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Ronstadt, Linda: 1946—: Singer

Linda Ronstadt: 1946: Singer

Linda Ronstadt has released more than 35 albums during a career that has spanned nearly 40 years, with sales topping more than 50 million copies. With a total of 13 platinum albums to her credit, she was the first woman ever to have four consecutive albums sell more than one million copies. Gaining fame by covering popular pop-rock songs, Ronstadt has also delved into opera, mariachi, Afro-Cuban, jazz, big band, and children's lullabies. She is known as one of the premier contemporary interpreters of the rock ballad.

Began Performing With Family

Ronstadt was born on July 14, 1946, in Tucson, Arizona, and grew up in an upper-middle-class neighborhood with her sister and two brothers. Her father, who owned a large hardware store, was of Mexican and German descent, and her mother, a housewife, was of German, English, and Dutch descent. Her whole family was musically inclined. Her mother played the ukulele, and her father, who loved to sing his favorite Mexican songs, played the guitar. By the age of six, Ronstadt was singing harmony with her family.

As a child Ronstadt listened to her father's collection of Spanish-language albums, as well as to country and western, top 40, blues, and gospel. She first began performing as a teenager in local clubs and pizza parlors with her brother Pete and sister Suzie. She had a rebellious streak that did not serve her well during her years at Tucson's St. Peter and Paul Parochial School, where her attire was deemed too alluring and her talk of boys too direct. But by high school Ronstadt was focused on a future in music. After graduating from Catalina High School she enrolled in the University of Arizona, but lasted only a couple of months before moving to Los Angeles to pursue her musical career.

Ronstadt became romantically involved with Bob Kimmel, a Tucson native who occasionally played bass and guitar for Ronstadt and her siblings. Kimmel convinced Ronstadt to form a band with him in Los Angeles. In 1964 18-year-old Ronstadt agreed, and the two enlisted Kenny Edwards and formed the Stone Poneys. The band's entirealbeit shorthistory was a turbulent affair. Their first professional offer came from Mercury Records, which wanted to turn them into a surfer band called the Signets. The desired style was completely out of sync with their sound, which was much closer to the folksy Mamas and the Papas and Lovin' Spoonful, and the group rejected the offer.

At a Glance . . .

Born on July 14, 1946, in Tuscon, AZ; daughter of Gilbert and Ruthmary (Copeman) Ronstadt; two adopted children.

Career: Singer, 1964.

Awards: American Music Awards, 1978; Grammy Awards, 1975, 1976, 1987 (with Emmylou Harris and Dolly Parton), 1988, 1989 (with Aaron Neville), 1990 (with Aaron Neville) 1992 (two awards), 1996; Academy of Country Music Award, 1987, 1988.

Address: Agent Electra Records, 75 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, NY.

Abandoned By Group, Began Solo Career

The Stone Poneys played at the Troubadour, a popular Los Angeles venue, where Ronstadt was approached by the promoter Henry Cohen to sign as a solo artist. Naively loyal to her band, she refused, but when the band finally split up, Ronstadt signed with Cohen and then convinced him to work with a reunited Stone Poneys band. The band ended up with a contract for three albums. The second album, Evergreen, Vol. 2, released by Capitol in 1967, included the single "Different Drum," written by Mike Nesmith, and the song reached the charts. Encouraged, Capitol sent the band on a promotional tour, but the trip was a failure. Working as an opening act for more popular groups, the Stone Poneys found themselves playing for audiences who didn't want to listen. Discouraged, Kenny Edwards left the band after the tour.

Ronstadt and Kimmel worked with pickup musicians to stage another tour, as the opening act for The Doors, but Kimmel soon jumped ship also, leaving Ronstadt holding an unfulfilled contract for a third album. Using session musicians, Ronstadt finally completed The Stone Poneys and Friends, Vol. 3, released in 1968, but sales were abysmal. Still under contract with Capitol, Ronstadt released three consecutive solo albums, Hand Sown Home Grown, Silk Purse, and Linda Ronstadt. Hand Sown Home Grown revealed Ronstadt's lack of confidence and timid singing, but Silk Purse was an improvement, with such songs as "Lovesick Blues" and "Long, Long Time," which reached the top 30 in 1970. Linda Ronstadt contained several well-received singles, including "Rock Me on the Water" and "I Fall to Pieces."

The late 1960s and early 1970s were difficult times for Ronstadt. She went through a succession of managers, producers, and musicians, who did little to help her map out a clear plan for success. She was in debt due to the Stone Poneys' fiasco and was becoming exhausted from touring incessantly. During 1973 she opened for Neil Young and struggled with impatient fans waiting for Young's turn on stage. Ronstadt dealt with her worries, frustration, and significant stage fright with cocaine, but it was a habit she was able to quit following the tour.

Released Gold and Platinum Albums

Ronstadt's future began to take shape in 1973, when she signed with Asylum Records. She enlisted the services of producer Peter Asher, formerly of the British pop duo Peter and Gordon, who helped Ronstadt complete her next album, Don't Cry Now. Released in 1973, it became Ronstadt's first widely accepted album, and reached number 45 on the charts. The best-received cut was her highly acclaimed rendition of the Eagle's "Desperado." The success prompted Capitol to release a compilation of Ronstadt's earlier work, including several Stone Poneys' songs, a year later.

In 1973 Ronstadt found out she still owed Capitol another album. She completed her contractual obligation to Capitol in 1974 with the release of Heart Like a Wheel, which became her breakthrough album. With Asher as her sole producer and manager, Ronstadt put together a superb collection of country-rock cover tunes and contemporary songs that took the album, which went platinum, to number one on the charts. The singles "You're No Good" reached number one on the pop charts, and "I Can't Help It If I'm Still in Love with You," with harmony by Emmylou Harris, climbed to number two on the country and western charts. "When Will I Be Loved" reached number one on the country and western charts and number two on the pop charts. Riding on the popularity of Heart Like a Wheel, Ronstadt won a Grammy Award for Best Female Country Vocalist. The success of the album made Ronstadt a household name, and seemed due to a combination of factors, including stronger, more assertive singing, and better song selection, musical arrangements, and production.

Of Heart Like a Wheel, Stephen Holden wrote in his Rolling Stone review: "The song lyric underscores the essence of Ronstadt's vocal personality. No other pop singer so perfectly embodies the Western mythical girl/woman, heartbroken yet resilient and entirely feminine in the traditional sense. There is a throbbing edge to Ronstadt's honey-colored soprano that no other singer quite possesses. the edge between vulnerability and willfulness that I find totally, irresistibly sexy."

Riding the wave of her widespread popularity, Ronstadt put out Prisoner in Disguise in 1975, which also went platinum. Covering Motown classics such as "Heat Wave" and "Tracks of My Tears," she also sang Neil Young's "Love is a Rose," which became a hit on the country and western charts. Despite its success, however, the album was criticized as merely a remake of Heart Like a Wheel. In 1976 Asylum released Ronstadt's Greatest Hits, Vol.1. Ronstadt's Hasten Down the Wind was her seventh solo album and the third to go platinum. Highlights of the album included covers of Buddy Holly's hit "That'll Be the Day" and Willie Nelson's "Crazy."

Ronstadt spent six months in 1976 touring around the United States as well as Europe. In January of 1977 she was invited to sing at Jimmy Carter's presidential inaugural. During that year Capitol released Retrospective, a selection of Ronstadt's pre-hit country-based songs. By the end of the year, she had released Simple Dreams, which sold over three million copies, reached number one on the charts, and produced multiple smash-hit singles. Ronstadt, who continued to benefit from Asher's production skills, proved her ability to cover a wide range of styles, with renditions of Dolly Parton's "I Will Never Marry," Roy Orbison's "Blue Bayou," and Buddy Holly's "It's So Easy." Her feminine interpretation of the gritty, male-dominated lyrics of the Rolling Stones' "Tumblin' Dice" and Warren Zevon's "Poor Poor Pitiful Me" were also noteworthy. In a testament to her willingness to play on the edge of acceptable genres, Ronstadt also included an old standard cowboy tune, "Old Paint," performed with simple acoustic guitar and a dobro.

Living in the U.S.A., released in 1978, received mixed reviews. Individual cuts were praised, but overall the album suffered from a lack of focus and direction. The following year Ronstadt produced Mad Love, an ill-advised attempt to incorporate contemporary tunes. Given her past success covering classics from a number of genres, Ronstadt's move to take on a production dominated by new wave and punk-influenced pop was a disappointment. Stereo Review's Noel Coppage suggested, "To put it in easy pop terms, Ronstadt's a melody singer and what this music needs is a beat singer." Of most interest on the album were the covers of older tunes, including Little Anthony and the Imperials' "Hurt so Bad" and The Hollies' "I Can't Let Go." Despite the critics' lukewarm reception of Living in the U.S.A. and Mad Love, Ronstadt's superstar status propelled both albums to platinum.

Moved Into New Territories

Ronstadt's 1982 release of Get Closer signaled the closing days of her place at center stage of the pop rock scene. Although still successful, it was her first album in nearly ten years that did not go platinum. Ronstadt's solution to her waning pop popularity was to switch genres completely. She moved from Los Angeles to New York and spent 1980 on stage as Mabel in a Broadway production of Gilbert and Sullivan's Pirates of Penzance, and then appeared in the film version in 1983. In 1981 she began a working relationship with arranger-composer Nelson Riddle and his 46-piece orchestra. What's New, which sold more than two million copies, included traditional pop standards such as "I've Got a Crush on You" and "Someone to Watch Over Me." Lush Life and For Sentimental Reasons again paired Ronstadt with Riddle. She appeared on stage again in 1984 in a small-scale production of La Bohéme.

The single "Somewhere Out There," a duet with Aaron Neville that was featured in the animated children's movie An American Tail, put Ronstadt briefly back in the mainstream pop audience. When Riddle's untimely death ended their collaboration, Ronstadt once again switched musical directions, releasing her first Spanish-language album, Canciones de mi Padre ("Songs of my Father"). Created as a tribute to her Mexican heritage and her father's love of mariachi music, Ronstadt sings both corridos (story songs) and rancheras (folk dances). She released two more Spanish-language albums: Mas Canciones ("More Songs") in 1990, and Frenesi (Frenzy), a tribute to Afro-Cuban jazz. In 1987 Ronstadt collaborated with Harris and Parton to produce Trio, a much-anticipated album that the three had been trying to put together for several years. The three came back together in 1999 to release Trio II. Ronstadt again partnered with Harris in 1999 on the country-based Western WallThe Tucson Sessions, a rough-cut recording completed mostly in Ronstadt's living room at her Tucson home.

Returned to Roots

Ronstadt returned to pop music in 1989 with Cry Like a RainstormHowl Like the Wind, and her reentry into the mainstream was loudly applauded. In his Audio review, Hector La Torre noted, "The more you listen to Cry Like a Rainstorm, the more you realize that of greater importance than Ronstadt's return to pop/rock is the enormous musical development that has taken place in this woman." La Torre applauded Ronstadt's astonishing vocal development during her 40 years in the business.

After taking time to develop her Spanish-language albums and produce for David Lindley, Jimmy Webb, and Neville, Ronstadt returned to her folk- and country-rock sound with Winter Light and Feels Like Home. In 1999 she released Dedicated to the One I Love, which covers old popular tunes such as "Be My Baby" and "In My Room," but this time reinterprets them as children's lullabies. The release of We Ran in 1998 features covers of John Hiatt's "When We Ran," Bruce Springsteen's "If I Should Fall Behind," and Bob Dylan's "Tom Thumb Blues." In 2002 Asylum released The Very Best of Linda Ronstadt, favoring Ronstadt's biggest hits from her rock-pop albums.

Although she remains active with her music, Ronstadt, now in her fifties, has slowed down her singing and recording schedule. The mother of two children by adoption, Ronstadt has never married, although she has been linked romantically to former California governor Jerry Brown and film director George Lucas, among others. Ronstadt moved back home to Tucson to raise her children among her family in relative anonymity. She has claimed she does not own a television or computer, loathes the junk-food culture, and would much rather attend the opera than listen to modern rock or pop. With few exceptions, she has preferred to fill her home with live music, and has avoided recorded or digital formats. Her pride appears to be mostly centered in the work of her later years.

Selected discography

(With the Stone Poneys) We Five Sounds, Capitol, 1967.

(With the Stone Poneys) Evergreen, Vol. 2, Capitol, 1967.

(With the Stone Poneys) The Stone Poneys and Friends, Vol. 3, Capitol, 1968.

Hand Sown Home Grown, Capitol, 1969.

Silk Purse, Capitol, 1970.

Linda Ronstadt, Capitol, 1971.

Don't Cry Now (Gold), Asylum, 1973.

(Compilation) Different Drum, Capitol, 1974.

Heart Like a Wheel (Platinum), Capitol, 1974.

Prisoner in Disguise (Platinum), Asylum, 1975.

Hasten Down the Wind (Platinum), Asylum, 1976.

Greatest Hits, Vol. 1 (Platinum), Asylum, 1976.

(Compilation) Retrospective (Gold), Capitol, 1977.

Simple Dreams (Platinum), Asylum, 1977.

Living in the U.S.A. (Platinum), Asylum, 1978.

(Compilation) Greatest Hits, Vol. 2 (Platinum), Asylum, 1980.

Mad Love (Platinum), Asylum, 1980.

Get Closer (Gold), Asylum, 1982.

What's New (Platinum), Asylum, 1983.

Lush Life (Platinum), Asylum, 1984.

For Sentimental Reasons (Platinum), Asylum, 1986.

(Compilation) 'Round Midnight (Gold), Asylum, 1986.

Canciones de mi Padre (Songs of my Father) (Platinum), Asylum, 1987.

(With Emmylou Harris and Dolly Parton) Trio (Platinum), Warner Brothers, 1987.

Cry Like a RainstormHowl Like the Wind (Platinum), Asylum, 1989.

Mas Canciones (More Songs), Asylum, 1990.

Frenesi (Frenzy), Asylum, 1992.

Winter Light, Asylum, 1995.

Feels Like Home, Asylum, 1995.

Dedicated to the One I Love, Elektra, 1996.

We Ran, Elektra, 1998.

(With Emmylou Harris and Dolly Parton) Trio 2 (Gold), Asylum, 1999.

(With Emmylou Harris) Western Wall: The Tucson Sessions, Asylum, 1999.

A Merry Little Christmas, Elektra, 2000.

(Compilation) The Very Best of Linda Ronstadt, Rhino, 2002.



Dictionary of Hispanic Biography, Gale, 1996.

Pareles, Jon, and Patricia Romanowski, eds., The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock and Roll, Rolling Stone/Summit Books, 1983.

Slonimsky, Nicolas, and Laura Kuhn, eds., Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, Schirmer, 2001.


Audio, January 1990.

Billboard, December 4, 1993; August 21, 1999, p. 11.

Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service, November 7, 2002.

New Statesman, April 19, 1999, p. 39.

New Strait Times, March 27, 2002.

Popular Music and Society, Summer 1997, pp. 152-54.

Rolling Stone, January 16, 1975; March 27, 1975; October 19, 1978, pp. 50-59; July 13, 1995, p. 40. Stereo Review, May 1980.

U.S. Weekly, December 18-25, 2000, pp. 72-74.


"Linda Ronstadt," Rolling Stone, (March 27, 2003).

Linda Ronstadt Homepage, (March 27, 2003).

Kari Bethel

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Ronstadt, Linda

Linda Ronstadt


For the Record

Selected discography


Few performers in any medium have proven more daring than Linda Ronstadt, a singer who has made her mark in such varied styles as rock, country, grand opera, and mariachi. In the 1970s Ronstadt churned out a veritable stream of pop hits and heartrending ballads that delighted country and rock fans alike. Just when she seemed pegged as a pop idol, however, she turned her talents to operain The Pirates of Penzance and La Bohème and to torch songs accompanied by the Nelson Riddle Orchestra. Almost every Ronstadt experiment has met with critical acclaim and, surprisingly, with fan approval and hefty record sales. Newsweek contributor Margo Jefferson attributes this success to Ronstadts voice, which she describes as having the richness and cutting edge of a muted trumpet. Jefferson concludes, In a field where success is often based on no more than quick-study ventriloquism, Linda Ronstadt stands out. She is no fads prisoner; her compelling voice wears no disguises.

Time reporter Jay Cocks calls Ronstadt gutsy, unorthodox, and a challenger of creeds. As the singer tells it, she developed a habit of rebellion early in life and stuck to it with singleminded determination. Ronstadt was born and raised in Tucson, Arizona, the daughter of a hardware-store owner who loved to sing and play Mexican music. Ronstadt herself enjoyed harmonizing with her sister and two brothersshe was proud when she was allowed to take the soprano notes. At the age of six she decided she wanted to be a singer, and she promptly lost all interest in formal schooling. Aaron Latham, a classmate at Tucsons Catalina High School, wrote in Rolling Stone that by her teens Ronstadt was already a larger-than-life figure with an even larger voice. She didnt surprise anyone by becoming a singer. Not that anyone expected her fame to grow to the dimensions of that voice. But the voice itself was no secret.

Ronstadt attended the University of Arizona briefly, dropping out at eighteen to join her musician boyfriend, Bob Kimmel, in Los Angeles. With Kimmel and guitar player Kenny Edwards, Ronstadt formed a group called the Stone Poneys, a folk-rock ensemble reminiscent of the Mamas and the Papas and the Lovin Spoonful. The Stone Poneys signed a contract with Capitol Records in 1964 and released a single, Some of Shelleys Blues, in early 1965. Their only hit as a group came in 1967, when Different Drum, a cut from their second album, made the charts. By that time, intense touring, drug abuse, and a series of disappointing concert appearances as openers for the Doors caused the Stone Poneys to disband. Ronstadt told Rolling Stone that her band was rejected by the hippest element in New York

For the Record

Full name Linda Marie Ronstadt; born July 15, 1946, in Tucson, Ariz.; daughter of Gilbert (a hardware-store owner) and Ruthmary (Copeman) Ronstadt. Education: Attended Catalina High School, Tucson, and the University of Arizona.

With Bob Kimmel and Kenny Edwards, formed group the Stone Poneys, 1964-68, had first Top 40 hit, Different Drum, 1967; solo artist, 1968. Has made numerous concert tours in the United States, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Sang at Jimmy Carters inaugural concert, 1977. Appeared as Mabel in The Pirates ofPenzance on Broadway, 1981, and in a feature film, 1983; appeared as Mimi in La Bohème off-Broadway, 1984.

Awards: Recipient of Grammy Awards for best female pop performance, 1975, best female pop performer, 1976, and (with Dolly Parton and Emmylou Harris) best country performance, 1987; recipient of American Music Award, 1978, and Academy of Country Music Award, 1987.

Addresses: Office c/o Asher, 644 N. Doheny Dr., Los Angeles, CA 90069.

as lame. We broke up right after that. We couldnt bear to look at each other.

Ronstadt fulfilled her Capitol recording contract as a solo performer, turning out some of the first albums to fuse country and rock styles. On Hand Sown Home Grown (1969) and Silk Purse (1970), Ronstadt teamed with Nashville studio musicians for an ebullient, if jangly country sound. The latter album produced her first solo hit, the sorrowful Long, Long Time. In retrospect, Ronstadt has called her debut period the bleak years. She was plagued by the stresses of constant touring, difficult romantic entanglements, cocaine use, and critical indifferenceand to make matters worse, she suffered from stage fright and had little rapport with her audiences. I felt like a submarine with depth charges going off all around me, she told Time. Ronstadt eluded failure by moving to Asylum Records in 1973 and by engaging Peter Asher as her producer and manager. Asher collaborated with her on her first best-selling albums, Dont Cry Now and the platinum Heart Like a Wheel.

Heart Like a Wheel was the first in a succession of million-selling albums for Ronstadt. By the mid-1970s, with hits such as When Will I Be Loved?, Desperado, Youre No Good, Blue Bayou, and Poor, Poor Pitiful Me, the singer had established herself as rocks most popular female star. Stephen Holden describes Ronstadts rock style in a Vogue magazine profile. Her singing, according to Holden, combined a tearful country wail with a full-out rock declamation. But, at the same time, her purity of melodic line is strongly rooted in folk. A Time contributor elaborates: She sings, oh Lord, with a rowdy spin of stylescountry, rhythm and blues, rock, reggae, torchy balladfused by a rare and rambling voice that calls up visions of loss, then jiggles the glands of possibility. The gutty voice drives, lilts, licks slyly at decency, riffs off Ella [Fitzgerald], transmogrifies Dolly Parton, all the while wailing with the guitars, strong and solid as Gods garage floor. A man listens and thinks Oh my, yes, and a woman thinks, perhaps, Ah, well

A leap from rock to operetta is monumental; few voices could make it successfully. In 1981 Ronstadt astonished the critics and her fans by trilling the demanding soprano part of Mabel in a Broadway production of The Pirates of Penzance. Her performance led Newsweek correspondent Barbara Graustark to comment, Those wet, marmot eyes turn audiences on like a light bulb, and when her smoky voice soars above the staff in a duet with a flute, she sends shivers down the spine. Ronstadts appearance as Mimi in La Bohème off-Broadway in 1984 was received with less enthusiasm by the critics, but the singer herself expressed no regrets about her move away from rock. When I perform rock n roll, she told Newsweek, it varies between antagonistic posturing and to-the-bones vulnerability. I wanted to allow another facet of my personality to emerge. Ive gained confidence in knowing that now I can handle myself in three dimensions, and even if I never use my upper extension except in the bathtub, Ive gained vocal finish.

That vocal finish was applied to yet another Ronstadt experimenttwo albums of vintage torch songs, Whats New? and Lush Life, featuring the Nelson Riddle Orchestra. Jay Cocks calls Whats New? a simple, almost reverent, rendering of nine great songs that time has not touched. No one in contemporary rock or pop can sound more enamored, or winsome, or heartbroken, in a love song than Linda Ronstadt. Singing the tunes on Whats New, or even just talking about them, she still sounds like a woman in love. Stephen Holden writes, One of the charms of Ronstadts torch singing is her almost girlish awe in the face of the songs pent-up emotions. Instead of trying to re-create another eras erotic climate, she pays homage to it with lovely evenhanded line readings offered in a spirit of wistful nostalgia. Holden adds that Whats New revitalized Ronstadts recording career by selling over two million copies, and, coincidentally, defined for her generation the spirit of a new eighties pop romanticism.

More recent Ronstadt projects have departed even further from the pop-rock vein. In 1987 the singer released Canciones de mi padre, an album of mariachi songs that her father used to sing. Newsweek critic David Gates calls the work Ronstadts best record to date, noting that its flawless production is the only concession to Top 40 sensibilities. And Ronstadt has found a voice that embodies not merely passion and heartache, but a womanly wit as well. Ronstadt also earned several prestigious awards for her 1986 album Trio, a joint country-music venture with Dolly Parton and Emmylou Harris. While Ronstadt will not rule out recording more rock, she seems far more fascinated by other forms and other, more remote, historical periods. Gates finds the raven-haired artist the most adventurous figure in American popular music, concluding that, at the very least, Ronstadt is commendable in her refusal to bore herself.

Selected discography

With the Stone Poneys

Evergreen, Capitol, 1967.

Evergreen, Volume II, Capitol, 1967.

Linda Ronstadt, the Stone Poneys, and Friends, Volume III, Capitol, 1968.

The Stone Poneys Featuring Linda Ronstadt, Capitol, 1976.

Solo LPs

Hand Sown Home Grown, Capitol, 1969.

Silk Purse, Capitol, 1970.

Linda Ronstadt, Capitol, 1972.

Dont Cry Now, Asylum, 1973.

Heart Like a Wheel, Capitol, 1974.

Different Drum, Asylum, 1974.

Prisoner in Disguise, Asylum, 1975.

Hasten Down the Wind, Asylum, 1976.

Linda Ronstadts Greatest Hits, Asylum, 1976.

Simple Dreams, Asylum, 1977.

Blue Bayou, Asylum, 1977.

Retrospective, Capitol, 1977.

Living in the U.S.A., Asylum, 1978.

Mad Love, Asylum, 1980.

Linda Ronstadts Greatest Hits, Volume II, Asylum, 1980.

Get Closer, Asylum, 1982.

Whats New?, Asylum, 1983.

Lush Life, Asylum, 1984.

For Sentimental Reasons, Asylum, 1986.

Prime of Life, Asylum, 1986.

Rockfile, Capitol, 1986.

Round Midnight: The Nelson Riddle Sessions, Asylum, 1987.

Canciones de mi padre, Asylum, 1987.

With Dolly Parton and Emmylou Harris

Trio, Warner Bros., 1986.



The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Country Music, Harmony Books, 1977.

Stambler, Irwin, The Encyclopedia of Pop, Rock, and Soul, St. Martins, 1974.


down beat, July, 1985.

Esquire, October, 1985.

Newsweek, October 20, 1975; April 23, 1979; August 11, 1980; December 10, 1984; February 29, 1988.

People, October 24, 1977; April 30, 1979.

Rolling Stone, December 2, 1976; March 27, 1977; October 19, 1978; November 2, 1978; August 18, 1983.

Saturday Review, December, 1984.

Time, February 28, 1977; March 22, 1982; September 26, 1983.

Vogue, November, 1984.

Washington Post Magazine, October 9, 1977.

Anne Janette Johnson

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