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wood

wood, botanically, the xylem tissue that forms the bulk of the stem of a woody plant. Xylem conducts sap upward from the roots to the leaves, stores food in the form of complex carbohydrates, and provides support; it is made up of various types of cells specialized for each of these purposes. Among them are tracheids, elongated conduction and support cells; parenchyma (food storage) cells, some of which form rays for transverse conduction; xylem vessels, formed of hollow cells joined end to end; and fiber cells that reinforce these tubes. In the conifers the xylem is made up mainly of tracheids, thus presenting a uniform, nonporous appearance; their wood is called softwood. Deciduous trees have more complex xylem, permeated by vessels, and are called hardwoods, although the description is sometimes inaccurate.

The xylem is formed in the growing season by the cambium; in temperate regions the cells formed in the spring are larger in diameter than those formed in the summer, and this results in the annual rings observable in cross section. The new cells lose their protoplasm as they form the various tissues; the older, nonfunctional cells become plugged up, darken in color, and often accumulate bitter or poisonous substances (tannins, dyes, resins, and gums). This inner wood (the heartwood, as opposed to the functional sapwood) is valued for outdoor construction because of its resistance to moisture and to decay-producing organisms.

Commercial Uses

Freshly cut wood contains much moisture and tends to warp and split as it dries. Lumber is therefore seasoned before use—dried either slowly in the sun and air or more quickly by artificial means (kiln drying). Seasoning increases wood's buoyancy, strength, elasticity, and durability. Although synthetic materials have supplanted wood in many of its former uses, it is still widely employed for furniture, floors, railway ties, paper manufacture, and innumerable other purposes. Wood distillation yields methyl alcohol, wood tar, acetic acid, acetone, and turpentine; charcoal is made by burning or heating wood in insufficient air to consume it.

The wood of different species of trees varies considerably in weight, strength, and appearance. Softwood is normally uniform in grain (texture) and color; hardwood, in which the rays are more prominent and the arrangement of tissues is variable, produces lumber in which the grain may run vertically or horizontally and be coarse or smooth. The manner in which a log is cut results in lumber with thin or wide ray markings. A log cut horizontally shows the concentric annual rings; lengthwise cuts through the center are marked by thin vertical ray lines; and lengthwise cuts through the outer sections show the wood's characteristic wavy grain and wider ray markings, prized for their beauty. The rarer decorative woods may be cut in thin layers and glued to other wood structures (see veneer). Plywood, made of thin layers of wood glued so that the grains alternate in direction, makes an especially strong construction material. For some applications composition board offers another inexpensive substitute. The more recently developed cross-laminated timber is used to prefabricate entire walls or large sections of ceiling and floor. Pressure-treated wood is lumber that has had a preservative forced into it under pressure.

Bibliography

See H. Cone, Wood Structure and Identification (1979); H. Bucksh, Dictionary of Wood and Woodworking Practice (2 vol., 1986).

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"wood." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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wood

wood / woŏd/ • n. 1. the hard fibrous material that forms the main substance of the trunk or branches of a tree or shrub. ∎  such material when cut and used as timber or fuel: a large table made of dark, polished wood | best quality woods were used for joinery | [as adj.] a wood cross. ∎  a golf club with a wooden or other head that is relatively broad from face to back (often with a numeral indicating the degree to which the face is angled to loft the ball). ∎  a shot made with such a club. 2. (also woods) an area of land, smaller than a forest, that is covered with growing trees: a thick hedge divided the wood from the field a long walk in the woods. PHRASES: out of the wood (or woods) out of danger or difficulty.get wood vulgar slang have an erection. knock on wood said in order to prevent a confident statement from bringing bad luck: I haven't been banned yet, knock on wood. DERIVATIVES: wood·less adj.

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"wood." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"wood." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 16, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/wood-1

"wood." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved August 16, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/wood-1

Wood

425. Wood

See also 319. PLANTS ; 401. TREES

hylephobia
an intense dislike for wood.
hylomania
a mania for wood.
joinery
the skill, craft, or trade of a joiner or carpenter; woodworking. joiner , n.
lignification
the process of turning into wood or becoming woodlike.
marquetry
a form of decoration, often used in furniture-making, composed of inlays of wood veneers of different colors.
parquetry
mosaic work in wood, a form of marquetry, used mostly for floors and wainscoting.
poker painting
xylopyrography.
turnery
the process or craft of fashioning wood on a lathe.
xylology
a branch of dendrology that studies the structure of wood.
xylomancy
a form of divination involving small pieces of wood.
xylopyrography
the art or technique of producing a picture or design on a piece of wood by burning it with a heated, pointed instrument. Also called poker painting .

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wood

wood Hard substance that forms the trunks of trees; it is the xylem which comprises the bulk of the stems and roots, supporting the plant. Wood consists of fine, cellular tubes arranged vertically within the trunk, which accounts for its grain. The relatively soft, light-coloured wood is called sapwood. The non-conducting, older, darker wood is called heartwood, and is generally filled with resin, gums, mineral salts, and tannin. The two chief types are softwoods from conifers, such as pine, and hardwoods from deciduous species, such as oak. Wood is commonly used as a building material, fuel, to make some types of paper, and as a source of charcoal, cellulose, essential oil, lignin, tannins, dyes, and sugar.

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wood

wood
A. tree.

B. collection of trees growing together; substance of which trees consist. OE. wudu, later form of wi(o)du = OHG. witu, ON. viðr :- Gmc. *widuz, rel. to OIr. fid tree, wood, Gael. fiodh, W. gwŷdd trees. Comps. woodbine, -bind any of various climbing plants, e.g. honeysuckle, ivy, convolvulus. OE. wundubinde, f. base of bindan BIND. woodchuck N. Amer. marmot. XVII. alt., by assoc. with wood, of the Algonquian name. woodcock OE. wuducocc. woodpecker XVI. woodruff plant of the genus Asperula. OE. wudurofe (the second el. is of unkn. orig.).
Hence wooden (-EN3) XVI. woodsy (U.S.) sylvan. XIX. f. pl. woods of WOOD; see -Y1. woody †wooded XIV; ligneous XVI; see -Y1.

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"wood." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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wood

wood The hard structural and water-conducting tissue that is found in many perennial plants and forms the bulk of trees and shrubs. It is composed of secondary xylem and associated cells, such as fibres. The wood of angiosperms is termed hardwood, e.g. oak and mahogany, and that of gymnosperms softwood, e.g. pine and fir. New wood is added to the outside of the old wood each growing season by divisions of the vascular cambium (see growth ring). Only the outermost new wood (sapwood) functions in water conduction; the inner wood (heartwood) provides only structural support.

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"wood." A Dictionary of Biology. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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wood

wood not see the wood for the trees fail to grasp the main issue or gain a general view among a mass of details; the term is recorded from the mid 16th century.
touch wood said in order to prevent a confident statement from bringing bad luck (with reference to the custom of touching something wooden to ward off bad luck).

See also fields have eyes and woods have ears at field, don't halloo till you are out of the wood, hunger drives the wolf out of the wood, the same neck of the woods, wooden.

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wood

wood
1. The secondary xylem of dicotyledons and conifers, which forms a dense growth during secondary thickening, providing the mechanical support which allows trees to grow to a considerable height.

2. An area of trees, often associated with a particular name (e.g. Hayley Wood) that denotes a district area.

3. The produce of coppice or underwood that is not of timber size.

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"wood." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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wood

wood
1. The secondary xylem of dicotyledons and conifers, which forms a dense growth during secondary thickening, providing the mechanical support which allows trees to grow to a considerable height.

2. An area of trees, often associated with a particular name (e.g. Hayley Wood) that denotes a district area.

3. The produce of coppice or underwood that is not of timber size.

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"wood." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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wooded

wood·ed / ˈwoŏdid/ • adj. (of an area of land) covered with woods or many trees: a wooded valley.

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"wooded." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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wood

woodcould, good, hood, Likud, misunderstood, pud, should, stood, understood, withstood, wood, would •Gielgud • manhood • maidenhood •nationhood • statehood • sainthood •priesthood • kinghood • babyhood •likelihood • livelihood • puppyhood •childhood • wifehood • knighthood •falsehood • widowhood • boyhood •cousinhood • adulthood •neighbourhood (US neighborhood) •husbandhood • bachelorhood •toddlerhood • womanhood •parenthood • sisterhood •spinsterhood • fatherhood •brotherhood, motherhood •girlhood • Talmud • Malamud •matchwood • Dagwood • Blackwood •sandalwood • sapwood • basswood •Atwood •Harewood, Larwood •hardwood • lancewood • heartwood •redwood • Wedgwood • Elmwood •bentwood • Hailwood • lacewood •beechwood • greenwood • Eastwood •cheesewood • driftwood • stinkwood •Littlewood • giltwood • Hollywood •satinwood • plywood • wildwood •pinewood • whitewood • softwood •dogwood, logwood •cottonwood • coachwood • rosewood •fruitwood • Goodwood • brushwood •firewood • ironwood • underwood •Isherwood • wormwood

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wooded

woodedplaided, unpadded •backhanded, candid, candied, heavy-handed, high-handed, offhanded, red-handed, short-handed, unbranded, underhanded •retarded, unregarded •bareheaded, boneheaded, fatheaded, hard-headed, hot-headed, light-headed, pig-headed, pinheaded, thickheaded, unleaded, unwedded, wooden-headed, wrong-headed •intended, splendid, unamended, unapprehended, unattended, unblended, undefended, untended •gadid, unaided, unpersuaded, unshaded •reeded, unheeded, unimpeded, unneeded, unseeded •unshielded • katydid •lopsided, misguided, one-sided, undecided, undivided, unguided, unprovided •broadminded, like-minded, simple-minded, single-minded, small-minded, tough-minded •disembodied •sordid, unrecorded, unrewarded •unclouded, uncrowded •unbounded, unfounded, ungrounded •outmoded, spring-loaded, unexploded •unwounded •unhooded, wooded •cold-blooded, hot-blooded, red-blooded, unstudied, warm-blooded •underfunded, unfunded •unheralded • aphid • triffid •jagged, ragged •cross-legged, legged •dogged • rugged

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