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Order

Order


In most religions the world is believed to be an embodiment of divine wisdom. Paradoxically, the divine is both present (immanent) and absent (transcendent). This paradox is expressed in a hierarchy of degrees of manifestation of divine wisdom, each representing a kind of order. Further, both the natural and the moral order are seen as normative. In the Abrahamic religions order is created and, therefore, dependent on the creator. Since order is a manifestation of divine wisdom, it reveals knowledge about God. Accordingly, the created order has been seen as a unity in diversity, a machine, a work of art, or an embodiment of reason, beauty, and goodness. Disorder invaded the natural and the moral order, which require re-creation. In the Gnostic religions, however, disorder originates from an evil creator who battles a good redeemer. In response, the early Christian theologian Irenaeus (c. 130200) emphasized that the creator and redeemer are one God who controls disorder and restores order. John Calvin (15091564) added that the created order required constant divine support to protect it from collapse into disorder: It could not exist independently. In contrast, for the theologian John Haught (1942), disorder is the price God paid to grant freedom and independence to the created order.


Kinds and hierarchy of order

Science, philosophy, and theology recognize different kinds of order, as well as an order for the different kinds of order:

  1. One kind of inanimate order concerns energy. It refers to interactions with irreversible cause and effect relationships (heat melts ice).
  2. The order of life involves complexity. A complex sequence of molecules (DNA) carries information, which is transmitted from parent to offspring in a causal genetic relation. Mutations are not directed by the environment or the needs of the organism. This random order of mutation and the nonrandom order of natural selection produces organisms that are adapted to their environment.
  3. The order of reasoning involves the self-reflective awareness of norms for making distinctions, such as the principle of identity and the principle of the excluded third, as well as norms for correct arguments.
  4. The spiritual order concerns one's relationship with the divine. It is often characterized as a form of love, as it is, for example, in Hinduism and in the Abrahamic religions. These kinds of order represent ways in which entities exist, as well as ways in which people experience them.

The kinds of order are integrated in a hierarchy of order. In living things, the order of complexity, such as that of DNA, requires the order of energy with its chemical interactions, but chemical interactions do not require the complexity of living things. In a scientific explanation, the order of reasoning requires the order of sensation, but sensation does not require knowledge. In religious faith, the spiritual order of love requires the order of reasoning with its distinctions, but not vice versa. Thus, any kind of order is a necessary but insufficient condition for a higher kind of order. The complete hierarchy of kinds of order is found in persons and includes number, space, motion, interaction, life, sensation, perception, reasoning, human relations, lingual expression, legality, morality, and spirituality. Further, the order of life is not reducible to the order of energy. Nor can reasoning be reduced to sensation, or love to reasoning.

Entities can be ranked according to their highest kind of order, producing a hierarchy of entities. Chemical reactions exchange energy, but they do not transmit information to offspring. Plants transmit information to offspring, but they do not have knowledge. Animals have knowledge, but no spirituality as people do. Thus, the highest order in which entities function is the order of energy for chemical reactions, the order of life for plants, the order of knowledge for animals, and the order of love for people.

Order in the science-religion dialogue

One necessary condition for a mutual relevance of scientific and religious perspectives on order is that it is interpreted as divine action in the world. This, however, is not sufficient because a religiously interpreted order can be explored in science apart from its religious meaning (methodological atheism). Or the creator may be seen as utterly other than the created order so that what is known about nature is irrelevant for what could be known about God and vice versa (Eastern Orthodoxy, voluntarism in Western Christianity and Islam).

One sufficient condition for mutual relevance is that religious views of natural order serve in science as presupposition, sanction, motive, criterion for theory choice, criterion for the choice of kinds of explanation (regulative principle), or as part of explanations (constitutive principle), and vice versa. The rejection by Albert Einstein (18791955) of the probabilistic view of quantum physics was regulated by his belief that "God does not play dice." In reverse, the switch from a fixed to an evolving order of nature has motivated the development of evolutionary theologies and has constituted new conceptions of God, creation, divine grace, divine power, and redemption. For instance, instead of conceiving of divine power as a coercive force it is seen as persuasive love because divine love implies giving the universe the freedom to produce itself. Here, the biological idea of random mutation has been translated into the religious idea of a nature free from divine coercion.

A different type of sufficient condition is met in reductionism. In it a scientific definition of order is generalized into a metaphysical ideal of order. For instance, the empiricists as well as the neo-positivists reduced the cognitive order to the order of sensation. Since God cannot be known by sensation, knowledge of God is not possible and religion is reduced to belief without grounds in knowledge. This places knowledge and belief in different categories preventing a cognitive relationship between them. Similarly, biologist Edward O. Wilson (1929) replaced a spiritual description of God as a being independent of matter with a naturalistic description: God is nothing but an objectification of the imagination. This was his way of including God in a kind of order that science can deal with by gathering empirical evidence. By redescribing God, sociobiology changed the content of religious belief and theology.

A third kind of sufficient condition is satisfied when a reduced view of order functions as religion (scientism). Biology functioned as (anti-)religion when biologists Jacques Monod (19101976) and Richard Dawkins (1941) interpreted the randomness of mutations to mean that there is neither God nor purpose or when Wilson wrote that scientific materialism and evolutionism are his substitute religion in which the purpose of life is to promote evolutionary progress. This substitute religion motivated his re-description of God and, thereby, constituted the content of sociobiological explanations of religion. Here, science as a substitute religion influences religion.

See also Hierarchy; Nature


Bibliography.

clouser, roy a. "a sketch of dooyeweerd's philosophy of science." in facets of faith and science, vol. 2: the role of beliefs in mathematics and the natural sciences: an augustinian perspective, ed. jitse van der meer. lanham, md. the pascal centre and university press of america, 1996.

haught, john f. god after darwin: a theology of evolution. boulder. colo.: westview press, 2000.

lovejoy, arthur o. the great chain of being: a study of the history of an idea. new york. harper, 1936.

mcgrath, alister e. the foundations of dialogue in science and religion. malden, mass., and oxford: blackwell, 1998.

midgley, mary. science as salvation: a modern myth and its meaning. london and new york: routledge, 1992.

nasr, seyyed hossein. religion and the order of nature. new york and oxford: oxford university press, 1996.

peacocke, arthur. theology for a scientific age: being and becomingnatural, divine and human. enlarged edition. london: scm press. 1993.

stenmark, mikael. scientism: science, ethics, and religion. aldershot, uk, and burlington, vt.: ashgate, 2001.

torrance, thomas f. divine and contingent order. oxford: oxford university press. 1981.

torrance, thomas f. the christian frame of mind: reason, order, and openness in theology and natural science. colorado springs, colo.: helmers and howard, 1989.

van der meer, jitse m. "the engagement of religion and biology: a case study in the mediating role of metaphor in the sociobiology of lumsden and wilson." biology and philosophy 15 (2000): 669698.

jitse m. van der meer

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order

or·der / ˈôrdər/ • n. 1. the arrangement or disposition of people or things in relation to each other according to a particular sequence, pattern, or method: I filed the cards in alphabetical order. ∎  a state in which everything is in its correct or appropriate place: she tried to put her shattered thoughts into some semblance of order. ∎  a state in which the laws and rules regulating the public behavior of members of a community are observed and authority is obeyed: the army was deployed to keep order. ∎  the overall state or condition of something: the house had just been vacated and was in good order. ∎  a particular social, political, or economic system: if only the peasantry would rise up against the established order the social order of Britain. ∎  the prescribed or established procedure followed by a meeting, legislative assembly, debate, or court of law: the meeting was called to order. ∎  a stated form of liturgical service, or of administration of a rite or ceremony, prescribed by ecclesiastical authority. 2. an authoritative command, direction, or instruction: he was not going to take orders from a mere administrator| the skipper gave the order to abandon ship. ∎  an oral or written request for something to be made, supplied, or served: the company has won an order for six tankers. ∎  a thing made, supplied, or served as a result of such a request: orders will be delivered the next business day. ∎  a written direction of a court or judge: a judge's order forbidding the reporting of evidence. ∎  a written direction to pay money or deliver property. 3. (often orders) a social class: the upper social orders. ∎  Biol. a principal taxonomic category that ranks below class and above family. ∎  a grade or rank in the Christian ministry, esp. that of bishop, priest, or deacon. ∎  (orders) the rank or position of a member of the clergy or an ordained minister of a church: he took priest's orders. See also holy orders. ∎  Theol. any of the nine grades of angelic beings in the celestial hierarchy. 4. (also Order) a society of monks, priests, nuns, etc., living according to certain religious and social regulations and discipline and at least some of whose members take solemn vows: the Franciscan Order. ∎  hist. a society of knights bound by a common rule of life and having a combined military and monastic character. ∎  an institution founded by a monarch for the purpose of conferring an honor or honors for merit on those appointed to it. ∎  the insignia worn by members of such an institution. ∎  a Masonic or similar fraternal organization. 5. [in sing.] used to describe the quality, nature, or importance of something: with musical talent of this order, von Karajan would have been a phenomenon in any age. 6. any of the five classical styles of architecture (Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, Tuscan, and Composite) based on the proportions of columns, amount of decoration, etc. ∎  any style or mode of architecture subject to uniform established proportions. 7. Mil. equipment or uniform for a specified purpose or of a specified type: drill order. ∎  (the order) the position in which a rifle is held after ordering arms. See order arms below. 8. Math. the degree of complexity of an equation, expression, etc., as denoted by an ordinal number. ∎  the number of differentiations required to reach the highest derivative in a differential equation. ∎  the number of elements in a finite group. ∎  the number of rows or columns in a square matrix. • v. 1. give an authoritative direction or instruction to do something: [tr.] she ordered me to leave | [with direct speech] “Stop frowning,” he ordered | the court ordered that the case should be heard at the end of August | [tr.] her father ordered her back home the judge ordered a retrial. ∎  [tr.] (order someone around/about) continually tell someone in an overbearing way what to do. ∎  command (something) to be done or (someone) to be treated in a particular way: he ordered the anchor dropped. 2. [tr.] request (something) to be made, supplied, or served: my friend ordered the tickets last week| I asked the security guard to order me a taxi | [intr.] Are you ready to order, sir? 3. [tr.] arrange (something) in a methodical or appropriate way: all entries are ordered by date | [as adj. in comb.] (-ordered) her normally well-ordered life. PHRASES: by order of according to directions given by the proper authority: he was released from prison by order of the court. in order 1. according to a particular sequence. 2. in the correct condition for operation or use. 3. in accordance with the rules of procedure at a meeting, legislative assembly, etc. ∎  appropriate in the circumstances: a little bit of flattery was now in order. in order for so that: employees must be committed to the change in order for it to succeed. in order that with the intention; so that: she used her mother's kitchen in order that the turkey might be properly cooked. in order to as a means to: he slouched into his seat in order to avoid drawing attention to himself. of the order of 1. approximately: sales increases are of the order of 20%. 2. Math. having the order of magnitude specified by. on order (of goods) requested but not yet received from the supplier or manufacturer. on the order of 1. another term for of the order of (sense 1) above. 2. along the lines of; similar to: singers on the order of Janis Joplin. Order! a call for silence or the observance of prescribed procedures by someone in charge of a trial, legislative assembly, etc. order arms Mil. hold a rifle with its butt on the ground close to one's right side. order of battle the units, formations, and equipment of a military force. orders are orders commands must be obeyed, however much one may disagree with them. out of order 1. (of an electrical or mechanical device) not working properly or at all. 2. not in the correct sequence. 3. not according to the rules of a meeting, legislative assembly, etc. ∎ inf. (of a person or their behavior) unacceptable or wrong: he's getting away with things that are out of order. to order according to a customer's specific request or requirements: the sweaters are knitted to order.DERIVATIVES: or·der·er n.

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Order

ORDER

Direction of a court or judge normally made or entered in writing, and not included in a judgment, which determines some point or directs some step in the proceedings.

The decision of a court or judge is made in the form of an order. A court may issue an order after a motion of a party requesting the order, or the court itself may issue an order on its own discretion. For example, courts routinely issue scheduling orders, which set the timetable and procedure for managing a civil lawsuit. More substantive orders, however, typically are made following a motion by one of the parties.

A motion is an application for an order. The granting or denying of a motion is a matter of judicial discretion. When a motion is granted, the moving party (the party who requests the motion) is ordinarily limited to the relief requested in the application. Although no particular form is required, a court order granting a motion should be sufficiently explicit to enable the parties to do whatever is directed. Though a court is not obligated to issue an opinion, in most cases a party is entitled to have the reasons for the decision of the court stated in the order. The order must be consistent with the relief requested in the motion, and it should set forth any conditions on which relief is awarded.

In trial courts the attorney for a party who obtains a favorable ruling usually has the responsibility of writing a proposed order. A copy of the proposed order is furnished to the other party so that he or she can propose amendments to it. It is then presented to the court for settlement and approval. Courts are free, however, to modify proposed orders or to write their own order. Appellate courts routinely write their own orders.

To take effect, an order must be entered, filed, or incorporated into the minutes of the court. An entry or filing must be made with the court administrator within the prescribed time limits.

Aside from scheduling orders and other orders that deal with the administration of a case, there are several general categories of orders. An interlocutory order is an order that does not decide the case but settles some intervening matters relating to it or affords some temporary relief. For example, in a divorce case, a judge will issue an interlocutory order that sets the terms for temporary child support and visitation rights while the case is pending.

A restraining order may be issued upon the filing of an application for an injunction forbidding the defendant to do the threatened act until the court has a hearing on the application. These types of orders are also called temporary restraining orders (TROs), because they are meant to be effective until the court decides whether to order an injunction. For example, if a neighborhood association seeks to prevent a land developer from cutting down a stand of trees, the association would seek an injunction to prevent the cutting and a TRO to forbid the developer from removing the trees before the court holds a hearing. If the association did not request a TRO, the developer could legally cut down the trees and effectively render the injunction request moot.

A final order is one that terminates the action itself or finally decides some matter litigated by the parties. In a civil lawsuit, the plaintiff may make many allegations and legal claims, some of which the court may dispose of during the litigation by the issuance of an order. When the court is ready to completely dispose of the case, it enters a final order. As part of the final order, the court directs that judgment be entered, which authorizes the court administrator to close the case in that court.

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order

order
A. rank of angels; grade in the Christian ministry; (gen.) rank, grade; monastic society or fraternity XII (o. of chivalry, etc. XIV); (archit.) system of parts in established proportions XVI; (math.) degree of complexity of form; higher group of animals, etc. XVIII;

B. sequence, disposition; method of procedure or action XIV (in o. to, take o. XVI); condition of observance of law and usage XV;

C. regulation, direction, mandate XVI. ME. ordre — (O)F. ordre, earlier ordene — L. ōrdinem, nom. ōrdō row, etc., rel. to ōrdīrī begin, ōrnāre ADORN.
Hence orderly arranged in or observant of order XVI; charged with the conveyance or execution of orders XVIII (o. man, officer, †sergeant, hence as sb., by ellipsis). So ordinal †(rare) regular, orderly XIV; (of numbers) XVI; (nat. hist.) pert. to an order XIX. — late L. ōrdinālis. ordinal sb. book of the order of divine service XIV; form of ordination XVII. — medL. ōrdināle, n. sg. of ōrdinālis. ordinance A. (arch.) regular arrangement; authoritative direction; prescribed usage XIV; B. †provision, supply; spec. military supplies (now ordnance) XIV. — OF. ordenance (now ordonnance) — medL. ōrdinantia, f. ōrdināre ORDAIN. ordinand one about to be ordained. XIX. ordinary A. (eccl. and leg.) one having immediate jurisdiction or authority in juridical matters; B. book of divine service; C. sb. uses of the adj. from XVI. — AN., OF. ordinarie (later and mod. ordinaire) — medL. ōrdinārius, and in n. sg. ōrdinārium. So adj. belonging to the regular order or course; having regular jurisdiction XV; of the usual kind XVI. — L. ōrdinārius orderly, usual; see -ARY. ordination XV. — (O)F. or L., f. ordināre ORDAIN. ordnance XVII (see ORDINANCE). ordonnance systematic arrangement. XVII. — F., alt. of OF. ordenance, after F. ordonner.

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order

order
1. A means of indicating the way a function varies in magnitude as its argument tends to some limits, usually zero or infinity. More precisely if there is some constant K such that |f(x)| ← K φ(x)

for all xx1, then we say that f(x) is order φ(x) as x tends to infinity, and we write f(x) = O(φ(x))

For example, 100x2 + 100x + 2 = O(x2) as x → ∞

If

then we write f(x) = o(g(x))

For example, x = o(x2) as x → ∞

Both these notations are statements about maximum magnitude and do not exclude f from being of smaller magnitude. For example, x = O(x2)

is perfectly valid, but equally x = O(x)

If

then we write f(x) ≊ k g(x) as x a

For example, 10x2 + x + 1 ≊ 10x2 as x → ∞

The term order and the O notation is used in numerical analysis, particularly in discretization methods. In ordinary differential equations, if h denotes the stepsize, then a method (or formula) has order p (a positive integer) if the global discretization error is O(hp). This means that as the step size h is decreased, the error goes to zero at least as rapidly as hp. Similar considerations apply to partial differential equations. High-accuracy formulas (order up to 12 or 13) are sometimes used in methods for ordinary differential equations. For reasons of computational cost and stability, low-order formulas tend to be used in methods for partial differential equations.

The term is also used to refer to the speed of convergence of iteration schemes, for example Newton's method for computing the zero of a function f(x). Subject to appropriate conditions, Newton's method converges quadratically (or has order of convergence 2), i.e. an approximate squaring of the error is obtained in each iteration.

2. Another name for operation code.

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order

order a call of Order! is used to require silence, or the observance of the prescribed procedures, by the person (such as the Speaker of the House of Commons) in charge of a meeting or legislative assembly.
order paper in the United Kingdom and Canada, a paper on which the day's business for a legislative assembly is entered; in the House of Commons, members traditionally wave their order papers to signify support for a speaker.

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Order

Order

a body or society of persons united by a common rule; a monastic society; any of the nine grades of angels; a body of persons of the same profession, occupation, or pursuit; a category of architectural design, e.g., Doric Order. See also rank, row, series.

Examples: order of architecture, 1782; of beggars, 1380; of laity, 1597; of mouldings; of pillars, 1563; of the Round Table, 1568; of Templars, 1387.

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order

order (in taxonomy) A category used in the classification of organisms that consists of one or several similar or closely related families. Similar orders form a class. Order names typically end in -ales in botany, e.g. Rosales (roses and orchard fruits), and in -a in zoology, e.g. Carnivora (flesh eaters).

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order

order In taxonomy (biological classification), a group of related plants or animals; order is one rank below class and a rank above family. For example, the tiger is of the order Carnivora (carnivores).

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order

order, in taxonomy: see classification.

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order

order See CLASSIFICATION.

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order

orderdodder, fodder, plodder, prodder •Isolde, solder •absconder, anaconda, Fonda, Golconda, Honda, nonda, ponder, responder, squander, Wanda, wander, yonder •hot-rodder •awarder, boarder, border, defrauder, hoarder, Korda, marauder, order, recorder, sordor, warder •alder, Balder, Calder •launder, maunder •sailboarder • skateboarder •keyboarder • snowboarder •camcorder • video recorder •chowder, Gouda, howdah, Lauda, powder •bounder, compounder, expounder, flounder, founder, grounder, impounder, pounder, propounder, rounder, sounder •gunpowder •Clodagh, coda, coder, exploder, loader, Oder, odour (US odor), pagoda, Rhoda, Sargodha, Schroder, soda, vocoder •beholder, boulder, folder, holder, moulder (US molder), polder, scolder, shoulder, smoulder (US smolder), upholder, withholder •cardholder • shareholder •stakeholder •freeholder, keyholder •leaseholder • copyholder •policyholder • stockholder •smallholder, stallholder •householder • freeloader •avoider, embroider •joinder • Schadenfreude

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