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Fanon, Frantz 1925–1961

Frantz Fanon 19251961

Writer, theorist, psychologist

Fought for France in WWII

Became a Psychologist

Fought for Algerian Independence

Wrote Wretched of the Earth Before Death

Selected works

Sources

When Frantz Fanons revolutionary tract The Wretched of the Earth appeared in the United States in 1965, it quickly became a bestseller. The books publisher called it the handbook for black revolution, and African-American militants and other young American leftists took its message to heart: a widely quoted statement attributed to two different leaders of the radical Black Panther group, Eldridge Cleaver and Stokely Carmichael, held that every brother on a rooftop can quote Fanon. The Wretched of the Earth advocated the violent overthrow of the European and American colonial presence in Third World countries. Violence, Fanon wrote, is a cleansing force. It frees the native from his inferiority complex and from his despair and inaction; it makes him fearless and restores his self-respect.

As the revolutionary ideology of the late 1960s and early 1970s faded, however, even the Algerian people on whose behalf Fanon worked for much of his adult life would forget his celebrity. Fanons extreme statements seemed outdated to young people seeking societal change, and conservative Western writers mentioned his name with either irritation or outright dismissal. Yet, even as many of the politically radical pronouncements of the 1960s had come to seem quaint or innocent, Fanons writings inspired a resurgence of interest in the 1990s and 2000s. Fanon, a psychiatrist, crossed disciplines in his life and his writings, always striving to make connections between his insights into the effects of racism and the concrete political steps that poor people needed to take to bring about change.

Fought for France in WWII

Fanon was born on July 20, 1925, in Fort-de-France on the Caribbean island of Martinique, then a French colony. His parents were better off than most of the islands African-descended population, which consisted largely of sugar-plantation workers, and he received a strongly French-oriented education. Fanons teachers emphasized that Martinique was part of France and that he should consider himself a Frenchmanyet he also became aware of racism early on, for it was clear that a black Frenchman did not have the same stature as a white Frenchman. On that small island a cultural schizophrenia was born, noted Chicago Sun-Times writer Hazel Rowley.

Fanons childhood was outwardly uneventful, but he had an intense temperament that showed itself as World War II broke out in 1939. In one of the few statements Fanon made about his own life, he wrote, according to the Independents Deborah Levy, that I arrived in the world, anxious to extract meaning from things. When he was 17, Fanon sneaked away from home and sailed to the Caribbean island of Dominica, scraping together the money for his adventure by selling clothing coupons that belonged to his father. From there, Fanon made his way to France and joined the guerrilla fighters who were resisting the occupying forces of Nazi Germany.

Fighting on the French side for much of the war, Fanon spent time in French-colonized Algeria, on Africas Mediterranean coast. The disparity in living standards

At a Glance

Born on July 20, 1925, in Fort-de-France, Martinique; died on December 6, 1961, in Bethesda, MD; married Josie Duble, 1952 (died 1989); children: one son. Education: Studied medicine and psychiatry in Lyon, France, after World War II. Military Service: Served in Free French Army during World War II.

Career: Writer, 1952-61; Blida-Joinville Hospital, Blida, Algeria, head of services, 1953-56; Manouba Clinic and Neuropsychiatric Center Jour de Tunis, Tunisia, psychiatrist, 1957-59; All African Peoples Congress, participant, 1958; revolutionary polemicist, undercover agent, late 1950s; Algerian Provisional Government, ambassador to Ghana, 1960.

between Algerias European inhabitants and its native Arab population made an impression on Fanon, but the battle against German fascism remained uppermost in his mind. Fanon was awarded the Croix de Guerre, the French equivalent of the Purple Heart, for bravery during his service in the Free French forces. Yet Fanon experienced racism on an ongoing basis while serving in the military, even in France, where he noticed that white French women refused to dance with the black soldiers who had fought to liberate them. The hurts of Fanons childhood surfaced, and he recalled thinking, according to Declan Kiberd of the Irish Times, that this isnt your war. When whites kill each other, its a blessing for blacks.

Became a Psychologist

After the wars end in 1945, Fanon won a scholarship to study medicine and psychiatry in the French city of Lyon. He was fascinated by the radical ideas of French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre and by African writers intent on freeing their countries from European colonialism and defining a new black identity. Fanon married a young French woman of similar convictions in 1952; the couple had one son, and they remained together as Fanon moved to Africa and became enmeshed in revolutionary struggle. Fanons wife Josie declined to discuss their marriage later on in her life.

Completing his psychiatric training, Fanon wrote his first book, Peau noire, masques blancs, in 1952. It was ignored at the time, but after Fanons death it was hailed as a masterpiece of psychology that investigated how racism induced black people to emulate their oppressors. The book was translated into English as Black Skin, White Masks, and was published in 1967. The book exerted a great influence over U.S. promoters of the idea of black consciousness in the 1960s and 1970s, and it remains, along with The Wretched of the Earth, one of Fanons most widely read works.

Tired of living in France and feeling trapped by the stereotyping he experienced from Europeans he encountered, in 1953 Fanon accepted a post as the head of a government psychiatric hospital in the Algerian town of Blida, a suburb of the capital of Algiers. Here, Fanon began to feel an increasing kinship with Algerias urban Arab poor. Applying group therapy methods pioneered by French psychoanalyst François Tosquelles, Fanon, an atheist and foreigner who did not speak Arabic, began to win the trust of Arab and Islamic patients whom other French doctors had sent away.

Fought for Algerian Independence

In 1954, Algerians revolted against their French overlords. Although other African countries gained independence without bloodshed during this period, France responded to the Algerian insurrection with brutal repression that included widespread instances of torture and physical abuse. These events touched off the final stage in Fanons political radicalization, and he began secretly helping the rebel Front de la Liberation Nationale or FLN. Fanon received death threats from the French and their sympathizers, but his resolve only strengthened. In the words of writer Aimé Cesaire, quoted by Levy in the Independent: He chose. He became Algerian. Lived, fought and died Algerian. Yet Fanon, as a government-employed psychiatrist, also had to treat French troops, and he is not known to have betrayed his personal patients to the rebel cause.

Early in 1957, the French colonial government exiled Fanon to newly independent Tunisia. The move may have lengthened his life, for Fanon had become ensnarled in factional conflicts inside the Algerian rebel movement, and one of his closest friends had been murdered. Fanon pursued an activist life in the Tunisian capital of Tunis, and his fame spread. Speaking on behalf of African independence movements, he traveled around the continent. He served an ambassador for the Algerian rebel movements provisional government, traveling to Ghana for the All-African Peoples Conference of 1958 and circulating through the French colonies and former colonies of West Africa. Fanon founded a magazine called Moudjahid in Tunis and became more and more prolific as a writer himself.

His 1959 book Lan cinq de la révolution algérienne was a series of essays that expounded on his ideas about a new Africa free from colonial rule and called for armed resistance to French power. Another group of Fanon essays of the period was collected after his death and published as Pour la révolution africaine. Not an armchair philosopher, Fanon put his ideas into practice and worked to aid Algerian resistance fighters. He was wounded near the Tunisian-Algerian border in 1957 and survived several attempts on his life.

Wrote Wretched of the Earth Before Death

Fanon undertook a 1,200-mile intelligence-gathering trip from Mali to the Algerian border in 1960, reporting back to his comrades-in-arms on French troop deployments. By the time he arrived back in Tunis, he was seriously ill, and soon he was diagnosed with leukemia. Fanon foresaw his approaching death and worked furiously on what would be his final book, Les damnes de la terre, published in English as The Wretched of the Earth. Its unbridled call-to-arms style may have been partly rooted in the fact that Fanon, who could not type, dictated the book onto tape; it has the rhythms of incendiary speech rather than written prose.

In The Wretched of the Earth, Fanon called for a violent revolution on the part of the worlds dispossessed peoples. He was not an orthodox Marxist, in that he saw no need for a revolutionary vanguard of the Communist sort; instead, he believed, revolution should arise spontaneously among the poor of the Third World themselves, from the wretched of the earth. The political independence sought by Algeria and other African countries was in Fanons opinion only a first step toward the overturning of Western exploitation in a wide range of human activities. Fanons ideas aroused controversy, but some observers pointed out that his calls for violence should be seen in the context of the violence he had already witnessed and experienced in Algeria.

Fanon sought treatment for his illness in the Soviet Union. In 1961, possibly aided by U.S. Central Intelligence Agency officers intent on learning what he knew about leftist revolutionary movements, he checked into a National Institute of Health hospital in Bethesda, Maryland, outside Washington, D.C. There, at the heart of Western power, he completed The Wretched of the Earth. Fanon died on December 6, 1961, in Bethesda. He did not live long enough to see Algeria gain independence from France. Lionized by 1960s radicals, Fanon was less well regarded as revolutionary ideas fell out of favor with European and American intellectuals. A film biography, Frantz Fanon: White Skin, Black Mask and a new print biography, David Maceys Frantz Fanon: A Life, testify to continuing interest in one of the twentieth centurys most unusual figures and most gifted revolutionary writers.

Selected works

Peau noire, masques blancs, Editions du Seul, 1952; published as Black Skin, White Masks, Grove, 1967.

LAn V de la révolution algerienne, F. Maspero, 1959; published as A Dying Colonialism, Grove, 1967.

Les Damnes de la terre, F. Maspero, 1961; published as The Wretched of the Earth, Grove, 1965.

Pour la révolution africaine: Ecrits politiques, F. Maspero, 1964; published as Toward the African Revolution: Political Essays, Monthly Review Press, 1967.

Sources

Books

Gordon, Lewis R., et al., eds. and trans., Fanon: A Critical Reader, Blackwell, 1996.

Macey, David, Frantz Fanon: A Life, Picador, 2001.

Periodicals

Chicago Sun-Times, July 22, 2001, p. 16.

Independent (London, England), November 18, 2000, p. 10.

Irish Times, January 20, 2001, p. 74.

New York Times, September 2, 2001, Section 7, p. 11.

Times-Picayune (New Orleans), September 5, 1997, p. L30.

Washington Post, July 8, 2001, p. T9.

On-line

Frantz Fanon, Biography Resource Center, www.galenet.com/servlet.BioRC (February 16, 2004).

Other

Julien, Isaac, dir., Frantz Fanon: White Skin, Black Mask (film), Normal Films, 1996.

James M. Manheim

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Fanon, Frantz

Fanon, Frantz 1925-1961

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A psychiatrist, a revolutionary, and a leading theorist of the Algerian national liberation struggle, Frantz Fanon was born on June 20, 1925, on the island of Martinique. He studied medicine in France and specialized in psychiatry. In 1953 Fanon began working as a psychiatrist at the Blida Psychiatric Hospital in Algiers, Algeria, where he supported the Algerian struggle against French colonialism. Fanons dedication to this cause led to his expulsion from Algeria by the French authorities at the end of 1956. To continue his fight, Fanon moved to Tunis, Tunisia. In 1961 he fell ill with leukemia, and received treatment in the Soviet Union and later in Bethesda, Maryland, where he died on December 6, 1961.

Fanon played an instrumental role in the theorization of colonial desire, the dynamics of oppression, and the consequences of blackness. Among the sociohistorical and political issues that influenced his work and intellectual quest are the colonial history of Martinique, the manifestations of racism in France and in French colonial medicine, and the intricacies of the Algerian struggle. His work also shows, among other things, the influence of existentialist philosophy and the négritude movement. Fanons thought, in turn, inspired a number of liberation movements and civil rights struggles.

Fanons concerns are intimately linked to the history of Martinique, and more specifically to its experience of slavery and colonialism. Such concerns are reflected in his exploration of the power dynamics in the colonial world and the characteristics of two mutually constitutive types: the colonizer and the colonized. Not only does Fanon probe the nature of these two categories in The Wretched of the Earth (Les damnés de la terre, 1961), but he also examines the elements and associations that contribute to, and result from, the establishment of this binary. In his analysis of the effects of colonialism on both colonizers and colonized, Fanon presents this institution as a system of exploitative oppression based on forms of psychological conditioning leading to the production of resentment and to the propagation of violence. This violence originates in the colonial movement and results from the colonizers attempts to destroy native social forms and systems of reference of [native] economy, the customs of dress and external life (Fanon [1961] 1963, p. 40). This issue is important to note since many critics who claim that Fanon advocated the use of violence forget that violence is inherent to the colonizers strategies of oppression.

Throughout his analysis of the psychology of the Negro in Black Skin, White Masks (Peau noire, masques blancs, 1952), Fanon insists on the necessity of perceiving blackness as a lived experience, shaped not only by the gaze of whiteness but also by a state of alienation resulting from economic injustices and the epidermalization of the condition of inferiority (Fanon [1952] 1967, p. 11). In this book based on his observation of the condition of the Negro in the Antilles, Fanon also underlines the role that language plays in shaping the interactions within the black community on the one hand and between black people and their fellow white people on the other. Such a role is highlighted by Fanons affirmation that to speak is to exist absolutely for the other (Fanon [1952] 1967, p. 17). In this context, language reflects and shapes the self through the transmission of a specific worldview. Advocating the need of black people to achieve liberation from their psychoexistential complex, Black Skin, White Masks also probes how gender interacts with color to produce specific power-based structures informing the interaction between women of color and white men, as well as men of color and white women.

Among Fanons other significant contributions is the theorization of the role of the native intellectual in addressing the specific needs of struggles for justice in his or her country. Fanon also highlighted the role of the native intellectual in negotiating the problems pertaining to the conceptualization of national consciousness and resulting from the gap between the educated classes and the underprivileged masses. This negotiation is crucial in shaping ways of acting back and strategies of resistance described in The Wretched of the Earth.

Continuing his examination of the struggle against colonialism, Fanon analyzed the specific case of the Algerian liberation struggle, detailing its contexts and components in A Dying Colonialism (LAn V de la révolution algérienne, 1959). This book, which explores the conflict between old values, transitional identifications, and the new Algerian nationalism, details the elements contributing to the formation of an alternative sense of national identity in Algerian society. A Dying Colonialism examines such issues through the discussion of the shifting symbolism of the Algerian womens veil; the relationship between resistance to the radio and the Algerians desire to preserve social stability and traditional sociability; and the trauma resulting from changes in traditional family structure and the forced separation of family members. In this book, Fanon also shows how medical knowledge functions as a tool of power; more specifically, he argues that medicine can be seen, in certain situations, as an extension of the colonizers control over the colonized society.

An equal concern with unmasking the mechanisms and networks of power in its various forms and local as well as global dimensions permeates Fanons Toward the African Revolution (Pour la révolution africaine, 1964). This book is a collection of essays, notes, and articles, most of which were published in El Moudjahid (roughly translated as the militant), the underground newspaper of the Algerian National Liberation Front. A number of these writings probe the connection between French strategies in the Algerian War and the international scene in the United States and Europe. These works also examine the interdependence of individual liberation, anticolonial struggles, and the birth of national consciousness; the Algerian revolution and other liberation struggles in Africa and the Caribbean; and the end of colonialism and the resulting racism among the proletariat in the colonizing countries.

Throughout his life and career, Fanon probed the complexity of the colonial encounter and its aftermath. To account for its multilayered nature, he drew on a number of disciplines, including medicine, sociology, psychiatry, and literature, in a humanistic gesture reflecting his uncompromising dedication to the cause of the oppressed.

SEE ALSO Blackness; Caribbean, The; Colonialism; Empire; Imperialism; Liberation; Neocolonialism; Psychology; Racism; Slavery; Violence, Frantz Fanon on; Whiteness

BIBLIOGRAPHY

PRIMARY WORKS

Fanon, Frantz. [1952] 1967 Black Skin, White Masks. Trans. Charles Lam Markmann. New York: Grove.

Fanon, Frantz. [1959] 1965. A Dying Colonialism. Trans. Haakon Chevalier. New York: Grove.

Fanon, Frantz. [1961] 1963. The Wretched of the Earth. Trans. Constance Farrington. New York: Grove.

Fanon, Frantz. [1964] 1967. Toward the African Revolution: Political Essays. Trans. Haakon Chevalier. New York: Grove.

SECONDARY WORKS

Alessandrini, Anthony C., ed. 1999. Frantz Fanon: Critical Perspectives. New York and London: Routledge.

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. 1991. Critical Fanonism. Critical Inquiry 17: 457470.

Gendzier, Irene L. 1973. Frantz Fanon: A Critical Study. New York: Pantheon.

Gibson, Nigel C., ed. 1999. Rethinking Fanon: The Continuing Dialogue. Amherst, NY: Humanity.

Gordon, Lewis R. 1995. Fanon and the Crisis of European Man: An Essay on Philosophy and the Human Sciences. New York and London: Routledge.

Gordon, Lewis R., ed. 1996. Existence in Black: An Anthology of Black Existential Philosophy. New York and London: Routledge.

Gordon, Lewis R., T. Denean Sharpley-Whiting, and Renée T. White, eds. 1996. Fanon: A Critical Reader. Oxford and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

Macey, David. 2000. Frantz Fanon: A Biography. London: Granta.

Sharpley-Whiting, T. Denean. 1998. Frantz Fanon: Conflicts and Feminisms. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Sirène Harb

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Fanon, Frantz

Fanon, Frantz

BIBLIOGRAPHY

SUPPLEMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY

Frantz Fanon (1925-1961), political theorist, was born in Martinique. He studied medicine in France after World War II, became a psychiatrist, and served in a government hospital in Algeria. In 1956 he resigned from French government service and joined the Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN), becoming first an editor of the party’s journal and then, under the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic, an ambassador to Ghana and a special envoy to the Congo. When he died in Bethesda, Maryland, of leukemia, he had established a reputation as the leading ideologist of the Algerian revolution. Subsequently, he came to be regarded as a major theorist of anticolonial-ism. His last work, The Wretched of the Earth(1961), is the clearest extant statement of this ideology.

Fanon began as a psychiatrist. He argued that neuroses can be understood and treated only if they are related to the cultural situation that gives rise to them, what he called their “sociogenesis.” For Fanon, the crucial aspect of a social structure is the extent to which it creates institutions that fulfill men’s needs. He maintained that “a society which forces its members to desperate solutions is a nonviable society, which must be replaced” (Pour la révolution africaine, p. 61).

Fanon argued that in the eyes of most men the fundamental conflict of the contemporary world is the race conflict: Black men and white men constitute two hostile camps. He was very clear that the source of this conflict, as of all conflicts, is oppression–in this case, a racial oppression which masks the oppression of capitalism and colonialism. “It is the white man who creates the Negro. But it is the Negro who creates negritude” ([1959] 1965, p. 47). Rooted in a tradition of universalistic rationalism, Fanon nevertheless rejected the French idea and policy of assimilation which, he felt, could never transcend paternalism and which tended to justify continued oppression. He defended the wearing of the veil by Algerian women as a symbol of nationalist opposition but thought that the veil would disappear after the success of the fundamental revolution against the colonizers.

Fanon sought ways for the colonized to purge themselves of the degrading effects of colonialism. For an individual or a group, the primary symptom of the fact that it has not attained human status is that it asks–indeed, appeals–for magnanimity. Rights can only be had if they are taken by purgative acts of violence. In a situation of collective denial of rights, there must be “collective catharsis.” Violence is the means to this catharsis.

Fanon believed that renewal is not easy. It requires violence, which frees the individual from the mental deformities imposed by colonialism and creates the possibility of renewal. Politicization can then follow; for to politicize is to awaken the mind to the world. Thus, self-consciousness will be the guarantee of cultural openness. The liberation of the oppressed individual from the apathy that has been encouraged in him–Fanon spoke of the “cultural mummification of colonialism”-is the only possible basis of true liberation.

Neither this individual liberation nor real decolonization can be achieved without violence. Violence is “in the atmosphere” and is constantly giving rise to spontaneous outbursts of violent protest. This spontaneity is a great source of strength, placing pressure on the inherently reluctant leadership of protest movements. But it is also dangerous, because it is neither disciplined nor farsighted. Successful revolution requires the proper balance of spontaneity and self-control.

Nationalist movements in the contemporary world have been the principal vehicle of decolonization. However, for Fanon they are an uncertain instrument because they tend to be led by the urban middle classes and because they ignore, insofar as they can, the peasantry. But only the peasantry in the underdeveloped world is really revolutionary, for only it has nothing to lose. The urban proletariat, by contrast, is a privileged group which tends to look down upon the peasants. The chief characteristic of the urban nationalist elite is that its anticolonialism goes hand in hand with its spirit of accommodation. Its propensity to compromise, combined with the peasants’ often premature acceptance of concessions, constitutes the chief danger to the anticolonialist revolution.

Fanon saw the colonial powers and their agents as following a policy of making minimal concessions which are intended to undermine the unity of the oppressed classes. He analyzed the guided steps to independence in much of Asia and Africa in these terms. Under pressure, the colonial powers cede authority to each national bourgeoisie, thus effectively in most cases creating new allies. The single-party systems of the “third world”-the underdeveloped world–have been “dictatorships of the bourgeoisie.”

The struggle for national liberation of colonial countries can, according to Fanon, be understood only in the context of the struggle of the “third world” for full equality and self-realization. Fanon drew on Hegel and Marx for his analysis of the underlying contradictions of the capitalist world. He followed Sorel and Lenin in their emphasis on the necessity of organized violence to polarize society. And he drew on a modified version of Freud’s theories for his analysis of how changes in the social structure lead to shifts in the personality structure, which in turn determine the possibilities of political action.

Fanon sought to go beyond nationalism to the world revolution of the colonized against the colonizers. He considered the attainment of national sovereignty to be insufficient. Fundamental emancipation of the once-colonial peoples can come about, according to Fanon, through their participation in this world-wide revolution. He thought that a “new man” must be created and that only through the reawakened self-consciousness of the oppressed peoples can a true international consciousness be created and man’s humanity be established.

Immanuel Wallerstein

[See alsoCOLONIALISM; IMPERIALISM. Other relevant material may be found inMODERNIZATION.]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1952 Peau noire, masques blancs. Paris: Seuil.

(1959) 1965 Studies in a Dying Colonialism. New York: Monthly Review Press. → First published as ’an V de la révolution africaine.

(1961) 1965 The Wretched of the Earth. Preface by Jean-Paul Sartre. New York: Grove. → First published as Les daranés de la terre.

Pour la révolution africaine: Ecrits politiques. Paris: Mas-pero, 1964.

SUPPLEMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY

Isaacs, Harold R. 1965 Portrait of a Revolutionary. Commentary40, no. 1 : 67–71. → An insightful discussion of Fanon.

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Fanon, Frantz (1925-1961)

FANON, FRANTZ (1925-1961)

Frantz Fanon was born on July 20, 1925, in Fort-de-France on the Caribbean island of Martinique and died on December 6, 1961, in Washington, D.C. He is best known for his work in fighting against colonization.

Fanon was the son of a native Martiniquan father (the descendant of slaves and a member of the island's middle-class community), and a French (Alsace) mother (herself the daughter of a mixed marriage). Between 1939 and 1943 he studied at the Lycée Schoelcher, where he was taught by Aimé César, a poet who helped destroy the image of the African created by European colonization. In 1943, then a young man, Fanon became a dissident and agitated against representatives of the Vichy regime in the Antilles. He traveled to the island of Dominica to rally the free French forces in the Caribbean. In 1944 he fought on the European front. Wounded near the Swiss border, he received a citation for his courage, signed by Colonel Raoul Salan, whom he would later fight against in Algeria.

After receiving his baccalaureate at the special session of March 1946, he went to Lyon, France, to study medicine (1946-1951). After a brief stay in Martinique at the end of 1951, he returned to Lyon to specialize in psychiatry under the direction of Professor Tosquelles. There he met Octave Mannoni. The two men became friends, but Fanon was highly critical of Mannoni's Psychologie de la Colonisation (Psychology of colonization). He became a psychiatrist in June 1953. In 1954 he was appointed to a post in Blida, Algeria. He saw patients during the day and, at night, participated in the struggle for Algerian independence. He was expelled from Algeria in January 1957. At the end of the summer of 1958, Fanon settled in Tunis to resume his double life. He died in 1961 from leukemia.

He developed an interest in psychoanalysis fairly early in his career; he speaks of it in his first book, Black Skin, White Masks (1967a), published when he was twenty-seven. His attitude is that of a colonized subject who, disappointed by racism, grows skeptical of European universalism. Yet he began this work with the following statement: "Only a psychoanalytic interpretation of the black problem can reveal the emotional anomalies responsible for the resulting complexes." Fanon saw Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, and Carl Gustav Jung as more or less the same. His form of psychoanalysis is more of a social therapy based on liberation than of a talking cure.

His ideas, as represented in his booksStudies in a Dying Colonialism (1965a), The Wretched of the Earth (1965a), and Toward the African Revolution (1967b)can be summarized as follows: There is a specific pathology associated with colonization. The core of the emotional disturbances affecting black people is an inferiority complex, in the Adlerian sense. The Oedipus complex does not occur in families from the Antilles. The unconscious, as described by Jung, is collective. Analysis of the social-historical development of the individual must take precedence over any other approach. Freud, Jung, and Adler were not thinking about black people when they formulated their theories. He rejected the idea of determinism, believing that humankind was abandoned to its own fate.

He was unable to overcome his resistance to psychoanalysis at the time of his premature death at the age of thirty-six.

Guillaume SurÉna

See also: Martinique; North African countries.

Bibliography

Cherki, Alice. (2000). Frantz Fanon, portrait. Paris: Seuil.

Fanon, Frantz. (1965a). Studies in a dying colonialism (Haakon Chevalier, Trans.). New York: Monthly Review Press. (Original work published 1958)

. (1965b). The wretched of the earth (Constance Farrington, Trans.). New York: Grove Press. (Original work published 1961)

. (1967a). Black skin, white masks (Charles Lam Markmann, Trans.). New York: Grove Press. (Original work published 1952)

. (1967b). Toward the African revolution: Political essays (Haakon Chevalier, Trans.). New York: Grove Press. (Original work published 1964)

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Frantz Fanon

Frantz Fanon

The Algerian political theorist Frantz Fanon (1925-1961) analyzed the nature of racism and colonialism and developed a theory of violent anticolonialist struggle.

Frantz Fanon was born in the French colony of Martinique. He volunteered for the French army during World War II, and then, after being released from military service, he went to France, where he studied medicine and psychiatry from 1945 to 1950. In 1953 he was appointed head of the psychiatric department of a government hospital in Algeria, then a French territory. As a black man searching for his own identity in a white colonial culture, he experienced racism; as a psychiatrist, he studied the dynamics of racism and its effects on the individual.

In his first book, Black Skin, White Masks (1952), Fanon examined the social and psychological processes by which the white colonizers alienated the black natives from any indigenous black culture; he showed that blacks were made to feel inferior because of their color and thus strove to emulate white culture and society. Fanon hoped that the old myths of superiority would be abandoned so that a real equality and integration could be achieved.

Alienated from the dominant French culture, except for that represented by such radicals as the philosopher Jean Paul Sartre, Fanon deeply identified with Algeria's revolutionary struggle for independence. He had secretly aided the rebels from 1954 to 1956, when he resigned from the hospital post to openly work for the Algerian revolutionaries' National Liberation Front (FLN) in Tunis. He worked on the revolutionaries' newspaper, becoming one of the leading ideologists of the revolution, and developed a theory of anticolonial struggle in the "third world."

Using Marxist, psychoanalytic, and sociological analysis, Fanon summed up his views in The Wretched of the Earth (1961), arguing that only a thorough, truly socialist revolution carried out by the oppressed peasantry (the wretched of the earth) could bring justice to the colonized. He believed that the revolution could only be carried out by violent armed conflict; only revolutionary violence could completely break the psychological and physical shackles of a racist colonialism. Violence would regenerate and unite the population by a "collective catharsis;" out of this violence a new, humane man would arise and create a new culture. Through all this Fanon stressed the need to reject Europe and its culture and accomplish the revolution alone.

Fanon, the antiracist and revolutionary prophet, never saw the end result of the process he described: full independence of his adopted Algeria. In 1960 he served as ambassador to Ghana for the Algerian provisional government, but it was soon discovered that he had leukemia. After treatment in the Soviet Union, he went to the United States to seek further treatment but died there in 1961.

Further Reading

Peter Geismar, Fanon (1971), is a useful biography. David Caute, Fanon (1970), is not a full biography but a study of Fanon's ideas. Fanon's The Wretched of the Earth (1961; trans. 1965) has an interesting introduction by Jean Paul Sartre. For a concise background of Algeria see Richard M. Brace, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia (1964).

Additional Sources

Bulhan, Hussein Abdilahi., Frantz Fanon and the psychology of oppression, New York: Plenum Press, 1985.

Gendzier, Irene L., Frantz Fano, London: Panaf Books, 1975. □

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