loss of Minorca and Gibraltar to Britain after the War of the Spanish Succession. In 1725 a Spanish–Austrian rapprochement forced Britain, France, and the Dutch into a defensive treaty of Hanover and in February 1727 the Spaniards began a siege of Gibraltar. It was beaten off, Austria gave Spain little support, and in May 1727 a preliminary settlement was agreed at Paris. A major European war was avoided but Anglo-Spanish tension remained.

J. A. Cannon

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Paris, treaty of

Paris, treaty of, 1815. This treaty (20 November), after Napoleon's Hundred Days and defeat at the battle of Waterloo, was more severe than the first treaty of 1814. With a few exceptions, France had to withdraw to the frontiers of 1790. She also had to pay an indemnity of 700,000,000 francs and agree to an allied army of occupation in certain frontier regions for a period of up to five years. It had previously been agreed that France would restore the looted works of art to their owners.

Muriel Evelyn Chamberlain

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Paris, treaty of

Paris, treaty of, 1303. The treaty of 1259 did not end friction over England's possession of Gascony, and war between Philip IV of France and Edward I broke out again in 1294. After complex negotiations, the treaty of Paris in 1303 confirmed Edward's fealty to Philip for the territory and arranged for the marriage of Prince Edward to the French princess Isabella. Edward I was free to turn his attention to his last campaign in Scotland.

J. A. Cannon

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Paris, Treaty of (1857)

PARIS, TREATY OF (1857)

anglo-iranian treaty that forced iran out of afghanistan and muscat, 1857.

After Iran had tried to annex the Afghan city of Herat, British troops occupied Iran's Kharg Island and part of her mainland. Iran then signed this treaty, agreeing to withdraw from Afghanistan and relinquish Iranian claims to Herat, Afghanistan, and parts of Musqat in return for British withdrawal from Iran.

farhad shirzad

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"Paris, Treaty of (1857)." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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