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Canada

CANADA

Major Cities:
Ottawa, Toronto, Montreal, Quebec City, Vancouver, Calgary, Halifax, Winnipeg, Hamilton, Regina, Edmonton, London, St. John's, Victoria, Windsor

Other Cities:
Antigonish, Brampton, Brantford, Charlottetown, Dawson, Fredericton, Gander, Guelph, Kingston, Kitchener, Medicine Hat, Niagara Falls, Niagara-on-the-lake, North Bay, Oakville, Oshawa, Peterborough, Prince Albert, Prince George, Saint Catherines, Saint John, Saskatoon, Sault Sainte Marie, Stratford, Sudbury, Thetford Mines, Thompson, Thunder Bay, Trois Rivières, Whitehorse, Yellowknife

EDITOR'S NOTE

This chapter was adapted from the Department of State Post Report dated April 1996. Supplemental material has been added to increase coverage of minor cities, facts have been updated, and some material has been condensed. Readers are encouraged to visit the Department of State's web site at http://travel.state.gov/ for the most recent information available on travel to this country.

INTRODUCTION

The vast nation of CANADA , which borders on three oceans and spans seven time zones, abounds in contrasts. It boasts magical coasts, majestic mountains, wild rivers, untrod forests, and untouched lakes. It also boasts sky-scraping cities, sophisticated shopping, and culinary delights. From the Calgary Stampede to the Shakespearean Festival, from ethnic festivals to the changing of the guard in Ottawa, Canada is a fascinating blend of English and French, historic and modern, ceremonial and casual.

Canada has always had close ties with the United States, as evidenced by the fact that the two countries share the longest unguarded border in the world. In spite of its extensive geographical, cultural, financial, and economic ties with the U.S., however, Canada retains a unique distinction from its southern neighbors.

MAJOR CITIES

Ottawa

Ottawa (from an Indian word meaning "near the water") is a clean, attractive, modern city at the junction of the Ottawa, Rideau, and Gatineau Rivers, about 60 miles north of the New York State border and 120 miles west of Montreal. City residents total over 400,000, and the total metropolitan population is over one million. The climate is healthful and bracing, and the area abounds with opportunities for outdoor activities and family living.

Samuel de Champlain reached the site of what is now Ottawa in 1613; however, a permanent settlement did not develop until after the Rideau Canal was built in 1827. Originally named Bytown, Ottawa was incorporated as a city under its present name in 1854. It was selected as the national capital by Queen Victoria in 1888.

As Canada's capital, Ottawa's main business is government and, as in Washington, DC, little industry exists. Living conditions are similar to those in comparably sized U.S. cities, although social life is geared to demands of diplomatic and government circles.

Small Oriental, Lebanese, Portuguese, and Italian colonies exist in Ottawa, but the majority of residents are of British or French descent. Most francophones (35% of the population) are also fluent in English. Approximately 15,000 Americans live in the Ottawa district; they have merged into the population and do not constitute a discernible American colony. About 50 U.S. companies have subsidiaries or affiliates in the area, but only a few have American citizens on their local staffs.

During summer, there is a flow of U.S. tourists through the city, and all year government officials and business representatives visit Ottawa in their respective roles.

The diplomatic community is large and growing. Some 146 nations maintain relations with Canada, although only 100 have resident missions in Ottawa. Most are small, with two or three officers and a chief of mission. The only large missions are those of the U.S., U.K., Russia, France, Germany, and the People's Republic of China.

Education

Ottawa's public school system offers instruction from kindergarten through grade 13. There are 55 elementary schools for kindergarten through grade eight, and 15 high schools with English instruction and five with French instruction, both covering grades 9 to 13. Tuition is free for Ottawa residents attending public schools. Children may enter kindergarten at age five, or four if the child will be five before December 31 of that year.

Courses meet the standards established by the Ontario Ministry of Education. The teacher-student ratio in elementary schools is about 1:16, and in secondary schools about 1:12, ratios which have remained constant for several years.

Parents may place their children in one of two language programs: the immersion program consisting of instruction totally in French in the first few years, and a gradual phasing in of English instruction until the program becomes bilingual; or the core program consisting of at least 20 minutes daily of French instruction from kindergarten through eighth grade and making it optional at some level after that. The core program is not a rigid one and may vary from school to school.

While some students coming from U.S. schools have found the Ottawa high schools somewhat less demanding than their own, most students and parents report few differences or problems. Instructional programs and course offerings vary from school to school within a particular area.

Students pursuing a commercial, technical, or vocational curriculum in high school can receive a diploma after grade 12. Those planning to continue their studies beyond high school, especially if applying for admission to colleges and universities in Ontario, have, until recently, been required to complete grade 13, but this proviso is currently being phased out.

The Roman Catholic Church maintains a "separate school" system in Ottawa composed of 42 primary schools (19 with French instruction, 23 with English); six intermediate schools (five with French instruction, one with English); and two junior high schools, all with English instruction. Tuition through grade 10 is free for Ottawa residents. The curriculum of the "separate schools" meets all the requirements of the Ontario Ministry of Education.

The schools located in the suburban areas of Ottawa come under either the Carleton Public or Carleton Roman Catholic School Boards. Tuition for schools in both systems is free for residents of the school district. The Carleton Public School Board has 60 elementary schools (including 28 offering French immersion). There are 16 high schools, grades nine through 13, including several with a French immersion program. In addition to the schools offering French immersion, many schools in the Carleton jurisdiction offer French instruction similar to the Ottawa Board's core program. As with the Ottawa Board, parents are advised to check with the school in their neighborhood for specific details regarding the French program.

The Carleton Roman Catholic School Board has 51 elementary schools (32 with English instruction, 19 with French), all of which provide kindergarten to grade eight, and five high schools, grades nine through 13. However, after grade 10, the schools are considered private and tuition must be paid by parents. Many English-instruction elementary schools have French programs similar to those offered in the public school system. For details, parents should check with the neighborhood school their children will attend. The Carleton Roman Catholic School Board has no high schools where the language of instruction is French.

As in the Ottawa public and separate school boards, the curriculum in both boards in Carleton meets all the requirements of the Ontario Ministry of Education.

While a few American families live in Quebec Province (across the Ottawa River in the greater Hull area), the U.S. Embassy strongly discourages families with school-age children from residing in Quebec. The volatile French-language issue and related educational controversies, plus frequent teachers' strikes, have created considerable turmoil in the schools. Children not already reasonably conversant in French will probably encounter problems, especially at the high school level, even if enrolled in an English-language school.

Quebec Province requires all high school students to take French throughout high school and to pass a standard provincial French-language examination before graduation.

Both public and separate school systems in Ottawa and the suburban areas offer extracurricular activities similar to those found in the U.S., including athletics, drama, music, and student government. The Ottawa school year, longer than that of the U.S., runs from Labor Day to the last week in June. Students have a week-long vacation at Christmas and a spring break of 10 days (usually in March). Grades are released quarterly.

Ottawa has a number of nursery schools which accept children from age three. In addition, there are a number of "play schools" for children 18 months to age four. These are usually two or three half days a week, and these require some type of parent participation.

There are two private preparatory schools in the Ottawa area: Elm-wood School for girls (kindergarten through the fourth grade is coeducational; grades five through 13 are only for girls), and Ashbury College for boys (covering grades five through 13). Ashbury enrolls both day and boarding students.

Two universities, a technical institute, a teachers' college, and a variety of business and professional schools provide ample opportunity for education on a full-or part-time basis. These include Carleton University (English-language and private, founded in 1942); and University of Ottawa (bilingual and government-supported, founded in 1848). These universities offer a multitude of courses at the undergraduate and graduate levels leading to degrees in liberal arts, sciences, engineering, theology, business administration, education, medicine, nursing, law, and applied sciences. Evening courses at both universities provide many opportunities for both degree and non-degree study. Both universities have extensive evening programs for part-time students as well. Unlike most U.S. colleges, courses are generally conducted on a yearly rather than semester basis.

Algonquin College of Applied Arts and Technology, a community college with four campuses, offers a wide range of day and evening courses, one-year certificate programs, and two-and three-year diploma programs. In general, tuition and fees for colleges and universities in Ottawa are less than those of state colleges and universities in the U.S.

Ottawa has four schools for trainable, mentally handicapped children. They are École Jeanne-Lajoie, the Clifford Bowie School, McHugh School (affiliated with the Royal Ottawa Psychiatric Center), and the Crystal Bay School (Carleton Board of Education). One school, Centennial, is for the physically handicapped, and additionally, the Ottawa Crippled Children's Treatment Center has teaching facilities for physically handicapped and autistic children.

Other educational opportunities include tutoring or group study in languages, music, dance, art, and related activities. These are available for all ages at reasonable cost, usually through the various school systems, Algonquin College, the universities, and the YMCA. Often, however, waiting lists are encountered for those wishing to obtain the most competent instruction available. This is particularly true of French-language courses.

Recreation

Extensive opportunities for participation in many recreational sports activities exist in and around Ottawa. In winter, cross-country and downhill skiing are very popular. Trails and slopes abound within a 100-mile radius of the city, ranging from those for the beginner or casual skier to expert slopes for the advanced enthusiast.

Main roads are kept open and passable in winter, providing access to a number of ski trails and tows in developed ski complexes. Bus service is available. There is one ski area within the Ottawa city limitsCarlington Park. Within an hour's drive are the ski complexes of Camp Fortune and Edelweiss Valley. Camp Fortune, located in Quebec Province (in Gatineau Park) is one of the country's largest ski complexes, offering downhill and cross-country skiing at all levels of difficulty, day and night skiing, instruction, and rentals. It is a 20-minute drive from Ottawa.

Farther afield, the slopes at Mount St. Marie (Quebec) and Calabogie (Ontario) are 60 miles away. All have a variety of slopes and trails and offer instruction and rentals. Season passes for instruction, rentals, and tows are offered at most ski facilities. The elaborate winter sports resorts of Mount Tremblant, Quebec, can be reached from Ottawa in about three hours.

Ottawa also boasts what is billed as the world's largest outdoor skating rink. During the winter, a five-mile stretch of the Rideau Canal, built by the British after the War of 1812, between Dow's Lake and the National Arts Center is cleared and partially lighted for ice skating. Warming huts and snack bars are located at convenient intervals along the canal. It is not unusual to see business-people, with briefcases in tow, skate to work on the canal.

Ample facilities for all types of sports have been developed in and around Ottawa, including ice skating arenas, curling rinks, bowling alleys, indoor and outdoor swimming pools, and tennis and squash courts. One of the largest, and most unique, is the Nepean Sportsplex located in West Ottawa. Under one roof it contains an ice skating rink, hockey arena, curling rink, gymnasium, squash courts, indoor swimming pool, auditorium, sauna, pub, and restaurant. It offers instruction for all age groups in sports activities as well as physical fitness classes, ski fitness clinics, arts and crafts, ballroom dancing, and ballet and tap dancing. The sportsplex publishes an annual bulletin of activities; enrollment in some courses is limited, and first preference is given to Nepean Township residents.

In the summer, ample opportunity for all types of water sports exists on the Ottawa, Rideau, and Gatineau Rivers, and at nearby lakes. There are several yacht clubs with extensive sailing programs. Beaches within Ottawa city limits are limited to one or two spots along the Rideau River, and Britannia Beach on the Ottawa River; facilities at these places are often crowded. On some of the lakes in the area, both in Ontario and Quebec, there are developed-access roads, beaches, and docks for canoes and boats, while other lakes are more isolated and primitive.

Some private golf clubs keep their courses open from May to October; several operate their dining rooms all winter. Ottawa also has public courses.

Tennis and squash facilities are available at a number of private clubs, such as the Ottawa Athletic Club. Municipal tennis courts are scattered about the area as well, offering seasonal membership at reasonable cost, or free use on a space-available basis. Instruction is also provided at the private and public tennis facilities.

Bicycling and jogging are very popular during summer, and there are numerous cycling and jogging trails in Ottawa and across the Ottawa River in Quebec's Gatineau Park. Some roads are closed to auto traffic on Sundays for the exclusive use of hikers, joggers, and cyclists. Additional popular participant sports include archery, badminton, bowling, camping, cricket, flying, judo, riding, rugby, rowing, soccer, snowshoeing, and sailing.

For the spectator in winter, ice hockey, Canada's national sport, is virtually a mania. National Hockey League games are televised several times a week. In 1992 the Ottawa Senators, a new National Hockey League franchise, began play. The Ottawa Rough Riders represent Ottawa in the Canadian professional football league. The season begins in late July and ends in early December with the Grey Cup finals between the champions of the Eastern and Western Conferences.

Canadians are avid baseball fans, too, and root for the American major league teams as well as the Canadian entries in Toronto (Blue Jays) and Montreal (Expos). Tickets for Montreal Expo games are sold in Ottawa, and there are chartered buses from downtown Ottawa to the baseball stadium in Montreal for selected games. Stock car racing is held in Stittsville, about 20 miles from Ottawa, in the summer months.

In the greater Ottawa area, which includes suburban areas in and around Hull, Quebec, there are numerous parks operated by various municipal, provincial, and federal authorities. Much of the land adjacent to the Ottawa River on the Ontario side is part of the National Capital Commission and is maintained as park land, with hiking and bicycle trails which serve as cross-country skiing trails in winter. In nearby Quebec is the largest of the area parks, Gatineau Park, whose 75,000 acres are maintained by the National Capital Commission. It offers opportunities to painters, hikers, photographers, naturalists, skiers, and picnickers.

Ottawa citizens often form private fishing and hunting clubs, which acquire and stock private lakes within driving distance. Public or crown lands, other than in the protected areas of Gatineau Park, are generally open to hunters and fishermen. Ontario hunting licenses are issued for a nominal fee upon presentation of a valid hunting license from another province or from the U.S., or after passing a basic firearms handling test.

In Ottawa there are several museums of interest, including the National Gallery of Art; the Museum of Science and Industry, with unique viewer-participation exhibits especially recommended for school-age children; the Museum of Man; the Bytown Museum (natural history); and Laurier House (former residence of Canadian prime ministers).

Tours of the Parliament buildings are conducted daily throughout the year. During the summer there are sight-seeing tours and moonlight cruises on the Rideau Canal and the Ottawa River. Tours of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police headquarters, the Queen's Printer, the Royal Canadian Mint, and other government agencies can be arranged upon request. Within an easy drive of Ottawa are the St. Lawrence Seaway, the Thousand Islands area, and the restored pioneer settlement of Upper Canada Village.

Toronto and Montreal, Canada's two largest urban centers, are both close to OttawaToronto is 275 miles to the west, and Montreal 120 miles to the east. Toronto, five hours away by road and rail and 55 minutes by air, is the business center of Canada. Here, visitors find a wide variety of reasonable hotel accommodations, extensive shopping facilities, museums, restaurants, and a lively theater district. Montreal is only two hours from Ottawa by road and rail, or 35 minutes by air, and offers a definite French-Canadian atmosphere, which can be enjoyed in a day's visit or for a longer period. There are attractive shopping areas, numerous restaurants, nightclubs, museums, and theaters.

Washington, DC (Dulles) and Baltimore, Maryland (BWI) airports are connected to Ottawa by direct air service. There are daily flights between Ottawa and BWI. Air travelers to other cities in the U.S. must make connections in either Montreal or Toronto. Washington, DC is about 600 miles by road from Ottawa, via excellent interstate highways. New York City can be reached in one day by car and is about 455 miles from Ottawa, also via interstate highways.

Entertainment

Ottawa offers a wide variety of entertainment. The National Arts Center is a cultural center of the first rank, where national and international stars, orchestras, and ballet and theatrical troupes perform regularly. Top-flight soloists and musical groups also are featured at Ottawa and Carleton Universities in programs which are open to the public. The Ottawa Little Theater, with a cast of amateur players, offers a full season of plays.

Ottawa now has some 20 movie houses, and an active National Film Theater whose thrice-weekly showings of classic and foreign films attract crowds of movie buffs to the auditorium in the Public Archives.

The National Gallery of Canada owns and displays a small but excellent collection of European and Canadian paintings, and a small group of contemporary American art. Special exhibits are scheduled throughout the year; the opening ceremonies and receptions are well-attended social events. The gallery also sponsors film shows and art lectures.

The number and quality of Ottawa's restaurants has been rising, and ethnic cuisine is available in a range of prices. Dancing is provided nightly in hotels, in the National Arts Center, and in several of the nightclubs in town and across the Ottawa River in Hull, Quebec. Another attraction in Hull is the abundance of excellent restaurants which may be found in that predominantly French-Canadian city.

Annual events of interest are the Winterlude Festival in February; the Tulip Festival in the latter half of May; and the Central Canada Exhibition, a week-long country fair held each September.

Because of the absence of a language barrier and the openness of Canadian society, Americans blend easily into the local scene. Ottawa has a number of social clubs and public activities which provide opportunities for contact with Canadians. These include an International Women's Club; Boy and Girl Scout groups; and a number of civic organizations, such as Lions, Rotary, Kiwanis, and Optimists.

Toronto

Toronto, Canada's largest city, occupies the site of an old French trading post, Fort Rouillé founded in the 1790s. The city was founded as a British Army garrison town, Fort York, on the shores of Lake Ontario in 1793. It succeeded Niagara-on-the-Lake as capital of Upper Canada in 1797. Chartered as a city in 1834, its name was then changed to Toronto. Toronto served as the country's capital from 1849 to 1851, and from 1855 to 1859.

The Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto consists of the city of Toronto and five boroughs, with an estimated population of 4.7 million (2000), and covering an area of about 625 square miles. It is a beautiful city of parks and trees with a mixture of old and new buildings, connected by an excellent network of roads. Tall construction has been kept to a minimum, creating a feeling of spaciousness. The city is the capital of the Province of Ontario, the most populous and industrialized province in Canada. Toronto is the commercial, financial, and industrial center of Canada.

With the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway, Toronto has become an important shipping center with modern harbor facilities. It is also one of Canada's principal aviation and railway focal points. Well over 1,000 U.S.-controlled companies have plants or representation within the U.S. consular district, and American investment in the area is enormous. This area is said to contain the largest concentration of American-owned or American-controlled plants in any consular district outside the U.S.

Toronto is the headquarters of the Canadian book and magazine publishing industry, three large daily newspapers, and English-language radio and TV broadcasting. It is the center of English-speaking culture in Canada.

An estimated 200,000 U.S. citizens live in the district; many are dual nationals. In addition, tens of thousands of Americans visit the city annually, many of them in connection with conventions, or while en route to and from recreation and vacation areas north of the city.

Education

English is the language of instruction in virtually all public schools and in the universities. For those families who may be interested, French has been offered recently as the language of instruction at certain selected public schools throughout the metropolitan area. French is also taught as a required subject in elementary schools.

Toronto's public school system, used by most expatriates, consists of kindergarten, eight years of elementary school, and four or five years of secondary school, depending on the course selected. The fifth year of high school (grade 13), once necessary for admission to most universities in Ontario, is currently being phased out to put Ontario in step with the rest of Canada and the United States. Standards in Toronto secondary schools are comparable to those in the U.S. Course work may be on a yearly basis or semester system, depending on the school attended. Some students entering during the later high school years may have difficulty with subjects that are not taught as a matter of course in American schools. In Canadian schools, many subjects build on a foundation established the year or two before. It does not seem to be an impossible problem, but young people should come prepared to study hard if they wish to enter a collegiate school. It also should be remembered that, in this bilingual country, French is required of all students. All college entrance examinations are offered in Toronto.

A separate school system is maintained for Roman Catholic children. Catholic schools receive financial support from the property taxes assessed on those homes occupied by Roman Catholic families. Education is free through grade 10, but tuition must be paid from grade 11. Uniforms are required beginning in ninth grade, and only a couple of Catholic schools are coeducational.

Several excellent private schools accept both boarding and day pupils. Tuition rates are about the same as in comparable schools in the northeastern U.S. These schools are usually not coeducational, and uniforms are worn.

Toronto offers extensive educational opportunities, ranging from the University of Toronto to night courses available at the local high schools.

The University of Toronto (founded in 1827), an institution of high academic standing, offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses in virtually all fields of endeavor, including the arts, sciences, commerce, medicine, applied sciences, and engineering. The Ontario College of Art and the Royal Conservatory of Music are affiliated with the university.

York University is Toronto's second university; founded in 1959, it is much newer, and has faculties of art, administrative studies, environmental studies, fine arts, science, and law.

Admission standards at both universities are high, and completion of grade 13 or an equivalent year is mandatory. Undergraduate courses are offered in the evening, and summer school is also available.

In addition to university-level education, the past few years have seen a rise in the number of community colleges. These schools offer post-secondary education in numerous fields, primarily in technical areas.

The Toronto area offers exceptional facilities for the education of the mentally retarded. Special full-time programs are available through the public schools; counseling, special classes, and parent relief activities by the Provincial Ministry of Community and Social Services' Surrey Place Center; and a very active association for the retarded with its own nursery and training programs and community activities (summer camp, meetings with specialists, etc.). These combine to provide families with retarded children greater opportunities for development. However, as possibilities may depend on the age of the child and the nature of the retardation, advanced contact with the Metropolitan Toronto Association for the Mentally Retarded and with Surrey Place Center is advised.

Recreation

Toronto and the nearby areas have much to offer the sports enthusiast, both as spectator and participant. For the spectator there are both professional and amateur hockey, football, soccer, lacrosse, tennis, wrestling, boxing, baseball, and horse racing.

Hockey is by far the most popular professional spectator sport, and is followed by all ages with such enthusiasm that it ranks as a national craze. The Toronto Maple Leafs, an entry in the National Hockey League, play to packed houses at Maple Leaf Gardens from October through April.

Close behind hockey in popularity is football. The Toronto Argonauts are members of the Canadian Football League. There are two horse racing tracks within the metropolitan area offering both thoroughbred and harness racing. Pari-mutuel betting is permitted. The Toronto Blue Jays baseball team became a member of the American League in 1977, and has gained an enthusiastic following of fans of all ages; they won the Eastern Division pennant in 1985 and the World Series in 1992.

For the sports participant, there are swimming, tennis, roller and ice skating, curling, golf, bowling, skiing, fishing, and hunting. Swimming is a popular summer sport and there are many public pools, operated by the Toronto Parks Commission. Because these pools are usually overcrowded on weekends, and because the waters of Lake Ontario are generally considered too cold for anything other than wading, many Torontonians head north to the lake regions for swimming.

Tennis can be played on a number of public courts. Artificial ice skating rinks are located throughout the metropolitan area. Curling, a new game to most Americans, is another popular winter sport, played indoors on ice in arenas built expressly for this purpose.

Numerous golf courses are in the Toronto area or within a 30-or 40-mile drive. They range from crowded public courses to the exclusive, well-maintained, and expensive private clubs.

Because of Toronto's proximity to Lake Ontario and the lake regions to the north, boating is a popular summer pastime, and the city has several yacht clubs. Good fishing and hunting can be found by driving about 120 to 150 miles north of the city. Skiing in and around Toronto is possible, but the real skiing enthusiast will go north 60 to 100 miles to the Collingwood and Gravenhurst areas.

The Province of Ontario maintains an excellent system of toll-free expressways and paved secondary roads, making all but the most remote parts of the province accessible by car. However, traffic is heavy, particularly during the summer months. Distance by road (miles) to the following points are: Buffalo, New York, 100; Windsor-Detroit, 235; Ottawa, 286; Montreal, 350; Quebec City, 480; New York City, 478; and Washington, DC, 520.

Toronto's fine park system offers a variety of activities, winter and summer. The pride of the system is Centre Island Park, located on a large island in Lake Ontario off the harbor area, and accessible only by ferry. Ontario Place is also located on a series of man-made islands in Lake Ontario, adjacent to the Canadian National Exhibition grounds, the largest annual exhibition in the world. The Canadian National Exhibition is a popular event. The exhibition features theatrical and musical events, animals, farm and horticultural displays, and an international air show.

Children's playgrounds are located throughout the city and, in summer, playground directors supervise children's activities. During winter, the Parks Department operates numerous ice skating and hockey rinks.

Entertainment

Toronto does not lack cultural or entertainment activities, and offers everything normally found in a cosmopolitan city of comparable size.

Many first-run and neighborhood movie theaters show American, British, and foreign films. Live theater is also very much in evidence in the Toronto area. The 3,200-seat O'Keefe Centre for the Performing Arts and the Royal Alexandra Theatre both present full seasons of opera, ballet, and musical and dramatic productions, featuring not only the top Canadian companies, but also the best American and British companies. Toronto's concert hall, Massey Hall, a venerable old building with near-perfect acoustics, housed the Toronto Symphony Orchestra until the Roy Thomson Hall was opened. Recitals are given here by touring internationally known artists.

In Stratford, Ontario, about 90 miles southwest of Toronto, the Stratford Shakespearean Festival features world famous actors. Niagara-on-the-Lake, about 80 miles south of Toronto, is the home of the Shaw Festival. Both have become very popular spots for the theater lover during the summer season.

Jazz, folk music, chamber music, and numerous smaller professional and amateur theatrical groups can be found throughout Toronto. The city is purported to be the third most important center for theater in the world, after New York and London. There are also many fine restaurants of every cuisine, cocktail lounges, coffee shops, and nightclubs to suit every taste.

The Royal Ontario Museum, the Ontario Art Gallery, the McLaughlin Planetarium, and the Ontario Science Centre provide many hours of interesting viewing.

Montreal

Montreal, with an estimated metropolitan population of 3.4 million, is the second largest city in Canada and the second-largest French speaking city in the world. When Jacques Cartier visited the area that is presently Montreal in 1535, he found the Indian village of Hochelaga. The island was visited in 1603 by Samuel de Champlain, but was not settled by the French until 1642, when Sieur de Maisonneuve founded the Ville Marie de Montreal. The city became the center of fur trade and a starting point of expeditions into the interior. Montreal was the last Canadian city held by the French; it surrendered to the British in 1760. From 1844 to 1849, Montreal was the seat of Canadian government.

Montreal is a cosmopolitan city of charm and variety, where skyscrapers share space with 200-year-old buildings. More than two-thirds of its people are French-speaking. Most of the rest are English-speaking, primarily of English, Irish, Scottish, and Welsh descent. Italians are the third largest ethnic group. About 60% of all the people in Montreal speak English fluently. Several million Americans visit the Province of Quebec every year, and nearly all visit Montreal.

The visitor soon discovers that Montreal has everything needed for a pleasant stayan absorbing history, a rich and varied culture, outstanding cultural and recreational facilities, comfortable and attractive apartments and houses, a French cuisine which justifies the title of "Paris of America," and over 3,000 restaurants specializing in the foods of many other nationalities. The general standard of living is high. Montrealers, particularly well-to-do French-Canadians, are more fashion-conscious than most Americans and accept European style trends more readily.

Montreal is located in the southern part of the Province of Quebec, 120 miles east of Ottawa, and about 40 miles from the New York and Vermont borders. By car, it is 400 miles from New York City and 615 miles from Washington, DC. It is situated on an island some 30 miles long, and seven to 10 miles wide, at the junction of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers. Mount Royal, for which it is named, rises almost in the center of the city to a height of about 765 feet above sea level (the city's average altitude is 63 feet). Most of Mount Royal is a natural park, providing areas for picnics in summer and skating and skiing in winter.

Education

Over the last several years, the school system in Quebec has been in a state of some turmoil because of strikes and linguistic and pedagogical issues. The current provincial language law severely restricts access to English education, although exceptions are granted to children expecting to live in Quebec Province for temporary periods only.

The public school system in Montreal consists of 11 grades (grades one through six is elementary school; grades seven through 11 is high school). Some public schools have kindergartens, but this is not the general rule. The public schools, which are free, are run by two separate school boards: Catholic and Protestant, each administering francophone and anglophone schools. For public school purposes, Protestant generally means non-Catholic. Basic instruction can be in French or English. Moreover, English schools provide French immersion courses in which students may elect to take a portion of their subjects in French.

Students entering the Quebec system in the elementary grades will generally find the education to be on a par with that in the U.S., with the bonus of being able to develop a sound knowledge of French. Students entering at the secondary level may, however, encounter problems as a result of French-language requirements and the 11-grade system.

Provincial regulations require that any student who has been in Quebec for more than two years pass a French equivalency test, given to all 11th-grade students, in order to receive a school leaving certificate, which is the equivalent of a high school diploma. Most students entering in the eighth or ninth grades will therefore require extra tutoring to enable them to attain required proficiency levels in French.

Grading procedures in Quebec are also different than in the U.S. For the upper grades, class marks, which are reflected in transcripts, are heavily based on standardized provincial examinations, given at the end of the year to all Quebec students.

The absence of a 12th grade presents other problems. For the Quebec student, the normal sequence is to graduate from high school at the end of the 11th year, enter the two-year CEGEP system (somewhat like a U.S. junior college), and subsequently go on to a university. Based on recent experience, education authorities will not authorize entry to the CEGEP system for any American student who has not graduated from an American high school. The alternatives for an entering student who would normally enter the 12th grade in the U.S. are to repeat the 11th grade, which Quebec authorities insist is equivalent to the American 12th grade, or to go to school in the U.S.

American students finishing the 11th grade in Quebec have several alternatives. They may elect to go to a boarding school in the U.S. for the 12th grade, although a graduating student could elect to stay in Montreal, since one private boy's school offers a 12th-grade program. However, no 12th-grade programs for girls exist in Montreal. Alternatively, the student could elect to enter the CEGEP system or apply directly to an American college. Some Quebec students enter U.S. colleges after the 11th grade. The willingness of an American college to consider the application of an American student from Quebec would depend, however, on the success of the student in fulfilling course requirements by the end of the 11th grade.

Montreal has a number of private schools. Entrance to these schools is based on competitive examinations, and most of them have waiting lists for entry. The role of private schools in Quebec and the extent to which they should receive government support are under review by the provincial government. Most private schools in Quebec require uniforms.

Montreal has adequate facilities for any type of education from nursery school to the most advanced academic and scientific degrees; private tutoring in any subject; instruction in music, dancing, painting, and the other arts; and special training in crafts, hobbies, sports, gardening, use of power equipment, and other skills.

The Montreal school system has facilities at all grade levels for both physical (including the deaf and blind) and learning handicaps.

The school year runs from just after Labor Day until mid-June. The opening and closing dates for Catholic and Protestant schools differ by a few days, but time in school is the same. All schools have a five-day week. Schools have a two-week holiday at Christmas and a few days at Easter, usually Holy Thursday through Easter Monday.

While extracurricular activities are similar to those in the U.S., they tend to be less extensive, particularly in the area of sports.

Montreal's universities have many American students. The largest of the universities is the French-language Université de Montreal, founded in 1876. The Université du Quebec à Montreal (founded in 1969) is also a French-language institution. Most popular with Americans is the English-language McGill University, founded in 1821. The other large English-language institution is Concordia University, formed by the amalgamation of Sir George Williams University and Loyola College. Concordia has an extensive evening program where it is possible to earn degrees in a variety of fields. All of Montreal's universities offer evening extension programs, but not all lead to degrees.

Recreation

Canada's national sport is hockey. Canadian children learn to skate almost as soon as they learn to walk, and start playing hockey soon thereafter. In winter, free public skating and hockey rinks are found in every section of the city. During the season, Les Canadiens, Montreal's almost legendary National Hockey League team, play at the Forum. Announcements at Canadiens games are made in both French and English.

Montreal's professional baseball team, the Expos, is part of the National Baseball League. The Expos utilize the 1976 Olympic Stadium for their home games. Bowling and curling also are popular, and there are a number of clubs and leagues.

The city has many public tennis courts, and a number of tennis clubs, some with indoor courts. The Montreal area is dotted with private golf courses. A few public courses exist, but they are usually crowded. Excellent and extensive jogging paths are located on Mount Royal. Joggers also enjoy running along the seven-mile Lachine Canal. The Montreal International Marathon, run in late September, attracts over 10,000 participants annually.

Boating is popular. Several yacht clubs on Lake St. Louis (about a half-hour by car from the city) and on the Lake of Two Mountains offer keen inter-club competition and a limited cruising area. Most sailboats on Lake St. Louis are center-board types because of the large shoal areas, but there are many larger boats, and the International Dragon Class is very active. Two-to three-week cruises to the Thousand Islands, Ottawa, and the Rideau or Lake Champlain are popular with local yachters.

Montreal has an excellent range of readily accessible year-round recreational opportunities in Quebec Province and in northern New York and New England. The Laurentian mountain area, which begins about 45 miles from the city and includes Mont Tremblant Park, is one of the most attractive winter and summer resort areas in Canada. Mont Tremblant, 100 miles from Montreal, and Stowe, Vermont, 120 miles away, provide the best skiing in eastern North America. There is limited skiing in Montreal itself on Mount Royal, but the nearest really good skiing areas begin about 50 miles away. Cross-country skiing is very popular both in and outside of Montreal.

The many lakes in the Laurentians and other nearby areas provide swimming, boating, and water-skiing. There are good camping facilities and accommodations, from luxury hotels to simple lodgings in all areas.

Fishing and hunting are good and are possible close to Montreal. The lakes, rivers, and streams of the province have a variety of fish; speckled trout are the most common. Partridge are found in most woods. The flyways over Lake St. Francis and Lake St. Peter, each about 75 miles from Montreal, offer some of the finest duck shooting in North America. About 150 miles down the St. Lawrence is the only place in the world for hunting the beautiful snow goose. Deer and bear are found within 100 miles of the city.

Montreal has 362 parks. The top of Mount Royal has been preserved as a 500-acre natural forest park. Both the Chalet, at the peak, and Beaver Lake, at the beginning of the park area, are popular in winter and summer. The Chalet has a remarkable view of the city. Beaver Lake, an artificial lagoon, is a favorite place for model-boat enthusiasts. In addition to skiing and tobogganing in winter, the Beaver Lake Pavilion has a large ice skating rink. Mount Royal also has bridle paths for horseback riders.

Another delightful park is located on St. Helen's and Notre Dame Islands in the middle of the St. Lawrence, between the harbor and the seaway. It has an amusement park (the site of Expo '67), swimming pools, picnic areas and playgrounds, and other attractions, including Montreal's Military and Maritime Museum. Its Helene-de-Champlain Restaurant, in a castle-like chalet, provides a picturesque setting and good food.

The Garden of Wonders, better known as the Children's Zoo, is a fascinating feature of Lafontaine Park, which also has two lagoons. Rowboats are for rent, and rides can be taken in a miniature paddle-wheeler "showboat" and in a miniature train.

The extensive greenhouses of Montreal's Botanical Gardens, conveniently located on a principal street, are open all year; its outdoor gardens are open from May or June to October. There are spectacular exhibitions in November and at Easter, and excellent shows at various other times.

Montreal has a number of fine museums. The best historical museum is the Chateau de Ramezay, built in 1705 as the residence for the governor of Montreal. It was the headquarters of the American Army of Occupation in 1775-76, and well-known Americans who stayed there included Benjamin Franklin, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, and Benedict Arnold. Redpath Museum has interesting geological and zoological exhibits and Indian relics. McGill University's McCord Museum, now associated with the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, has a unique collection of Canadian historical and North American archaeological exhibits. The Wax Museum has more than 200 life-size figures, depicting scenes from Canada's earliest history to modern times. The Bell Telephone Company of Canada has an industrial science museum with original equipment, replicas, and pictures of communications from ancient sight and sound signals to Telstar. Many of these exhibits can be seen in operation.

The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, entering its second century, is located in the city's center, and houses a formidable collection of paintings, decorative arts, and sculptures, as well as ancient glass and textile collections.

Several Catholic churches have museums with collections of paintings and religious and other exhibits. The museum of Notre Dame de Bon Secours Church, also known as the Sailor's Church, has model ships presented by sailors and an excellent collection of fine dolls. There is also the Museum of Contemporary Art, which opened prior to the 1976 World's Fair held in Montreal. A planetarium and an aquarium were established within the city during 1966-67.

In February 1990, the Montreal Insectarium opened to the public. Built to resemble a stylized insect, the building has a total area of approximately 7,000 square feet and includes exhibition areas, open-space laboratories, a multipurpose hall and a 40-seat theater.

Entertainment

Nowhere is Montreal's cosmopolitan nature better reflected than in its entertainment. Plays may be seen throughout the year in both English and French, with occasional productions in other languages. A mobile summer theater for children is operated by the Montreal Parks Department. The Montreal ballet company, Les Grands Ballets Canadiens, performs regularly, and there are other ballet performances as well.

Montreal's modern Place des Artes is the city's center for symphonies, ballets, stage productions, and visiting national and international performers. Place des Arts houses three theaters, the largest seating approximately 3,000 people. Throughout the year, there are many vocal and instrumental recitals. The International Music Competition, held in May or June of each year, is one of the most important artistic events held in Montreal. The Montreal International Jazz Festival, held in June or July, features concerts and shows by many of the world's great jazz musicians. The World Film Festival is held annually in August and September.

There are many movie houses, both downtown and in the neighborhoods. New American films are shown at the same time as in the U.S. Films are in English and French. A few theaters show films in their original languages, with English or French subtitles.

The midwinter Carnival festivities in Quebec City are attended by many people from Montreal, Quebec, New England, New York, and elsewhere. The Sherbrooke Festival des Cantons features Quebecois shows, horse-pulling, and gourmet cuisine.

Almost every social group contains a number of the Americans living in Montreal. An American Women's Club meets regularly for lunch and has annual bazaars, fashion shows, dances, and bridge tournaments for the benefit of Canadian charities. The Montreal Post of the American Legion is also active. No other American community organizations exist.

Quebec City

Quebec City is the provincial capital and the center of French Canada. The city takes its name from an Algonquin Indian word meaning where the river narrows, but its many residents, although North American, bear the clear imprint of their French ancestry and culture. The city is located on the site of the old Indian town of Stadacona and was visited by Jacques Cartier in 1535 and 1541. In 1608, Samuel de Champlain established a trading post here which became the first permanent settlement. The area was briefly controlled by the British and was the capital of New France from 1663 to 1763. It also served as capital of Canada from 1851 to 1855, and from 1859 to 1867.

Greater Quebec is a metropolitan area of about 646,000. Quebec, the largest municipality, is divided into two distinct areas. These are Lower Town (which winds around the base of the promontory, along the banks of the St. Lawrence into the St. Charles River Valley), and Upper Town (on heights 200 to 300 feet above the St. Lawrence). When viewed from the sister city of Levis (part of Greater Quebec), Upper Town has a distinctly Old World appearance, including the imposing roof and turrets of the Château Frontenac. Stone walls encircle part of the business and residential section of Upper Town and reach to the ramparts of the Citadelle. The area within the old city walls is recognized as a historic monument. Building restrictions and the tasteful restoration of old houses preserve the Old World flavor of the area. Most buildings in the city have painted tin roofs, dormer windows, colorful shutters, and wooden doors.

The city's population is about 96% French-speaking. Most of the remainder are English Canadians, and only a small minority is of other national and racial origins. In the surrounding countryside, the population is almost totally French-speaking, and is descended from French colonists led by Champlain, who established the first settlement in 1608. Although they are undeniably French in origin, their attitudes and viewpoints reflect the fact that development of their distinctive society has taken place in North America.

Quebec harbor is one of the most important in Canada. It has extensive passenger and freight-handling facilities, including large elevators for the transshipment of grain. Quebec is a regularly scheduled port of call for steamship lines during the ice-free months from April through November and, for several years, has enjoyed an increasing volume of winter freight traffic as well.

The Port City life has been reanimated at the Vieux-Port de Quebec. La Societé du Vieux-Port, commissioned by the Canadian Government, manages this facility which consists of a walkway, outdoor amphitheater, marina, market, and residential units.

In 1977, developers and artists pooled their resources to rescue North America's oldest neighborhood from an undeserved fate. Warmed with color and flowers, the Quartier Petit Champlain is once again a community and a real delight. Its beautifully restored houses shelter more than 50 businesses, outdoor cafes and restaurants ranging from classic French to European fast-food, art galleries, a theater, and charming boutiques. One can meet artists and crafts-people in their studios, or in the street, where pedestrians, musicians, clowns, and jugglers mingle.

Currently 2,000 Americans are registered with the U.S. Consulate and about 7,700 Americans live within the district, many of them French-Canadian descent.

Education

Quebec's public and private schools, from preschool through eighth grade, are generally comparable to American schools. High schools, however, are organized somewhat differently and, in general, are less demanding than their American counterparts.

The final year of high school is the 11th year of studies. Provincial regulations require that every student have two years of high school French and pass both oral and written examinations in French before graduation. The exception to that rule is only for dependents of diplomats, who are exempt from the language law, and who may attend either English-or French-language schools.

Public schools in the province are Catholic or Protestant, but the emphasis on religion has diminished considerably in recent years. Quebec now generally minimizes the importance of religious study much the same as in U.S. public schools.

Quebec has no French-language Protestant schools, public or private. Protestant parents are free to enroll their children in the French-language Catholic schools located throughout the city.

Excellent boarding schools are found throughout the neighboring New England states and in Montreal.

There are a number of specialized schools and organizations in the area for physically and mentally handicapped individuals. Children with learning disabilities attend special classes in the regular school system. For those more severely handicapped, special education, including vocational training, is available through grade nine. Interested individuals should contact the U.S. Consulate in Quebec for further information.

At Laval University (founded in 1852), many faculties, such as medicine and law, accept students only at the graduate level. Other faculties accept students at what would be considered the undergraduate level. Students wishing to enter Laval should discuss the matter with university authorities.

Laval offers evening courses during the academic year in a variety of subjects at the undergraduate level. Instruction in these courses is in French. Laval also offers an intensive summer French-language program which is well known in the U.S. and is attended by several thousand Americans each year. At other times, French-language instruction is offered in the evening at both beginning and advanced levels.

Recreation

Many opportunities exist for ice skating, skiing, and other winter sports in Quebec City. Good ski slopes are within 30 miles of town. Mount Ste. Annethe highesthas a vertical drop of over 2,000 feet and is one of the best ski mountains in eastern North America. Cross-country skiing is enjoying a major boom, and cross-country trails are maintained in a great number of federal and provincial parks within easy driving distance. For those who prefer to break trail on their own, the open rolling countryside near the city offers virtually unlimited opportunities.

In winter, two or three professional ice hockey games are played each week by the National Hockey League's Quebec Nordiques. The Coliseum was recently renovated and enlarged. Announcements at Nordiques games are made only in French. Several other ice arenas in the municipal area provide instruction and organized competition in both hockey and figure skating.

Quebec City's premier cold-weather event is the annual 10-day Winter Carnival, held in February. There are ice sculpture contests, a majestic ice castle on Place du Palais, a canoe race on the St. Lawrence, and two parades through city streets.

Several indoor curling clubs admit both men and women to membership. There is great interest in this ancient sport here, and membership in one of these clubs affords an opportunity to meet a large number of business and professional persons.

There is good hunting and fishing close to Quebec. The provincial government runs camps in the Laurentides Park. Summertime can be very pleasant in Quebec, in spite of the overwhelming number of tourists who crowd into the city. Golf, tennis, sailing, and fishing are available near town, as well as swimming, hiking, and camping.

Quebec City is the gateway to the Laurentides Park, which begins about 30 miles north of the city and is easily accessible on one of the newest and most modern highways in the province. The areas north and east of Quebec City abound in wooded hills and mountains, with numerous small lakes perfect for flat-water canoeing and boating. These areas can be reached in a short time on good roads. Fishing and hunting are excellent. There are opportunities for day-hiking and backpacking in the park, particularly in the valley of the Jacques Cartier River. The valley also affords supervised rock-climbing, as well as white-water canoeing and kayaking.

A popular summer resort is located at Murray Bay (La Malbaie), on the north shore 100 miles down-river from Quebec. The principal hotel is the Manor Richelieu, operated by the Quebec Government. There is a fine swimming pool and golf course, both of which are open to the public. Another resort, Tadoussac, is 50 miles farther down-river at the mouth of the Saguenay River, but this resort is primarily popular with older people, and there is little excitement or activity to be found. Murray Bay can be reached by train, car, or the Saguenay excursion boats in half a day. Tadoussac can be reached by car, although the road is not well surfaced. The trip is best made by boat.

Baie St. Paul, on the north shore 89 miles down-river from Quebec, has an art center and several art galleries. This artists' haven is also a favorite among crafts-people.

Chicoutimi, a city of 60,000, located 130 miles north of Quebec City, is a tourist base for exploring the Saguenay area. The Saguenay River itself is a fjord with steep canyon walls which can be viewed from sight-seeing boats from June to September. The city is also surrounded by true "wilderness," offering excellent hunting and fishing as well as numerous other outdoor activities.

The south shore of the St. Lawrence and the Gaspé Peninsula has many small resorts of interest during the warmer months, and the trip around this spectacular peninsula can be made comfortably in four or five days by car. Lake St. Joseph and Lake Beauport, about 30 to 15 miles, respectively, from Quebec, are pleasant places to spend a day or weekend during summer.

An attraction only five miles from Quebec is the thunderous Mont-morency Falls; just beyond that lies the Island of Orleans, accessible by bridge, which retains much of the charm of the early French-Canadian countryside. The island has several good restaurants and numerous artisan stores offering handwoven articles and ceramics. In summer, visitors can buy fresh fruit at farmers' stands, or pick their own in the fields.

A short distance farther along the north shore of the river is Cap Tourmente National Wildlife Refuge, where virtually the entire east coast population of snow geese congregate in a vast honking horde twice a year, in the spring and fall, on their way to breeding or wintering grounds.

Entertainment

Quebec has several good movie theaters showing American, French, French Canadian and, occasionally, English films. One or two theaters show English-language pictures, but most American films are shown with French soundtracks.

Many visiting companies and artists stop in Quebec. The Quebec Symphony Orchestra, the oldest in Canada, has a full season. There are several avant-garde stock theater groups of considerable talent. An opera company performs occasionally during the winter season, and gifted local folk singers offer concerts. The Grand Théâtre, dedicated in January 1971, has a large auditorium for music, plays, and opera, and a small auditorium for experimental theater. The Grand Théâtre is the home of the Quebec Symphony Orchestra. Several societies, such as the Institut Canadien, offer interesting series of lectures and concerts.

The Quebec Winter Carnival is a major event in the area. For three weeks before the beginning of Lent, little else occupies the minds and time of the Quebecois. Among the principal events are the masquerade and regency balls, peewee hockey played by boys 12 and under, boat races over and around the ice floes on the St. Lawrence River, dogsled races, huge parades, and street dancing. A three-story palace is constructed of enormous blocks of ice, and ice snow statues are carved and placed along many city streets.

During July, the city sponsors a 10-day music festival offering jazz, folk, rock, and classical music in several public parks in the old town. The city, in general, is particularly lively during summer as numerous Quebecois stroll through the historic area and frequent outdoor cafes.

The historic area of Quebec City is beautifully preserved and is completely surrounded by ramparts. The city's oldest hotel, the Chateau Frontenac, and the Citadel, a star-shaped military fortress, are two main historical attractions.

Quebec boasts some excellent restaurants offering French cuisine, among them the Continental, Marie Clarisse, Rabelais, and the Serge Broyere; and out of town, the Manoir St. Castin at Lac Beauport. The variety of nightclubs is limited.

The recently-opened Museum of Civilization is a popular attraction in Quebec City. This museum contains an entire hall dedicated to the history of gamesboard games, cards, gambling, toys, and other recreational activities.

There are few resident Americans in Quebec, and they are well integrated into the community. A group called the American Colony Club meets infrequently, but participates in community activities and organizes an annual Thanksgiving dinner, a children's Christmas party, a summer picnic, and receptions. Rotary Club also has a chapter in the city.

The city's tourism office, located at 60 rue d'Auteuil, has advice and free booklets for tourists.

Vancouver

Vancouver, the third largest city after Toronto and Montreal, is the largest, most cosmopolitan, and most exciting city in western Canada. Strategically located in the extreme southwest corner of mainland British Columbia, it is the gateway to Alaska, to the Pacific Ocean, to the American Northwest, and to the Orient. The provincial capital and seat of government is Victoria, on Vancouver Island.

The first settlement in the area was established by 1865 and called Granville. It was incorporated as a city in 1881 and named for Captain George Vancouver. Vancouver's development was aided by the completion of the trans-Canada railroad in 1887. Fire destroyed Vancouver in 1886, the year it was incorporated. Reconstruction began immediately and an area known as Gastown became the new city center. The Gastown area declined when the commercial district expanded away from the waterfront; in 1969 restoration of Gastown began and it was preserved as a vital link to the city's past.

As of 2000, Vancouver had an estimated population near 2 million. It is by far the largest city in the Province of British Columbia. Vancouver is located on the eastern shore of the Strait of Georgia, between the Fraser River on the south and Burrard Inlet on the north. The city has a beautiful, landlocked, ice-free harbor, with wooded mountains to the north rising to 4,000 feet and snow-capped much of the year. Its glittering skyscrapers are softened by a dazzling array of parks that bring British Columbia's great outdoors to the heart of the urban setting. At its doorstep are 10 beaches and miles of sheltered cruising waters, with the lighted ski runs on Grouse Mountain only a half-hour to the north.

Vancouver's year-round port handles more dry tonnage than all five U.S. West Coast ports combined. The port is a hub for most passenger ships and Alaskan cruises from May to October.

The climate is comparable to that of Seattle, with few extremes of heat or cold. The temperature rarely exceeds 80°F in summer, and winters have relatively few days when the temperature drops below the freezing point. The mean temperature is 63°F in summer and 36°F in winter. Rainfall averages 59 inches annually in Vancouver, but is considerably less in the outlying districts south of the city. There is also very little snowfall. Living conditions are comparable to those of many other large modern cities in North America, with the additional attraction of extensive and readily accessible outdoor recreational facilities.

The U.S. consular district covers both the Province of British Columbia and the Yukon Territorya total of 573,331 square miles. It is an area greater than California, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming, and Montana combined. The population is relatively small in British Columbia (3,105,000 in 1989) and in the Yukon (29,000 in 1990), but British Columbia is Canada's second fastest growing province.

People from the prairie provinces, as well as immigrants to Canada, are moving into British Columbia in large numbers, attracted by the climate and economic opportunities. These include Australians, Indians, Iranians, Germans, Dutch, Italians, Scandinavians, French, Swiss, Filipinos, Chinese, and Japanese. Next to San Francisco and New York City, Vancouver has the third largest Chinatown in North America. As a result, many shops specializing in ethnic goods or foods are found in the city, in addition to a host of Chinese restaurants. Chinese laborers were instrumental in building the Canadian-Pacific Railway in this part of Canada.

Currently, about 60,500 American citizens reside in British Columbia and the Yukon. Tourism plays a major role in the economics of the province. About two million Americans visit "The Evergreen Playground" each year. Vancouver was the site of the world's fairExpo '86in 1986. It was opened on May 2 by the Prince and Princess of Wales, Charles and Diana.

Education

Public and private schools are on a par with those in the U.S. The Vancouver public school system consists of roughly 95 elementary schools and 18 secondary schools. Roman Catholic schools are run by the church and charge monthly tuition. One public elementary school offers a French immersion program through sixth grade. French is also offered as an optional subject, along with other foreign languages at the secondary level.

Vancouver has three provincial universities: the University of British Columbia (founded in 1890 at Point Gray), University of Victoria (founded in 1902, elevated to university status in 1963), and Simon Fraser University (founded in 1963 at Burnaby).

In addition to credit and non-credit programs and courses offered by technical institutes, vocational training centers, and community colleges, Vancouver and the surrounding municipalities offer adult education day and evening classes. Subjects range from strictly academic courses to instruction in sewing, golf, and ceramics. Fees are moderate.

Vancouver has about 30 educational facilities for the mentally retarded and physically handicapped. Treatment is available for most age groups in schools specializing in disabilities ranging from autistic and behavior disorders to the multi-handicapped. Schools specifically for the deaf and blind are also available. A complete listing of facilities may be obtained by writing directly to the U.S. Consulate General.

Recreation

Vancouver is a sportsman's paradise. There are a number of excellent golf courses, both public and private, where the visitor can play most of the year. The city also has many public tennis courts. Horseback riding is available, but expensive. The surrounding mountains offer skiing from December through April. Popular runs are found on Seymour and Grouse Mountains in North Vancouver; Garibaldi Park, 30 miles from Vancouver; Whistler Mountain, some 75 miles away; and Mount Baker, east of Bellingham, Washington, where skiing is possible most of the year. Also available are numerous cross-country trails, some close by on the North Shore. There are several public and private ice skating rinks.

Boating and water-skiing are very popular, and numerous small-boat launching sites and mooring facilities are found in the surrounding salt water. Many of the interior lakes also provide boating facilities. The boating season runs from late May through September. Bowling (both indoor and lawn variety) and curling are popular. The many mountain trails offer good hiking possibilities.

For the spectator-sports fan, Vancouver has three professional teams. The British Columbia Lions play in the Western Conference of the Canadian Football League; the Vancouver Canucks are in the National Hockey League; and the Vancouver Canadians, the top farm club of the Milwaukee Brewers, are members of the Pacific Coast League. Major U.S. sporting events are telecast in Vancouver as well.

British Columbia is famous for its fishing and hunting. Freshwater trout and salmon are the most popular catches of the sport fisherman. For big game, including bear, deer, moose, mountain goat, and wild fowl, the hunter usually has to travel some distance into the interior of the province.

Camping is a popular summer activity, but facilities are often rough in the interior regions.

Numerous points of scenic interest are within easy driving distance of Vancouver. Vancouver Island, the largest island on the west coast of North and South America, features the provincial capital of Victoria, unusual gardens, beaches, and mountain scenery. One of the most scenic attractions in the Province of British Columbia, Victoria is just an hour's drive along the highway overlooking Howe Sound. The spectacular Fraser River Canyon is several hours away via Hope and Cache Creek.

In the interior of the province, east of Quesnel, lies the historic ghost town of Barkerville, a booming gold town a century ago. The Rocky Mountain Resorts of Banff and Lake Louise, about 650 miles east, just across the British Columbia-Alberta border, can be reached by car, rail, or plane almost all year. Alaska can also be reached via weekly sailings from Vancouver.

Metropolitan Vancouver contains many attractive parks, the largest being world-famous Stanley Park on a 1,000-acre forested peninsula adjacent to the downtown area. Governor General Lord Stanley, in whose honor the NHL's championship cup was named, dedicated the peninsula as a park in 1889, a year after its official opening. Stanley's life-size statue graces the park's entrance. It is a prime tourist attraction, with a zoo, gardens, one of North America's finest aquariums, picnic areas, woodland trails, playgrounds, and scenic viewpoints overlooking the entrance to Vancouver harbor. The MacMillan-Bloedel Conservatory is in the park. Queen Elizabeth Park, south of the downtown section, is another picturesque area, noted for its flowers and views of the city and surrounding area.

Vancouver has a strong international flavor, with large Italian, Greek, and East Indian communities. The city has the second largest Chinatown in North America. Every possible kind of ethnic cuisine is served somewhere in the city.

Gastown is Vancouver's "heritage" areaa colorful redevelopment of the original settlement. Cobbled streets, a steam clock restored heritage buildings housing shops and restaurants, a town square and a statue of Vancouver pioneer Gassy Jack are all part of the ambience. Handicrafts and local artists flourish here.

Shopping in Vancouver tends to be mall oriented and, because it is a port city, many exotic goods can be found. The corner of Georgia and Grandville is the key to a major downtown shopping area. The city has two underground malls, Pacific Centre and Vancouver Centre. A $100-million extension to the Pacific Centre complex has made it one of the largest retail-office complexes in Canada. It is linked to the rest of the shopping center by overhead walkway and a tunnel. The extension added 100 stores to the existing 127 retail outlets, and features a covered central atrium and a waterfall.

Numerous beaches exist in Vancouver proper and in north and west Vancouver, although the water is usually chilly, even in summer.

Vancouver also has a small but growing art gallery, an excellent maritime museum, and a new planetarium. The Anthropological Museum at the University of British Columbia is excellent.

Entertainment

Entertainment to suit all tastes is available at some time during the year. The excellent Vancouver Symphony Orchestra has a regular concert season extending from fall to spring. This and other orchestras, an opera company, soloists, and first-class theatrical companies, ballets, and choruses from many parts of the world perform at the modern Queen Elizabeth Theater, which has a capacity of 2,800.

Vancouver has a large pool of professional actors from which resident theater companies draw for stage productions of a high order. The Playhouse Theater Company, based in the Queen Elizabeth Theater, and the 450-seat Arts Club Theater, located on Granville Island, each offers seven or more major annual productions, ranging from Shakespeare to Tennessee Williams and modern Canadian playwrights.

The Waterfront Theater, Carousel Theater (for young people), and City Stage add to the variety of what is available on almost a year-round basis. A six-week Festival of Arts each summer features both local and visiting artists of distinction. A Jeunesses Musicales chapter fosters youthful musical activities in Vancouver and throughout the province. The city has many first-run movie theaters and assorted nightclubs.

Many cultural events also take place from October to June at the University of British Columbia and Simon Fraser University.

The Pacific National Exhibition (PNE), held the last two weeks of August, draws exhibitors from across Canada, the U.S., and other countries. Many top entertainers perform here during the exhibition's run. The "midway" section of the PNE also is open during summer and on weekends during good weather. An Oktoberfest is also held in Vancouver.

The excellent main public library has branches in every neighborhood.

Vancouver social life is like that in any large U.S. city. Americans soon find opportunities to make acquaintances among Canadians. People in Vancouver are hospitable and extend numerous invitations to various social or public affairs.

Organized groups include, among many others, the Board of Trade, Rotary, the English-Speaking Union, and the Consular Corpsboth a men's and women's group. Vancouver has three downtown men's luncheon clubs; the Vancouver Club, the Terminal City Club, and the University Club. All of these offer comfortable, convenient facilities, pleasant associations, and good food. American men and women are welcome to participate in the charitable organizations that exist in Vancouver.

Calgary

Calgary is located in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, 3,440 feet above sea level. From the city, one can see jagged peaks of the Rockies rising to a height of 12,000 feet only 65 miles to the west. Calgary is 160 miles north of the U.S. border.

Calgary, with an estimated population of 888,000 (2000), is one of Canada's fastest growing cities. It is the center of Canada's oil industry (there are about 400 oil companies producing 90% of Canada's oil in the city) and the heart of an extensive ranching area. Calgary was founded in 1875 when the Royal Northwest Mounted Police established a fort at the junction of the Bow and Elbow Rivers. The Canadian-Pacific railroad reached Calgary in 1883; soon a bustling town had outgrown the fort to become the hub of cattle ranches and meat-packing plants. By 1891, the town had attracted 3,100 people. It was chartered as a city in 1893. By the 1950s, it had grown into a peaceful, prosperous provincial city of nearly 100,000.

A U.S. consular agency was established at Lethbridge in 1891, soon after railway connections were opened to Great Falls, Montana. This later was closed, and a consulate was established in Calgary in 1906, a year after Alberta became a province. In 1963, that Consulate was made a consulate general. The consular district includes the Provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the MacKenzie and Keewatin Districts of the Northwest Territories.

Calgary was the host of the XV Winter Olympic Games in 1988. To prepare for this event, downtown office complexes, hotels, and department stores were connected by climate-controlled elevated skyways.

Education

Calgary has a good public school system, which includes elementary, junior high, senior high, and combined junior and senior high schools. Tuition is free for all Calgary residents attending public schools. Instruction is in English, and in some schools, in French.

Physical education is compulsory through grade 10, after which it becomes an extra elective. Inter-school athletic competitions are an integral part of school life. French is, in general, the only language offered through grade 12. Two years of a foreign language are among the requirements for a high school diploma. Music and art instruction is offered in all grades.

Several private nursery schools and kindergartens are available. Nursery schools generally accept children from the age of three.

The Catholic Church maintains a separate system of elementary, junior high, combined elementary and junior high, and high schools. French and Latin are the only languages offered through grade 12. Textbooks are supplied free through grade nine, and no tuition fees are charged for Calgary residents.

The University of Calgary gives complete courses in arts, commerce, education, engineering, music, physical education, and science, premed. The student body totals about 20,000.

The Southern Alberta Institute of Technology provides educational programs in technology, art, business, trades, correspondence, instruction, and adult education. The institute is operated by the Alberta Department of Education and is financed by the provincial and federal governments.

Mount Royal Junior College is a public institution offering several types of programs: vocational training; high school completion at accelerated rate; course make-up while studying at the University of Calgary; and a transfer program geared to enrollment at a degree-granting institution.

The Calgary School Board offers a wide range of evening courses and services, primarily in high schools. Academic subjects for adults as well as general interest courses are also offered at the University of Calgary and Southern Alberta Institute of Technology.

Calgary has programs to aid the mentally and physically handicapped and children with learning disabilities. Special educational services provide alternative educational programs for children unable to cope with or benefit adequately from the regular school programs. Emphasis is placed at the elementary level, but programs for some students are available through grade 12. Schooling for the handicapped is also available at the Children's Hospital.

Recreation

Football is the main spectator sport in Calgary, and the Stampeders play in the Western Conference of the Canadian Football League. Beginning with the 1980-81 season, Calgary also has a team in the National Hockey League. The Flames moved to the Canadian city from Atlanta, and play during the winter at the Saddledome, which was also used during the 1988 Winter Olympics.

Several good horse shows are held during the year, and pari-mutuel horse racing is held regularly. Good public and private golf clubs are nearby; both the Banff Springs Hotel and Jasper Park Lodge have excellent courses.

The city has several tennis clubs. During the winter many enjoy badminton, curling, and ice skating. Boating and canoeing are also popular. Within the city, many parks and playgrounds have community swimming pools. Bowling, both five-pin and 10-pin, is popular. Downhill and cross-country skiing are available just outside the city limits, as well as on the slopes at Banff and Lake Louise. Several riding academies on nearby ranches offer lessons. Calgary also has an excellent planetarium and zoo.

A spectacular annual event is the Calgary Stampede, held during the first part of July. This event, which began in 1912, has since grown into a 10-day celebration. Rodeo and western enthusiasts are drawn from all over Canada and the U.S. during this time, when the city completely surrenders to the spirit of the Old West. Besides rodeo programs and chuck wagon races, street dancing, chuck wagons selling flapjacks and bacon, and marching bands are popular. More than half-a-million Americans pass through Calgary every year to see the stampede and to enjoy nearby scenic attractions.

Within a few hours of Calgary, in the Canadian Rockies, are some of the most scenic areas of North America: Banff (also known as a center for native arts and crafts), Lake Louise, and Jasper National Park. Banff, about 75 miles to the northwest, may be reached by car in about one-and-a-half hours; another half-hour will take the traveler to Lake Louise. The "Badlands" at Drumheller, and the dinosaur burying ground, some 85 miles north and east, are also of interest, as is the Cypress Hills area in the southeastern corner of the province.

To the south, straddling the Canadian-U.S. border at the junction of Alberta, British Columbia, and Montana, is Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. This rustic recreation area comprises large park sites of both countries. The oil and natural gas fields in Turner Valley, just southwest of Calgary, are points of interest, as are the Pembina and Leduc oil fields to the north. The tourist may drive on the Alaska Highway to Dawson Creek and beyond. Excellent highways extend into British Columbia through beautiful scenery. The nearest U.S. border points from Calgary are the small Montana towns of Babb, 165 miles to the south, and Sweetgrass, 195 miles to the southeast. Other road mileages from Calgary are: Helena, Montana, 395; Great Falls, Montana, 330; Seattle, Washington, 760; Boise, Idaho, 680; and Salt Lake City, Utah, 995.

Edmonton, Alberta's capital, is connected to Calgary by an excellent highway and frequent air service.

Big-game hunting is possible, and antelope, caribou (woodland), bear (black and grizzly), deer, elk, mountain goat, bighorn sheep, and moose are found within easy driving distance of Calgary. On the flyway for millions of migratory water fowl, Alberta offers excellent hunting for several varieties of duck and geese. Pheasant, grouse, partridge, and ptarmigan are hunted in many areas.

The larger northern Alberta lakes are inhabited by huge northern pike and lake trout; pike, perch, and pickerel can be found in most Alberta lakes. In the Rocky Mountain lakes and streams are found Dolly Varden trout, rainbow trout, and grayling. The Bow River, which flows through Calgary, is one of the best rainbow trout streams in North America.

Camping is popular in Alberta, and campsites are available in the three Rocky Mountain National Parks, as well as in 37 provincial parks. The national parks offer superb recreation throughout the year; entry permits, valid for a year, can be bought for a nominal fee.

Entertainment

Calgary has a philharmonic orchestra, a chamber music society, several choral groups, an amateur theater, an opera association, and a large number of movie houses. The permanent home of the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra is the splendid new Calgary Centre for the Performing Arts. In addition, traveling orchestras, ballets, and musicals visit the city each year. The Glen-bow Museum houses displays of Eskimo and Indian artifacts, as well as exhibits on ranching, railroads, farming, oil, and the mounted police.

Calgary's Chinatown is small compared to those in Vancouver, Toronto, and Montreal, but the restaurants on South Centre Street are lively late into the evening. There are very good Italian, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Mexican, and Vietnamese restaurants, and first-class French cuisine.

Calgary has several public libraries. New works of fiction and nonfiction from Canadian, American, and British publishers are regularly added to the stacks. An almost complete array of U.S. magazines and pocketbooks can be found at most newsstands, department stores, and supermarkets.

Social contact between members of the American community is informal. The American Women's Club is a group of mainly longtime Calgary residents, many of whom are Canadian citizens.

Other gatherings include both Canadians and Americans. Many opportunities exist for contributing voluntary time, skill, and effort to Canadian charitable and other activities. Rotary, Kiwanis, and Lions Clubs are active in the city. Several ranking men's clubs are available downtown, including the Calgary Petroleum Club, the Ranchman's Club, and the 400 Club.

Halifax

Halifax is the center of economic, political, and military activity in the Atlantic provinces. The capital of the province of Nova Scotia and the largest, most important city in the Atlantic region, Halifax is located on the south coast of the Nova Scotia peninsula. The city itself is a tiny peninsula with one of the finest natural harbors in the world.

Halifax was founded in 1749 by Edward Cornwallis as a British stronghold, and became the capital of Nova Scotia in place of Annapolis Royal the following year. It was incorporated as a city in 1842 and has been an important Canadian naval base since 1910.

Beginning life as a fort, its situation was so ideal for trade that, during the early 19th century, Halifax was the wealthiest part of Canada. Today, Halifax is an interesting mix of old and new. Province House where the Nova Scotia legislature meets, is a fine example of Georgian architecture. The residence of the lieutenant governor is also a beautiful building with lovely period furniture. The Old Town Clock on Citadel Hill, ordered by the Duke of Kent, father of Queen Victoria, during his tenure as commander of the Halifax Garrison, has been the symbol of Halifax for many years, but is now challenged by the towers of encroaching high-rise office and apartment buildings.

The Halifax Container port, Halifax Shipyards Ltd., and HMC Dockyard (the largest naval base in Canada) are the most important waterfront industries. Although Halifax spent the first half of the 20th century tearing down its old buildings, it is spending the latter half restoring those which are left. A fine example of this change of heart is the Historic Properties waterfront development, which features warehouses, banks, and other buildings of historic value.

The population of metropolitan Halifax (including its twin city of Dartmouth and other contiguous communities) is estimated at 321,000 (2000). The decline in merchant shipping has adversely affected the local economy, as have the recent severe problems in the fishing industry, an important one in this area. Nova Scotia now bases its hopes for economic prosperity on the gas finds off Sable Island, just as Newfoundland has great expectations founded on offshore oil. Although the oil glut has dimmed these hopes for the moment, exploration is still going on. Dartmouth, until recently best known as the bedroom of Halifax, is doing better with related industry which supplies the drilling rigs. Unlike Halifax which, cramped into its small peninsula, literally has no place to go, Dartmouth is able to provide space for industry in its Burnside Industrial Park. Halifax International Airport is located in Kelly Lake, about a 20-minute drive from Dartmouth.

Halifax is the Atlantic regional headquarters of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC); the federal departments of Manpower and Immigration; Northern and Indian Affairs; Public Works; and Transport. It is also the principal military, rescue, and emergency planning headquarters of eastern Canada. The main office of the Atlantic Provinces Economic Council is in Halifax, as are the regional headquarters of many banks and corporations.

The U.S. consular district was originally established in 1827 as the first consular office in British North America. Now, it covers four of Canada's 10 provincesNew Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland. The first three are known as the Maritime Provinces; along with Newfoundland, they are known as the Atlantic Provinces.

Education

Educational opportunities are excellent in Halifax, which is the center of the largest concentration of institutions of higher learning in Atlantic Canada, attracting students and teachers from many parts of the world. This contributes to the area's growing cosmopolitan atmosphere.

Within the corporate boundaries of the city are seven degree-granting institutionsDalhousie University (founded in 1818), St. Mary's University (founded in 1841), King's College, Nova Scotia Technical College (founded in 1907), Mount St. Vincent University (founded in 1873), Atlantic School of Theology, and the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design. Also available is the Nova Scotia Institute of Technology.

School attendance is compulsory for all children ages six to 16. The language of instruction for most of Nova Scotia is English. The Halifax public schools are divided into elementary schools and junior and senior high schools. Vocational and technical training is offered by the provincially operated vocational school.

Tuition is free for Halifax residents. No school bus transportation is provided; students either walk or rely on public transportation. French instruction is available on a voluntary basis at all levels, and one school offers a French immersion program in elementary grades. It is anticipated that the program will expand gradually to include upper grades as well.

The Catholic Church operates one private school in Halifaxthe Convent School of the Sacred Heart. Tuition is charged. The school offers classes for girls through grade 12, and for boys in grades primary to six.

Another private school is the Armbrae Academy. It is coeducational and offers classes for grades primary through twelve.

Halifax has a number of nursery schools, one popular school being the Halifax Early Childhood School, on Inglis Street.

Special education opportunities in Halifax include facilities for the mentally handicapped and those with learning disabilities, grades primary through nine, and for the physically handicapped, grades primary through 12. In addition, educational facilities are available for the emotionally disturbed and those with behavioral difficulties in grades one through nine. Transportation, if required, is available, and in very special cases, teaching in the home is possible.

A school for the blind (primary to 11th grade) is also located in Halifax. An effort is made to keep visually handicapped children within the regular school system, particularly at the high school level. A school for the deaf, serving New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia, is located in Amherst, Nova Scotia, about 125 miles from Halifax.

Recreation

Several beaches are on both the south and east shores within two hours' drive of Halifax. Sea bathing is for the hardy only, since the water temperature is rarely over 65°F. Freshwater swimming is available at Grand Lake outside Halifax and in the Dartmouth Lakes. Indoor pools are located at the YMCA, the YWCA, and Centennial Pool. The Halifax Dalplex and the Dartmouth Sportsplex offer swimming, skating, and gym facilities, as well as exercise classes. Skating and curling clubs are popular. Outdoor skating on the various lakes is limited because of the changeable climate.

Most of the city's leading business and professional people belong to one of two yacht clubs, the Royal Nova Scotia Yacht Squadron or the Armdale Club, even if they do not own boats.

The area has four golf clubs: a public club, the Ashburn Golf and Country Club in Halifax (the largest); Brightwood in Dartmouth; and a private club, Oakfield Golf and Country Club, Ltd., outside the city.

A majority of the tennis courts are controlled by the tennis clubs and universities. Among the clubs with tennis courts are the South End Tennis Club, the Waegwoltic Club, St. Mary's Boat Club, and the Northwest Arm Rowing Club. Indoor tennis is available at the Burnside Tennis Club in Dartmouth. Public tennis courts are located on the Halifax Common and at other parks throughout the city. Other court games available (at private clubs) are squash, handball, and badminton.

Persons who have some skill in football, basketball, or hockey can join amateur leagues or club teams. Health-building programs and gym facilities are available at the local YMCA, YWCA, and at various health clubs. Nova Scotians are also interested in skating and curling. Many people join skating clubs. The ancient Scottish game of curling is entirely a club activity, and membership in either of two curling organizations is an easy way to get to know the Haligonians.

Wentworth, about 90 miles north of Halifax, and Mount Martoc near Windsor have limited skiing.

Halifax is far from the larger Canadian and U.S. cities, but is well situated for excursions within the Maritimes. Its coastal scenery is beautiful, and the provinces contain many places of interest, with sailing, sunbathing, hunting, and fishing as the chief attractions. These points are not resort towns in the usual sense, so a car is useful. Bus transportation is available; railway travel is slow, except on the main line.

Two main highway routes connect most points of interest. One leads from Halifax to Yarmouth, on the southwestern end of the province, close to the famous tuna fishing grounds, then northeast along the Bay of Fundy through the apple-growing belt of the Annapolis Valley and Evangeline country. The Evangeline trail covers the country first colonized by the French. The oldest permanent settlement in North America was at Port Royal, and the French Habitation built there in 1605 has been reconstructed.

The other route leads northeast from Halifax, across the Strait of Canso and around the scenically magnificent Cabot Trail to Sydney, a city of about 35,000 and Cape Breton's steel center. Cape Breton Island, with its Cabot Trail, Louisbourg Fortress, and the Alexander Graham Bell Museum at Baddeck, is a very popular tourist attraction.

Hubbards, Chester, Mahone Bay, and Lunenburg, all with less than 5,000 population, lie along the Atlantic Coast, some 20 to 100 miles southwest of Halifax. These towns have comfortable accommodations for visitors in the tourist season, as do most Nova Scotian towns. Peggy's Cove and colorful fishing villages lie along the bays of the south coast.

Nova Scotia's 4,500 lakes, 50 rivers, and numerous streams offer fantastic fishingshad, brook trout and, especially, Atlantic salmon. Some of the best smoked salmon can be found in the small Nova Scotian town of Tangier.

In New Brunswick, Fundy National Park, maintained by the federal government, features camping facilities, hiking, boating, horseback riding, nature trails, and many other worthwhile recreational activities. New Brunswick also has a number of festivals related to the area's fishing industry, including the Shediac Lobster Festival and the Campbellton Salmon Festival. Not far away is the former summer home of President Franklin D. Roosevelt at Campobello Island, now maintained jointly by the U.S. and Canada. The picturesque resort town of St. Andrews-by-the-Sea, with its white frame houses, reminds the visitor of the U.S. New England states.

Prince Edward Island (P.E.I.), the garden province, is alive with activity in the summertime, with its many museums, beaches, parks, and theaters. Music camps and the Atlantic Canada Institute Summer School are held in July at the University of P.E.I. Country Days and Old Home Week feature music, agricultural displays, handicrafts, and parades. The Anne of Green Gables Festival, along with lobster, strawberry, and potato blossom festivals and craft fairs, are also part of its summer attractions. P.E.I. is a favorite vacation spot for young families.

Newfoundland offers many opportunities for camping, hunting, fishing, and sight-seeing. Its capital, St. John's, is a good base from which to explore the province's scenic and historic Avalon Peninsula.

Year-round ferry service to Port Aux Basques on Newfoundland's southwest coast is offered from North Sydney, Nova Scotia. Many summertime visitors to Newfoundland, however, prefer to take the ferry which operates during summer months from North Sydney to Argentia, Newfoundland, an Avalon Peninsula port (in Placentia Bay near the site where Roosevelt and Churchill drafted the Atlantic Charter), only 85 miles from St. John's. Newfoundland's annual regatta is one of the oldest sporting events in North America.

Air service is provided by Air Canada and Eastern Provincial Airways to numerous cities in the Atlantic Provinces. Two ferry services connect Nova Scotia with Prince Edward Island at two points: one, operating throughout the year, crosses from Cape Tormentine in New Brunswick to Port Borden, about 35 miles to the west of Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island; the other, which operates only when there is no ice, crosses from Pictou, Nova Scotia, to Woods Island, about 35 miles southeast of Charlottetown.

Entertainment

Halifax has a professional repertory theater, The Neptune, and is the home of Symphony Nova Scotia, a professional orchestra, recently formed under the musical direction of Boris Brott, a well-known and talented Canadian conductor. The orchestra performs chamber music as well as symphonic programs. Rebecca Cohn Auditorium, located at Dalhousie University, is the locale for various kinds of entertainment, including concerts by such well-known Canadians as André Gagnon and Liona Boyd. An ensemble called Nova Music performs classical music by contemporary composers. Distinguished films are shown in the auditorium on Sunday nights.

Dalhousie University, St. Mary's University, and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) sponsor concert series throughout the season which feature international and national artists. Local amateur groups also present plays and operettas. Spectator sports include football, basketball, hockey, boxing, and wrestling. The various university and service teams compete in amateur football, basketball, and baseball.

Several movie theaters in Halifax and Dartmouth show current American and British films. Nova Scotia is also the home of the Annapolis Apple Blossom Festival and the Highland Games.

Two Canadian television stations have studios in Halifax, and there are several radio stations in the metro area, both AM and FM. Halifax Cablevision Limited provides a cable service which picks up the U.S. public broadcasting channel, NBC, and ABC from Maine transmitters. French-language broadcasts are presented on radio and TV.

The Halifax Memorial Library, established in 1951, offers free library service from its collection of about 130,000 volumes. It has a good selection of late and current fiction and nonfiction and an excellent reference section. A mobile service for the city and the county has been operating for several years. Books are available at local bookstores, but cost 20% more than in the U.S.

Art exhibits are held at the Art Gallery of Nova Scotia and at various universities.

Some excellent restaurants are located in Halifax, specializing in seafood delicacies and French cuisine.

Winnipeg

Metropolitan Winnipeg is the fifth largest city in Canada, ranking after Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, and Calgary. It is known worldwide for its seemingly endless wheat fields, its blizzards, and its hockey team, the Jets.

A fur trading post was established on the site of modern-day Winnipeg in 1738, and later a colony was founded by the Scots. The village of Winnipeg was settled in the late 1860s, and incorporated as a city in 1873.

Winnipeg resembles cities of comparable size in the middle western plains in the U.S. Situated on the eastern edge of an 800-mile stretch of prairie-land, it is the home of the Canadian Wheat Board and the Board of Grain Commissioners. Winnipeg is also located almost midway between the two oceans, near the geographical center of North America. Its people are friendly and hospitable. Their interests, habits, and mode of life are similar to those of the American Westerner.

The capital of the Province of Manitoba, Winnipeg is situated at the junction of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers, about 70 miles north of the international boundary. It is 485 miles, by car, from Minneapolis, Minnesota. It is 760 feet above sea level, and the surrounding area within a 100-mile perimeter is flat, broken by occasional wooded areas and streams. The area has a healthy climate, comparable to that of Minneapolis, although colder. Winter temperatures drop to as low as 40°F or more below zero. Winters are fairly dry and summers are cool and pleasant.

Greater Winnipeg's population was about 652,400 in 2000. English is the principal language spoken in the city. However, in St. Boniface, a part of metropolitan Winnipeg, more than 40% of the present population is of French or Belgian ancestry, and most people speak French as well as English.

Although about 40% of Winnipeg's population is British in origin, with a strong Scottish strain, there are a number of other nationalities, including Ukrainians, Germans, French, Italians, Dutch, Philippines, Vietnamese, and Chinese. There is no American colony as such in Winnipeg. In fact, the social, economic, and cultural background of the city is practically the same as in the contiguous areas of the U.S. There is a constant shift of population in both directions across the border, and estimates place the number of persons in the district with claim to U.S. citizenship above 10,000. Upwards of one-and-a-half million American tourists have annually visited the Province of Manitoba.

Education

Winnipeg's good, free education for kindergarten through grade 12 is comparable to American standards. Two nondenominational private schools and two Roman Catholic schools are also of good reputation. The nondenominational school for girls, Balmoral High School, has classes from kindergarten through grade 12. The Roman Catholic school, St. Mary's Academy for Girls, provides facilities for grades seven through 12. St. John's Raven-scourt School for Boys (and girls from grades nine through 12) provides excellent education from grades one through 12. St. Paul's College (Roman Catholic) provides education for boys and young men (grades nine through 11 and through university). Tuition and annual fees at private schools are slightly lower than those in the U.S.

Special educational opportunities are available in each school division in Winnipeg for children who have learning disabilities or who are mentally or physically handicapped. Special educational institutions are also available for severely physically handicapped or mentally retarded children.

Winnipeg has two universities. The University of Manitoba, is the oldest university in Western Canada. Founded in 1877, it is a first-class provincially operated institution and offers a large number of undergraduate and graduate programs. The University of Winnipeg, located in the center of the city, is a relatively new institution (founded in 1967), with undergraduate courses in the liberal arts and pre-professional education.

Red River Community College specializes in practical courses for both degree and nondegree students. All three institutions have evening and summer sessions.

Various levels of instruction are offered at the Winnipeg School of Ballet. Students taking private lessons in music may take examinations leading to the certificate of Associate of the Toronto Conservatory of Music. The University of Manitoba gives a bachelor's degree (AMM) in music. The Winnipeg Art Gallery also offers art classes.

Recreation

Winnipeg offers numerous and varied year-round recreational facilities for adults as well as children. Nearly every residential neighborhood has school playgrounds and local community clubs where instruction is given to children in handicrafts, dancing, skating, hockey, football, tennis, and other sports. Four large and some small parks, the largest of which is Assiniboine Park (which has a fine zoo, formal gardens, and conservatory), provide pleasant surroundings for picnicking, sports, and walking. All parks are conveniently served by local transportation.

Golf, tennis, swimming, and boating are the most popular summer sports in Winnipeg. Golf may be played at several very good municipal courses or at a number of semiprivate clubs where reasonable greens fees are charged. Winnipeg has a number of neighborhood wading pools, one large municipal outdoor pool, and several indoor pools. An Olympic-size indoor pool, one of the largest in the world and the site of the 1967 Pan American Games' swimming events, is located in the city.

Several local skiing clubs teach the fundamentals of skiing and jumping on the banks of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers, but it is necessary to travel some distance from the city for really good downhill skiing conditions. Cross-country skiing is popular in and around Winnipeg. Indoor sports such as badminton, squash, bowling, curling, and roller skating may also be enjoyed.

Excellent hunting abounds in Manitoba. Deer, moose, and even polar bear are found in the north. Duck, geese, prairie chicken, and grouse are found only a few hours' drive from Winnipeg in some of the best hunting regions in Canada. Good fishing can be found throughout the district, and both open water and ice fishing are very popular.

The Precambrian Shield, 50 miles east of the city, is an area of woods, rocks, and lakes. The nearest resort area is the district on the southern shores of Lake Winnipeg, about 35 miles to the north by road, where many people have small cottages. There are limited bathing facilities in several of the beach towns.

The western section of the very attractive Lake of the Woods area is about 120 miles east of Winnipeg and easily accessible by car, bus, or train. Among the pleasant resorts closest to Winnipeg are Kenora, Whiteshell Forest Reserve and, to the west, Riding Mountain National Park. Many attractive summer homes are found throughout the area. Hotel accommodations are good; motels are satisfactory. Most resort spots offer special camping facilities.

To the north, places such as Flin Flon, a copper-zinc-gold mining center, and Fort Churchill on Hudson Bay are interesting places to visit. There is a good paved road to Flin Flon (560 miles) and to Thompson (a nickel mining town), but Fort Churchill is reached only by rail or air. Each year a few rail excursions of several days' duration are run to Churchill, with the tourists living on the train. The Selkirk Navigation Company operates a five-day cruise on Lake Winnipeg during June, July, August, and September. Accommodations on the modern Lord Selkirk are comfortable.

Northwest of Winnipeg, at the south end of Lake Dauphin, is the town of Dauphin (population 9,000). Known for barley, timber, and fisheries, Dauphin is also host to Canada's National Ukrainian Festival, held annually in August.

Entertainment

Winnipeg prides itself as being "The Convention City" and, as might be expected, it offers a wide variety of entertainment opportunities. These include the internationally renowned Royal Winnipeg Ballet, the Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra, the Manitoba Theater Center, the Contemporary Dancers, and the Opera. Performances are usually held in the Concert Hall and the Manitoba Theater Center, both located at the Centennial Center adjacent to City Hall. There is also an open-air theaterRainbow Stagewhere plays, musicals, and other attractions are held during the summer.

Also in the Centennial Center is the Museum of Man and Nature, which offers a wide variety of exhibits on the general theme of man in relation to the environment. There are several other museums in the city, the most impressive of which is the new and strikingly handsome Winnipeg Art Gallery.

The city's ethnic diversity is reflected in the variety of festivals held throughout the year, including Festival du Voyageur (a winter festival in St. Boniface), Ukrainian Week, and Folklorama, a major event each summer, during which pavilions representing various ethnic groups provide entertainment in the form of traditional songs, dancing, and food.

Probably the most popular attraction in the city is hockey, with its National Hockey League franchise, the Jets. The Winnipeg Arena is located on Maroons Road, named after a senior hockey team which brought honor to the city 20 years ago. When the Jets joined the NHL, the roof of Winnipeg Arena was raised and 5,400 additional seats were installed. This brought the arena up to NHL standards of at least 15,000 seats.

Other spectator sports include football and curling games, as well as thoroughbred racing at Assiniboine Downs.

There are about 15 motion picture theaters in the city. Several of these are first class and feature the latest American and, on occasion, European films. Winnipeg also has a 200,000-volume, Carnegie-endowed public library located in a new, attractive building.

Weather dictates the nature of much of the activity: concerts, theater, ballet, bridge, and winter sports when it is cold; and fishing, touring tennis, golf, cycling, and walking when the glorious spring and summer weather arrives.

Hamilton

Hamilton, on the western tip of Lake Ontario, is about 40 miles southwest of Toronto. Explored by Robert LaSalle in 1669 and first settled in 1813, it is Canada's most important steel-producing center, and also is a transportation hub with a harbor, an airport, and a rail terminus. Other industries include the manufacture of automobiles, tires, railroad equipment, clothing, chemicals, and farm implements. The metropolitan population is approximately 599,800 (2000 est.).

Hamilton has many attractions for the visitor. Its 1,900-acre Royal Botanical Gardens are among the most beautiful on the North American continent. There are also gardens in Gage Park, and formal gardens close to the Art Gallery of Hamilton. The city is home to Canada's largest open-air market, which teems with residents and visitors during the growing season. Hamilton Beach on Lake Ontario is a summer playground.

One of the major tourist sites in the city is the 72-room Dundurn Castle, which houses a museum and a children's theater. It was built by Sir Allan Napier MacNab from 1832 to 1835 and bought by the city in 1900. MacNab was prime minister of the United Province of Upper and Lower Canada from 1854-1856.

The Hamilton Visitors and Convention Bureau is located at 155 James Street South.

Regina

Regina is the capital city of Saskatchewan, Canada's fifth largest province. Founded in 1822, it was the capital of the Northwest Territories from its inception until 1905 and, that year, when Saskatchewan was designated as a separate province, it became the seat of provincial government. It is called by Canadians the "Queen City of the Plains."

Regina is a transportation and commercial center in the midst of a large farming region. It is the site of Campion College (founded in 1917), the Canadian Bible College (founded in 1941), the Regina branch of the University of Saskatchewan, and Luther College (founded in 1921). Among its points of interest are the Museum of Natural History, the Regina Plains Museum, the Telecommunications Historical Museum, the Saskatchewan Archives, and MacKenzie Art Gallery, with its extensive collection of Canadian and European art and antiquities from the ancient world. Sports enthusiasts can spend a day amidst memorabilia and artifacts at the Saskatchewan Sports Hall of Fame and Sport Museum. Its population is approximately 192,800.

Regina was named by Princess Louise of Great Britain in honor of her mother, Queen Victoria. It was the headquarters of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police until 1920. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police Centennial Museum contains buffalo coats, guns, saddles, uniforms, and photographs illustrating the legendary police force's intriguing past.

Regina hosts a number of major events each year: the Western Canada Farm Progress Show in June, Buffalo Days in July, the International Arabian Horse Show in August, and the Canadian Western Agribition each November.

The city has a rich cultural tradition as evidenced by its many theater, dance, music and ethnic performing groups and by the Saskatchewan Center of the Arts, one of the finest concert halls in North America. The Regina Symphony is the oldest continuously operating symphony orchestra in Canada.

The city operates a number of excellent parks and complexes, the Regina Sportplex, five outdoor swimming pools and several excellent golf courses. Wascana Centre, located in the heart of the city, has a man-made lake, bicycle paths, paddle-boat rentals, a waterfowl park, double-decker bus tours, and several historic points of interest.

Just north of Regina, in the small town of Craven, the largest outdoor country music extravaganza in Canada is held annually in July. The Big Valley Jamboree features many U.S. country music performers.

Saskatchewan's rich Indian heritage can be explored at the summer powwows held on most Indian reserves. Major ceremonies include the Poundmaker Powwow near Cut-knife, and the Standing Buffalo Indian Powwow at Sioux Bridge near Fort Qu'Appelle.

Edmonton

Edmonton, Alberta's capital, is Canada's "Gateway to the North," known for its excellent quality of life. It boasts a population of 940,000 and is the oil capital of the country. In addition to oil, Edmonton's major industries include flour milling, meat-packing, plastics, tanning, dairying, lumbering, and petrochemical production. Established in 1795 as a Hudson's Bay trading post, it expanded and developed during the gold rush to the Klondike in 1898. The quiet town of 1,500 settlers became the supply center for miners drawn by the promise of gold. It is now a modern city with a new international airport. The city's numerous rail lines have contributed to Edmonton's reputation as the transportation hub of northwestern Canada.

Located 350 miles north of the U.S. border, Edmonton is the northern-most major city in Canada. Just 185 miles from the center of Alberta, Edmonton is surrounded by a rare natural setting. Verdant foothills banked with wood and the mighty North Saskatchewan River soften the effect of all the city's new concrete. Along the river runs an impressive 35 miles of greenbelt.

The University of Alberta (founded in 1906) is located in the city, as are St. Joseph's College (founded in 1927), the Christian Training Institute, and other specialized schools.

Football and curling are popular spectator and participant recreational activities, but of greatest interest is Edmonton's National Hockey League team, the two-time Stanley Cup champion (1984 and 1985) Oilers.

Attractions in Edmonton range from various types of theater, particularly at the Citadel, to galleries and the domed Provincial Legislature buildings. Several rodeos are held during the summer months. In July, when the sun hardly sets, Edmonton hosts Klondike Days. The city's frontier past and gold rush days are celebrated at that time with sourdough raft races, beard growing contests, and other events. In August, the city hosts a Folk Music Festival. This festival features traditional and bluegrass music, country, blues, and Celtic music, arts and crafts displays, and a food fair.

Perhaps the biggest attraction in Edmonton is West Edmonton Mall, located seven miles from downtown. It is the world's largest shopping mall and the world's largest indoor amusement parkall under one roof. Covering 110 acres and housing 836 stores on two levels, the mall also includes a reproduction of the Versailles fountains; a recreation of New Orleans' Bourbon Street; a miniature golf course; an indoor amusement park called Canada Fantasyland; a water park that offers water-skiing and body surfing on artificial waves; an NHL regulation-size ice rink (the Oilers practice here often); and a hotel, with fantasy-style rooms.

Built in phases (the first was opened in 1980) by four Iranian-immigrant brothers at a cost of $750 million, the mall attracts 400,000 visitors a week, two-thirds of them from out of town.

London

London, a city of 381,500, is the chief municipality of southwestern Ontario. It is an industrial and railroad center, first settled in 1826, on the Thames River, about 20 miles north of Lake Erie. Much of its architecture and atmosphere is suggestive of the more famous city on another Thames, and visitors find that the Ontario London has many characteristics reminiscent of England's capital. London is surrounded by a rich agricultural area. Vegetables, fruits, grain, and dairy products are produced in this region. Several products are manufactured in London, including brass and steel products, textiles, diesel locomotives, food products, clothing, and electrical appliances.

London is well known for its art museum and for its Museum of Indian Archaeology and Pioneer Life, housed at the University of Western Ontario. Other popular tourist spots include the Storybook Gardens for children and the Royal Canadian Regiment Museum. There is also a unique Guy Lombardo Museum.

The city offers theaters and cultural activities (many connected with the several private colleges and the university) and other opportunities for sports and entertainment.

St. John's

St. John's, the capital of Newfoundland, is the oldest city in North America north of Mexico. Located on the southeast coast of the province, on the Atlantic Ocean, St. John's is the commercial center and principal port of Newfoundland. With a metropolitan population of about 173,000 the city has an excellent natural harbor and is the terminus of the railroad which crosses the island.

The area was colonized by Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1593, and Water Street bustled in 1600, making it the continent's oldest business district, but a permanent settlement was not established until early in the 17th century. Twice destroyed by the French and Indians, St. John's was permanently controlled by the British beginning in 1762. It served as a naval base during the American Revolution and the War of 1812. On Signal Hill in 1901, Marconi received the first trans-Atlantic wireless message. The first nonstop, trans-Atlantic flight was made from St. John's in 1919.

As a base for the province's fishing fleet, St. John's industries are mainly related to fishing, and include shipbuilding, manufacturing fishing equipment and marine engines, and the storing, preserving, and processing of fish. St. John's has Roman Catholic and Anglican cathedrals, and is the site of the Newfoundland Museum, Memorial University (founded in 1949), and Queen's College (founded in 1841).

St. John's has many fine parks throughout the city. One of the largest is C.A. Pippy Park. This park offers opportunities for recreation and relaxation that include hiking and cross-country skiing. It has picnic areas, a campground, golf course, and row-boat rentals. Bow-ring Park is located in the western part of the city. The park is noted for several very attractive and interesting pieces of statuary. It has been customary for various heads of state and members of the British Royal Family who have visited St. John's to follow the tradition of planting a tree in Bowring Park as a living reminder of their visit.

Victoria

Victoria, the capital of British Columbia, is located on the southeastern portion of Vancouver Island, at the east end of Juan de Fuca Strait. The 2000 population of the metropolitan area was estimated at 287,900.

Victoria is the largest city on the island, as well as its major port and business center. Industries in the city include sawmills, woodworking plants, grain elevators, and fish processing factories. Victoria is also the base for a deep-sea fishing fleet and the Pacific headquarters of the Canadian Navy.

The city was founded in 1843 as Fort Camosun, a Hudson's Bay Company post. It was later named Fort Victoria. When Vancouver Island became a crown colony in 1849, its new town (built in l851-52) was called Victoria and named the capital of the colony. In the late 1850s, gold was discovered in British Columbia and Victoria became an important base for miners on their way to the Cariboo gold fields. The island was united with the mainland in 1866, and Victoria remained the capital. In 1871, it became the capital of the province.

Victoria, with its mild climate, beautiful gardens, and many parks is a popular center for American and Canadian tourists. The city's most famous garden is Butchard Gardens, which dates back to 1904. Other beautiful gardens worth visiting include those at Government House and Beacon Hill Park. Beacon Hill Park features ponds, gardens, forests, and one of the tallest totem poles in the world. The Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and the University of Victoria (founded in 1902 and elevated to university status in 1963) are located here. During the annual Victorian Days festival, inhabitants dress in Victorian clothing.

The downtown core of Victoria is small and packed with stores. Handmade chocolates, imported bone china, Irish linens, antiques, and English woolens are some of the items sold.

Nightlife includes the brilliantly lit parliament building, a small Chinatown, and an old section of town full of boutiques and restaurants. The city's provincial museum contains Indian, gold rush, early settler art and artifacts, and many superb old totem poles. A sawmill and logging museum is located in the nearby town of Duncan.

For the sports enthusiast, golf is available year-round at such courses as Royal Colwood, Olympic View, Glen Meadows, Cordova Bay, and Cedar Hill. To see harbor seals, porpoises, marine birds and killer whales, one cant take a three-hour, 50-mile boat trip into the Gulf Islands. For those interested in salt-water fishing, charters for both sail and power boats are available at Victoria's marinas.

Windsor

Windsor, Ontario, known as the "City of Roses," on the Detroit River, is a major border crossing between Canada and the United States. The Ambassador Bridge and the busy Detroit-Windsor river tunnel, which connect the two countries, carry countless commuters to their jobs in both cities, and serve the thousands of tourists who casually shop and dine and attend theaters and recreational activities in Detroit and Windsor.

A two-week-long International Freedom Festival is held jointly with Detroit in late June and early July, celebrating both the Canadian and the U.S. independence. The highlight of the festival is a huge fireworks display over the Detroit River. Windsor's riverfront is lined with parks. Jackson Park and Dieppe Gardens are the pride of the city.

With an estimated 2000 population of 262,000, Windsor has grown into a modern business and industrial center in the years since its incorporation as a village in 1854, then as a city in 1892.

Windsor was settled by the French at about the turn of the 18th century, just after the foundation of Detroit in 1701. It was headquarters for U.S. Gen. William Hull in the War of 1812.

Among the many products manufactured in Windsor are automobiles, pharmaceuticals, machine tools, and chemicals. Brewing and distilling facilities are major businesses here also. The city's educational institutions include the University of Windsor (founded in 1963), Assumption University (founded in 1857), and Holy Name (1934), and Canterbury Colleges (1957).

The town of Amherstburg, just a few miles south of Windsor, is one of the oldest settlements in the area, with an eventful history reflected in the numerous historic sites and buildings. When the British left Detroit, they established a fort and a navy yard here. Fort Malden National Historic Park contains part of the 1796 British earthworks. The Boblo Island amusement park can be reached by the Amherstburg ferry. Several intimate restaurants have recently given the town a reputation for fine cuisine. The population of Amherstburg is 5,700.

OTHER CITIES

ANTIGONISH is a city of 5,000 in northeast Nova Scotia, off St. George's Bay. The French first settled the region in 1762, followed by the British some 25 years later. Antigonish exports lumber and fish and has nearby quarries. With its 117-year-old St. Ninian's Cathedral, the city is the seat of a Catholic diocese. The Antigonish Movement (a pioneering, self-help, cooperative program) was founded at local St. Francis Xavier University in 1930. Tourists visit the Highland Games which the city holds every summer; these have their origin in the Brae-mar Games of Scotland.

BRAMPTON , known as the "Flower City" because of its many nurseries, is located in southeastern Ontario, 20 miles west of Toronto. Founded in the 1820s, Brampton pleasantly blends old and new, and has preserved much of the architecture from its early days. Recently, the city has become industrialized, manufacturing metal products, automobiles, shoes, furniture, stationery, optical lenses, and communications equipment. Visitors to Brampton enjoy the Great War Flying Museum, which displays World War I aircraft, as well as the five-story-high White Star Slide, located in the Shopper's World mall. Brampton's population is approximately 268.000.

BRANTFORD is located in southeastern Ontario, about 22 miles southwest of Hamilton. It was founded in 1830 and named for the famous Indian chief, Joseph Brant, who led the Six Nations Indians from their homeland in upstate New York to this site on the Grand River. Today, Brantford retains many of its associations with the heritage and culture of the Six Nations Indians; there are exhibits in the Brant County Museum and the Woodland Indian Cultural Education Centre and Museum. Indian heritage is celebrated every August during the Six Nations Indian Pageant and at the Indian John Memorial Shoot, an archery contest held each June. Her Majesty's Chapel of the Mohawks, located in Brantford, is the world's only royal Indian chapel and the oldest Protestant church in Ontario. Brantford is also the place where Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone and made the first long-distance call from his home to Paris, Ontario, in 1876. Bell's home in Brantford is open to visitors; it is furnished just as it was when he lived here and many of his inventions are on display. Brantford has a population of approximately 76,070. Truck bodies refrigeration equipment, textiles, and agricultural implements are manufactured here. The city is also the birthplace of hockey's Wayne Gretzky.

CHARLOTTETOWN , capital and only city of Prince Edward Island, has a population of 15,300. It was named for Queen Charlotte, consort of George III. It is on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, near Prince Edward Island National Park.

Historic DAWSON (formerly called Dawson City) lies at the confluence of the Yukon and Klondike Rivers in western Yukon Territory. A town of only 1,790, Dawson in its heyday of the Klondike Gold Rush (late 1890s) boasted over 30,000 residents. The rapid exhaustion of accessible mines in the early 20th century dealt the community a serious blow. The town's status as administrative center of the territory was lost in 1953. Now a major tourist and distribution area, Dawson celebrates its past with annual Discovery Day celebrations in August. The cabins of writers Jack London and Robert W. Service have been restored. Other attractions include the restored turn of the century Palace Grande Theater, Post Office, gold dredge No. 4, the Steamer Kero, and the cabin of the famous Canadian author, Robert Service.

FREDERICTON is the capital of New Brunswick, located 60 miles northwest of St. John's in the south-central region. The city has military, political, and literary traditions dating to the post-Revolutionary War period. A stronghold of Empire Loyalists (Tories), Fredericton is named after Frederick, King George III's son. Canada's first university, the University of New Brunswick, is in this Georgian-style city. Riverside mansions recall earlier days of grace and charm. Loyalist traditions live on at Kings Landing Historical Settlement. Fredericton is located alongside the Saint John River. The river is a focal point of city life. Each summer, the River Jubilee Festival pays tribute to the river. Tours and dinner cruises are available aboard the Pioneer Princess, a replica of the original paddle-wheelers that once plied the river. Fredericton is also the home of the internationally renowned Beaver-brook Art Gallery. The gallery displays a permanent collection of 2,000 works of art. It is distinguished as being one of the most comprehensive British collections in Canada and the most complete representation of Canadian painting, historical and contemporary, east of Montreal. The population of Fredericton is approximately 44,000.

GANDER is a modern city of 10,000, 210 miles northwest of St. John's, Newfoundland. It is best known for its airport, one of North America's largest. Transatlantic flights have been handled in Gander since 1939. During World War II it was a critical connection for air ferries and Atlantic patrols. The area's many wild geese and the Gander River were the origin of the city's name. It was incorporated in 1954.

The manufacturing city of GUELPH is located in southeastern Ontario, about 15 miles northeast of Kitchener. Founded in 1827 on several hills, Guelph produces rubber goods; electrical apparatus; paint; carpets; clothing, cigarettes, woolen, cotton, and linen goods; and iron and steel products. Foundries and tobacco warehouses are located in the city. Guelph is characterized by maple trees, wide avenues, and fine old homes constructed of local limestone in early Canadian architecture. The city is the birthplace of Col. John McCrae (1872-1918), the poet and physician best known for his nostalgic poem, "In Flanders Fields," written in 1915; his birthplace is open to the public. The University of Guelph, founded in 1964, covers 1,110 acres and includes a 350-acre arboretum. Guelph boasts one of the largest mechanical floral clocks in the province; it contains six to seven thousand flowers. A Spring Festival, featuring classical music, recitals, concerts, and song and dance programs, is held annually in late April and mid-May. Guelph's population is approximately 88,000.

KINGSTON , with a population of roughly 57,380, is strategically located in southeastern Ontario at the southern end of the Rideau Canal at the point where Lake Ontario flows into the St. Lawrence River. Fort Frontenac was built here by the French in 1673 and was destroyed by the Iroquois Indians shortly thereafter. Restored in 1695, the fort became a key point in reaching the Upper St. Lawrence River. The present city of Kingston, or "king's town," was settled by Loyalist refugees in 1793. In the early 1800s, the city seemed a likely target for an American invasion, so Fort Henry was built to guard the royal dockyards; it was used as a base for the British naval forces on Lake Ontario during the War of 1812. Fort Henry is currently a military museum. Kingston served as the capital of Canada from 1841 through 1844. Today, the city is an important transshipment point for the Welland Ship Canal and an outlet for traffic on the Rideau Canal. Aluminum sheeting, synthetic fibers, ceramics, mining equipment, ships, leather, and diesel engines are manufactured here. Kingston is the home of Queen's University (founded in 1841) and the Royal Military College of Canada (equivalent of West Point; founded in 1876). The city has an impressive concentration of 19th-century buildings that give it a unique appearance. Many of these buildings have been converted into pubs, restaurants, art galleries, and museums. The city is a departure point for boat tours along the Rideau Canal to Ottawa and around the scenic Thousand Islands. Kingston was the birthplace of organized hockey and the first league game was played here in 1885. The International Hockey Hall of Fame museum depicts the development of the sport through displays of equipment, photographs, and mementos.

KITCHENER , an industrial city in southeastern Ontario, is about 60 miles southwest of Toronto. Largely settled by the Pennsylvania Dutch in 1806, the area was then settled by Germans in 1825. The Germans named the city Berlin, but it was renamed in honor of Lord Horatio Kitchener, a British statesman. Kitchener honors its German heritage with an Oktoberfest, North America's largest. The city has a population of 178,000 (1996 est.); its metropolitan area, which includes the adjoining city of Waterloo, has a population of 346,000 (1990 est.). Manufactured items include furniture, textiles, shoes, appliances, and rubber products; industries include distilling, brewing, tanning, and meat packing. Kitchener is the site of St. Jerome's College, founded in 1864, and of Woodside National Historic Park, which commemorates the birthplace of William Lyon Mackenzie King, a Canadian statesman and former prime minister.

MEDICINE HAT , Alberta, lies on the South Saskatchewan River, 180 miles southeast of Calgary. This city of 40,000 is located in the heart of one of the biggest natural gas fields in the world. It is also on the Trans-Canada Highway and Canadian Pacific Railway. Medicine Hat is the home of several industries, among them pottery manufacturing, glassblowing, and flour milling. The mostly agricultural economy is dominated by ranching and vegetable growing. According to Indian legend, Medicine Hat acquired its name from a frightened Cree medicine man who lost his hat escaping from warriors. The city hosts an annual stampede and exhibition and has a highly regarded historical museum.

NIAGARA FALLS , with an estimated population of 70,500, is the site of one of the world's great natural wonders, drawing tourists from all over the world. The city itself is a manufacturing center located just below the falls in southeastern Ontario, opposite Niagara Falls, New York, to which it is connected by two bridges. Founded in 1853, the city was known as Clifton from 1856-1881, and was incorporated in 1904. The center of a large hydro-electric power complex, Niagara Falls also produces fertilizer, chemicals, abrasives, cereal, paper goods, silverware, and sporting goods. It is best known, however, as a bustling tourist town with several man-made attractions. A 25-mile park system stretches from above the falls downriver to Niagara-on-the-Lake. The falls are equally spectacular in the summer and in the winter when frozen; an illumination system also makes them a spectacular nighttime attraction.

Situated in a beautiful setting on Lake Ontario at the mouth of the Niagara River, NIAGARAON-THE-LAKE is one of the prettiest and best-preserved 19th-century towns in North America. Founded in 1780 and originally named Newark, Niagara-on-the-Lake was the first capital of Upper Canada from 1791-1796. Although the town was burned in 1813, parts of Fort Massassauga are still visible. Today, the city is best known for the Shaw Festival, a major annual theater event featuring the plays of George Bernard Shaw and his contemporaries. Performed in the Royal George Theatre, the Court House Theatre, and the modern Festival Theatre, the festival runs from early May through September. Located opposite Fort Niagara, New York, Niagara-on-the-Lake has a current population of 12,200.

Situated on the northeast shore of Lake Nipissing in northern Ontario, NORTH BAY is a busy year-round tourist city, well known to fishermen and hunters. It has a "golden mile" sandy beach with picnic facilities and shore-land parks, as well as numerous hiking trails. A transportation hub, North Bay produces lumber, dairy products, fur products, mining machinery and brass fittings; there are dairy farms in the area. The city is also home of the Quints Museum; the original Dionne family log farmhouse has been restored and now houses memorabilia from the world's first recorded surviving quintuplets. The annual Festival of the Arts, a series of cultural, musical, and social activities, is held in late September and early October. The local French community organizes sports and social events in early February for the Bon Homme Winter Carnival. North Bay's current population is 51,300.

OAKVILLE , located on Lake Ontario 22 miles southwest of Toronto, is a wealthy community of approximately 128,400 with an attractive harbor and an enduring, 19th-century charm. Automobiles, plastics, aluminum ware, and paper are produced in Oakville. The city is also a summer resort and has a golf courseGlen Abbeydesigned by American pro golfer, Jack Nicklaus.

OSHAWA , situated on Lake Ontario 33 miles northeast of Toronto, is one of the main centers of Canada's automobile industry. Founded in 1795 as a lake port, Oshawa was incorporated as a town in 1879 and as a city in 1924. There are several old buildings near the lake-front that are preserved as part of the city's past. As an industrial city, Oshawa produces motor vehicles and parts, foundry products, electrical appliances, metal stampings, glass, plastics, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and furniture. The Canadian headquarters of General Motors is located here. The Canadian Automotive Museum, which displays collections from Canada's early car industry, is also located in Oshawa. The city's population is roughly 134,000.

PETERBOROUGH , a bustling city with many reminders of the past, is located in southeastern Ontario on the Otonabee River and Trent Canal, 13 miles north of the west end of Rice Lake and 70 miles northeast of Toronto. Sawmills were established on this site in 1821; the city was founded four years later and incorporated in 1905. Today, Peterborough is an industrial city whose products include electrical machinery, marine hardware, boats, plastics, lumber, carpets, and watches. Dairy farms are also located in the area. In addition, Peterborough is the southeastern gateway to the Kawartha Lakes and is the major link in the Trent-Severn Waterway. The Hydraulic Lift Lock is the world's highest hydraulic lift and the symbol of the city. It literally lifts pleasure craft, along with the water in which they float, 65 feet straight up. There is constant traffic, especially on summer weekends; during winter, there is skating on the canal beneath the lift lock. Peterborough also boasts the highest jet fountain in Canada. The Centennial Fountain shoots water 250 feet up from Little Lake, just south of the city. Trent University was founded here in 1963. The population is roughly 62,500. Southeast of Peterborough is the industrial town of Belleville, located on the Bay of Quinte. With a population of 35,300, Belleville is the gateway to two great recreation regionsthe Highlands of Hastings, with its clear lakes (Bancroft is a tourist center there), and the sandy beaches of Quinte's Isle to the south (Picton attracts tourists there). A popular vacation spot, Belleville has one of Ontario's finest yacht harbors, along with facilities for golf, fishing, and swimming. Southwest of Belleville, on the eastern terminus of the Trent Canal system, is Trenton, whose population is 15,100. A popular water-oriented city, Trenton offers sailing, swimming, and fishing in summer, and ice boating and ice fishing in winter.

Situated in south-central Saskatchewan, PRINCE ALBERT is an important distribution point for the northern reaches of the province. Its varied economic base includes oil refining, woodworking, paper milling, tanning, and food packaging. Tourism here centers on nearby Prince Albert National Park and the unique Lund Wildlife Exhibit. Visitors are often attracted to Prince Albert's numerous museums and art galleries. Outdoor enthusiasts also enjoy the area's excellent hiking and skiing trails, and beautiful lakes where fishing is abundant. The metropolitan area is the site of a federal penitentiary, a school for the retarded, and several Indian reservations. Prince Albert has a population of about 34,000.

Situated in central British Columbia, 485 miles north of Vancouver, PRINCE GEORGE serves as an important provincial administrative and transportation hub. Explorer Simon Fraser founded the city in the early 1800s as a trading post on the river that now bears his name. The city grew with the opening of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway in 1913. The community's approximately 66,000 residents rely heavily on the lumber industry, as well as on minerals, oil, and hydropower, for their livelihoods. Tourists and sportsmen know Prince George as a base for expeditions into the Cariboo district.

SAINT CATHERINES , "the Garden City," is an industrial city situated on the Welland Ship Canal, just south of Lake Ontario. Settled by the Loyalists in 1790, Saint Catherines was incorporated as a town in 1845 and as a city in 1876. It was once a depot of the Underground Railroad; was the site of the first Welland Canal, built in 1829; and had the first electric streetcar system in North America. Today, Saint Catherines produces automobile parts, machinery, electrical equipment, hardware, textiles, and hosiery. Fruit is packed and shipped from its harbor. Brock University, founded in 1962, was named for (Gen.) Sir Isaac Brock, who commanded the Canadian and British forces at the battle of Queenston Heights in 1812. The Niagara Grape and Wine Festival, marking the ripening of the grapes in the Saint Catherines area, is held annually in late September. The 10-day festival, begun in 1952 as a one-day observance, now includes more than 200 events. The population of Saint Catherines is approximately 124,000.

SAINT JOHN , New Brunswick's largest city, boasts an excellent harbor, large dry docks, and terminal facilities. It is a year-round port with shipping connections to Europe, North and South America, and the West Indies. The city is the commercial, manufacturing, and transportation center of the province. The city's major industries include brewing, tanning, fish processing, shipbuilding, and oil refining. Visited in 1604 by French explorer Samuel de Champlain, Saint John eventually became a French fort and trading post (1631), and in the ensuing years was captured and recaptured as England and France struggled for possession. Saint John is famed for its museums; its buildings dating to colonial times; and for the Reversing Falls, which are actually rapids caused by the famous high tides. Not far away is the former summer home of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt at Campobello Island, now maintained jointly by Canada and the U.S. Historical attractions include the Carleton Martello Tower, a stone fortification surviving from the War of 1812; the Fort Howe Blockhouse, a replica of a 1777 blockhouse. Visitors are afforded a panoramic view of the city from the fort. Many of St. John's homes and buildings are worthy examples of historic architecture. The population of Saint John is about 102,000.

SARNIA is the center of Ontario's oil refining and petrochemical industries. Located on the Saint Clair River in southeastern Ontario, at the south end of Lake Huron, Sarnia is connected to Port Huron, Michigan, via the Bluewater Bridge, as well as by a railway tunnel. An important lake port, Sarnia produces lumber, plastics, sailboats, and automobile parts. Settled by the French in 1807 and by the English in 1813, Sarnia's waterfront offers a variety of recreational activities, including swimming, boating, and golfing. There are more than a dozen fully equipped marinas along 42 miles of white, sandy beaches. One of Sarnia's main attractions is fishingtrout, perch, whitefish, pickerel, walleye, chinook, and coho salmon may be caught from shore or boat. Water pollution problems have, occasionally, been serious. Those concerned about swimming in this region or eating locally caught fish are advised to contact appropriate provincial agencies. Known as the "Salmon Capital of Ontario," the city is host to the annual Sarnia Salmon Derby in May. Thousands of sailors and spectators descend upon the city for the Port Huron-to-Mackinac Race each summer. The population is estimated at about 80,000.

SASKATOON , in Saskatchewan, is the potash capital of the world. Half of the world's potash reserve is located in this area. Industries located in Saskatoon include food and dairy processing, flour milling, brewing, tanning, oil refining, and meat-packing. The city also manufactures electronic equipment fertilizers, clothing, and chemicals. Saskatoon is the home of the Mendel Art Gallery, which houses a collection of works by Canadian artists. Other museums in Saskatoon include the Ukrainian Museum of Canada, which has contemporary and historical exhibits dealing with the early settlement of Saskatchewan and culture on the Ukrainian people, and the Western Development Museum, which features a "Boom Town" that recreates a 1910 village. Saskatoon also hosts several annual fairs, and festivals which attract tourists and natives alike. The city offers numerous opportunities for fine dining. The population is about 194,000; the city is the birthplace of hockey great Gordie Howe.

SAULT SAINTE MARIE was established on the site of a mission founded by Pere Jacques Marquette in 1668. It is situated at the falls on the St. Mary's River (the link between Lakes Huron and Superior), just opposite Sault Sainte Marie, Michigan. This is the site of one of the most active canals in the St. Lawrence Seaway system; lake freighters traveling to and from the upper Great Lakes use the locks to bypass the rapids. Tours of the locks are available. Two-hour cruises through both the American and Canadian locks, the world's busiest, are offered from late May until Thanksgiving. The Canadian lock, located at the edge of the St. Mary's River rapids, was completed in 1895 and is the oldest in the system. A pretty city with many old stone and brick buildings, Sault Sainte Marie's economy depends upon the Algoma steel plant, lumber, agriculture, and tourism. Although the city is considered part of the summer resort system, it also has many wintertime events. World class cross-country skiing trails are numerous and the downhill skiing is excellent. Groomed trails for snowmobiling are available. The Ontario Winter Carnival Bon Soo, featuring dog sled races, speed skating, polar bear swimming, and more is held here in late January/early February. To the east of Sault Sainte Marie, on the North Channel of Lake Huron, are several resort and vacation centers. Bruce Mines was named for Canada's first successful copper mines. Thessalon, a lumber town situated at the river mouth, has a large government wharf and marina. Iron Bridge, on the historic Mississagi River, is known for its sturgeon fishing. Blind River is a mining and lumbering center. A short distance inland is Elliot Lake, founded in 1954 when uranium deposits were discovered nearby. A modern town of 20,000 on the shore of one of the 170 lakes in the area, Elliot Lake offers winter and summer sports activities.

STRATFORD , Ontario, is located just north of London on the Avon River. Founded in 1832, the city produces furniture, brass, and leather and rubber goods. It is best known, however, for its deliberate resemblance to Stratford-upon-Avon, England, the home of William Shakespeare. The Stratford Shakespearean Festival in Ontario began modestly in 1953 and has since become a major world theatrical event, utilizing three theaters. While still based on a Shakespearean season, the festival now incorporates diverse forms of music and theater, from folk-singing to opera. The season runs from June through October. Stratford's population is over 27,000.

"The nickel capital of the world," SUDBURY is 40 miles north of Georgian Bay in south-central Ontario. The city has a population of roughly over 90,000, and is in the middle of the country's most important mining region. Minerals were first discovered here in 1883; today, in addition to nickel, copper, gold, cobalt, sulfur, iron ore, silver, and platinum are mined. Industries include lumber milling, woodworking, brickworking, and machine shops. Sudbury is linked to other cities by the Trans-Canada Highway, as well as by two transcontinental railways. It acts as the area's main commercial and educational center.

THE FORD MINES is a mining community of 20,000, 50 miles south of Quebec City in southern Quebec province. It is known as one of the world's major asbestos-producing regions, but also mines chromium and feldspar (a crystalline mineral). Dairying, chromium and feldspar mining, saw milling, and fiberglass manufacturing are other commercial activities in Thetford Mines. It was founded in 1876 and became a city in 1912.

THOMPSON lies on the Burntwood River, 400 miles north of Winnipeg, in north-central Manitoba. This planned community was built in the late 1950s and has an estimated population of 14,700. The International Nickel Company is the principal employer. Its chairman, John Thompson, gave his name for the city when it was completed in 1961. The company's combination nickel mining-smelting-refining plant was the first of its kind in the Western Hemisphere. Thompson is linked to Winnipeg by air.

THUNDER BAY is Canada's third largest port, and the western terminus of the St. Lawrence Seaway. The twin cities of Port Arthur and Fort William joined to form Thunder Bay on January 1, 1970. The city is located in the midst of a rich mining and fishing region. Several industries in Thunder Bay are involved in brewing, flour milling, paper milling, truck and aircraft manufacturing, and shipbuilding. The city is easily accessible by boat, highway, and rail. It has an estimated population of 114,000.

TROIS RIVIÈRES (Three Rivers), in Quebec, is the second oldest city in the province. Founded in 1634, it is predated only by Quebec City, which was established in 1608. The city has a strong manufacturing base. Factories in Trois Rivières produce clothing, electrical appliances, paper, textiles, shoes, and wood pulp. Abundant woodlands, combined with a large hydroelectric plant make the city one of the world's largest producers of news-print. It has a beautiful 17th-century Anglican church, and a Gothic-style cathedral whose stained-glass windows are among the most exquisite on this continent. Approximately 51,800 people live in the city.

WHITEHORSE , the capital of the Yukon, is headquarters for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Its population is roughly 20,700. The Yukon was the site of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1898. The Gay Nineties days are relived every summer. Dramond Tooth Gerties in Dawson is a gambling casino, with blackjack and roulette tables. Other points of interest in Whitehorse include the McBride Museum, which features an in depth look at Yukon heritage and wildlife, a tour aboard the restored steamboat S.S. Klondike and a guided tour of the city.

YELLOWKNIFE , capital of the Northwest Territories, is one of Canada's youngest cities (1935). It is only 275 miles south of the Arctic Circle. From May through July, this is the land of the midnight sun. In late June, Yellowknife hosts the Pacific Western Midnight Sun Golf Tournament. The Northwest Territories covers one-third of Canada's land area, but the total population is only about 14,000. Coppermine, Cambridge Bay, Bathurst Inlet, and Bay Chimo are small communities north of Yellowknife.

COUNTRY PROFILE

Geography and Climate

The world's second largest country in land area (3,851,809 square miles), Canada is bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the northeast by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the United States, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean and Alaska.

Much of Canada's industry is concentrated in the southeast near the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River, in an environment similar to adjacent areas of the U.S. To the northeast are the rolling Appalachian country of southern Quebec, the Maritime Provinces, and the Island of Newfoundland. The most outstanding physical feature is the Shield, a rugged area of Precambrian rock which surrounds Hudson Bay and covers most of eastern and central Canadaalmost half of the country. This semi-barren area, and the Arctic Archipelago to the north, are sparsely populated and as yet largely undeveloped.

Another major region is the Canadian prairies, an extension of the mid-continent Great Plains. This area lies between the western border of the Shield and the Canadian Rockies. It is the Canadian bread-basket, and an area that is also rich in petroleum, gas, and other mineral resources.

Far-western Canada, comprised mostly of British Columbia, is laced with towering mountain ranges. Most people here live on the temperate southwest coast and Vancouver Island.

The climate varies greatly in the many diversified regionsranging from frigid to mildbut Canada generally may be described as lying in the cool temperate zone, with long, cold winters.

Population

More than two-thirds of Canada's 31.3 million people live within 100 miles of the U.S. border. Canadians and Americans are not "just alike," however, as many observers often assume. The Canadian character and outlook have been forged from a distinctive historical and social background which has produced a "Canadian way of life" that flourishes in a sovereign nation.

About 28% of the population is of British stock, about 23% of French, 15% is other European, and about 2% is indigenous Indian and Inuits (Eskimos). Canada's more than six million French-speaking citizens are mainly descendants of colonists who settled the country three centuries ago. They are concentrated in the Province of Quebec, although about 20% live in other parts of the country, mainly Ontario and New Brunswick. There is a sizeable French community in Manitoba as well.

The English-speaking population has been built up by immigration from the British Isles. The largest influx from the U.S. occurred during the American Revolution, when thousands of "Empire Loyalists" fled to Canada. Most settled in "Upper Canada," in southern and southeastern Ontario. Those Canadians who are of neither British nor French origin are mainly Germans, Ukrainians, Scandinavians, Italians, Dutch, Poles, Chinese, Indians, and Pakistanis.

Religion plays an important, though diminishing, role in the life of the Canadian. About 42% are Roman Catholics. The largest Protestant denomination, about 17% of the population, is the United Church of Canadaa union of Methodists, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians. Almost 10% are Anglicans, with Presbyterians, Lutherans, Baptists, and Jews next in number.

Government

Canada's parliamentary system of government reflects both its Old World heritage and its North American experience. The British North America Act of 1867 provided a written constitution, similar to that of the British. The lack of specific guarantees of rights, combined with profound regional disputes, led to serious consideration of a truly Canadian constitution in the late 1970s. After years of discussions, then-Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau "brought home the constitution" in 1982. Following British Parliament approval, Queen Elizabeth II and Trudeau signed the Constitution Act on Ottawa's Parliament Hill in April 1982. Included in the new constitution is a Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

Many of the country's legal and parliamentary practices are derived from ancient custom, as in Great Britain. On the other hand, the 10 provinces are united in a federal system resembling that in the U.S., though provinces have greater responsibilities and powers than have American states.

Queen Elizabeth II is the head of the Canadian state, and is a symbol of Canada's Commonwealth status. Her personal representative in Canada is the Governor-General.

Parliament consists of the Crown, the Senate, and the House of Commons, the latter clearly having the dominant voice in legislation. Its 282 members are elected for nominal five-year terms. The Senate's 104 members are appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the prime minister, and hold office until mandatory retirement at age 75.

Executive power is vested in the Cabinet, headed by the prime minister, who is the leader of the political party in power. The Cabinet remains in power as long as it retains majority support in the House on major issues.

Provincial government is patterned much along the lines of the central government. Each province is governed by a premier and a single, elected legislative chamber. A lieutenant governor, appointed by the governor-general, represents the Crown.

Criminal law, a parliamentary prerogative, is uniform throughout the nation, and is largely based on British law. Civil law is based on English common law, except in Quebec. Here, civil law is derived from the Napoleonic Code. Justice is administered by federal, provincial, and municipal courts.

During the past century, national politics has been dominated by two major parties, the Liberals and the Progressive Conservatives. While these parties have adopted many traditions from their British counterparts, there are substantial differences. The Liberals correspond, in very general terms, to the Democratic Party in the U.S., while the Progressive Conservatives would be the rough equivalent of the Republican Party. Distinctions between the two parties, however, are increasingly blurred since both take a pragmatic approach to Canada's problems.

Also represented in parliament and active in provincial politics is the New Democratic Party (NDP). The NDP corresponds roughly to the social democratic parties of Europe. The Communist Party is almost insignificant, and holds no seat in either the federal or provincial legislatures.

Canada is a member of the British Commonwealth, the United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Health Organization (WHO), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and the following international associations: Inter-American Development Bank, International Energy Agency, International Sugar Organization, International Wool Study Group, and the International Wheat Council.

The Canadian flag consists of a red maple leaf on a white background, flanked by vertical bands of red.

Arts, Science, Education

The development of the arts in Canada reflects not only the country's culture and geography, but also bears the imprint of a rapidly growing nation. The existence of two dominant cultural traditionsFrench and Englishhas led to a diversity in the arts. Focal points of artistic activity have grown up in several metropolitan centers scattered about the country. Since World War II, economic growth has given Canadians greater means to practice and enjoy the arts, and the influx of immigrants has increased the pool of available talent.

All provincial governments, through various departments, agencies, or educational institutions, provide some assistance for professional and amateur artists within their borders. The federally funded, as well as privately funded, Canada Council administers a similar program on a national scale.

Well-known artistic groups include the Stratford Festival Company, the Montreal Symphony, Toronto's Canadian Opera Company, and the Winnipeg Ballet. All of these groups make extensive tours throughout North America, and occasionally tour abroad.

A technologically advanced nation, Canada needs and produces much scientific activity. Most major research projects reflect the increasingly interdependent industrial, university, and government laboratories. In addition, considerable scientific cooperation is undertaken with other nationsespecially with the U.S. and the U.K.

All of Canada's activities in the field of atomic energy are the responsibility of the federal government. The most diversified program of scientific research is carried out by the National Research Councila federal agency. On the other hand, most basic medical research is conducted by universities.

Education at the elementary and secondary level is the responsibility of provincial governments; curricula and teacher qualifications vary a great deal. In all provinces, public education is free. Ages of mandatory attendance vary from province to province, but are generally from seven to 15. In Halifax, Vancouver, and Winnipeg, free public education is controlled and funded by public school boards, as in the U.S. Private schools, primarily Roman Catholic, exist as well, and charge tuition. The literacy rate is estimated to be 99%.

In other Canadian cities, free public education is funded and controlled locally by two types of boardseither "public" or "separate." Except in Quebec, the public boards are nondenominational, reflecting a Protestant and English historical development; the separate boards are Roman Catholic. In Quebec, the public boards are Roman Catholicfurther divided into boards for French-and English-speaking children; the separate boards are nondenominational, also with French and English subdivisions. Both types of boards fund public education from property taxes. Parents usually cannot elect to send children in the same family to schools controlled by different boards.

Education at the elementary level in Canada is considered to be on a par with schools in the U.S. At the secondary level, schools in Ontario and the western provinces are also considered to be at par, but in Montreal, Quebec City, and Halifax, schools at the secondary level do not always meet these standards.

In the non-French-speaking areas of Ottawa, Toronto, and Winnipeg, local school districts offer French-language instruction at all levels. In elementary schools, there are generally two tracks of instructiona required French course, or an optional immersion program, which begins in kindergarten and offers instruction totally in French, with English being phased in gradually in the third or fourth grade. At the secondary level, French is usually optional and is offered along with other languages, such as German and Spanish. At other places (outside Quebec), French is offered on an optional basis, primarily at the secondary level. In English-speaking schools in Quebec Province, French is also a required subject at all levels.

Canada's 60 universities range from small liberal arts colleges with as few as 1,000 students to multiversities (made up of colleges, faculties, and research institutes) with enrollments as high as 20,000. Most instruction is in Englishalthough some institutions use French onlywhereas both English and French are used at the University of Ottawa and two other institutions. There are numerous community colleges, usually called technical schools.

Commerce and Industry

The Canadian economy is highly developed, giving Canadians one of the highest standards of living in the world. Manufacturing is concentrated in transportation and communications equipment, engineering, and steel and consumer goods. Especially notable is the production of motor vehicles and parts, encouraged by the auto pact between the U.S. and Canada. Most manufacturing is concentrated in Ontario and Quebec.

Alberta is growing fast in industries related to oil and natural gas. Primary industries built on Canada's rich natural resources remain an important part of the economy and a major source of exports. Leading resource industries are: forest products; oil, natural gas, and hydroelectric power; grains and other agricultural products; mining of asbestos, potash, and nonferrous metals; and fishing. As in other developed countries, the service sector is growing rapidly.

The economy is closely linked by trade and investment with other countries, especially the U.S. Foreign trade, two-thirds of which is with the U.S., represents more than one-fifth of total output. There is considerable two-way direct investment between the U.S. and Canada, although the level of U.S. investment in Canada is higher, as is its relative importance in the economy.

Americans find that most products and services available in the U.S. are also available in Canada. Local prices are often higher, but this may be offset by a favorable exchange rate for the Canadian dollar.

The main office of the Canadian Chamber of Commerce is located at 55 Metcalf St., Ste. 1160, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 6N4. There are regional offices in all of the provinces.

Transportation

Except in the remote northern areas, Canada possesses an advanced transportation system in all modes comparable to that in the U.S. An extensive air network links all major and many minor traffic points with adequate connections to the rest of the world. Domestic air fares per mile are higher than in the U.S., and distances between population centers are considerably greater. A good highway system (with somewhat less emphasis on interstate-type roads) exists, and supports extensive truck, bus, and automobile traffic.

The Canadian railroad system, while vast, has many problems similar to those affecting the U.S. Although passenger service continues to exist, it is poor except in the Quebec-Windsor corridor.

Water transportation is important largely from the foreign trade viewpoint. Major ports exist at Vancouver, Montreal, other St. Lawrence River points, Halifax, and St. John (New Brunswick). The Great Lakes St. Lawrence Seaway and River System is an important domestic and binational transport route, which permits the movement of smaller-sized oceangoing vessels as far west as Duluth, Minnesota and Thunder Bay, Ontario.

All larger cities have public transit systems, generally buses. There are subways in Montreal and Toronto, and streetcars in Toronto and Calgary; plans are being formulated to develop rail systems in Edmonton and elsewhere. By and large, Canadian cities have public transportation arrangements at least as good as in American cities of similar size. They are better developed closer to the city's downtown center. Low population densities have inhibited the development of equivalent service in distant suburbs. The operation of public transport is frequently subsidized by provincial and local governments, making most fares reasonable.

In spite of extensive public transportation arrangements, Canada is as much an automobile society as the U.S. All American automobile manufacturers have plants in Canada, producing standard North American vehicles, and the greater portion of the automobile market in Canada is shared by these manufacturers. Most European and Japanese models found in the U.S. are also sold in Canada. Spare parts are available for all these vehicles. Repair facilities in the major cities compare to those in the U.S. There may be service problems with some European and Japanese cars outside the major cities, but most cars can be serviced readily except, perhaps, in remote areas.

U.S. grades of gasoline (leaded and unleaded) are widely available, and are sold in liters. Safety standards for cars are similar in the U.S. and Canada. Left-hand-drive vehicles are standard; traffic moves on the right. International highway symbols are used in Canada, and distances have been converted to the metric system. Seat belts and infant/child seat restraints are mandatory in the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia. Fines are imposed for non-use of seat belts and child restraints.

Communications

Telephone service, provided by the Bell Telephone Company of Canada in Ontario and Quebec, and by provincial companies in other provinces, is excellent. Canada (except for the Northwest Territories) is integrated with the U.S. direct distance dialing system. Telegraph services are operated by the two transcontinental railway companies, and by the federal government to outlying districts.

Mail service within and from Canada to other countries is satisfactory. All first-class mail is airmail within Canada at no extra cost, and letters to the U.S. require only a regular first-class stamp. There is no censorship, and customs formalities are minimal.

Broadcasting is well developed in Canada. Radio and TV stations operate in all major cities and carry extensive amounts of U.S. programming. There are two national TV networks (CBC and CTV), and independent TV stations also exist in many large cities. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) operates an extensive radio network, with domestic (AM and FM), northern, and international short-wave service. It operates dual networks for English and French programming; there are even French outlets in the western cities where the francophone population is limited. The Province of Quebec also has its own French-language broadcasting system. The Province of Ontario operates an impressive educational TV system which, at night, features nonacademic programs.

Direct reception of nearby U.S. radio and TV stations is possible in many parts of Canada. In most Canadian cities there is a well-developed cable TV system which relays most of the U.S. networks (including PBS), some distant Canadian stations for an additional charge, and distant FM radio as well.

About 109 daily newspapers are published in Canada89% are in English, the rest in French. Most major cities have at least two local papers, usually morning and evening. Ottawa has only one daily, The Citizen. About six Canadian newspapers publish a Sunday edition. Most cities receive major U.S. newspapers within a few days of publication. (The New York Times is available daily, including Sundays, in Ottawa, Toronto, Vancouver, and Montreal.)

Most American magazines and books are available, but usually at slightly higher prices. Maclean's, a biweekly, is the only national Canadian news magazine. Reader's Digest publishes a Canadian edition.

Health

Medical care in Canada is excellent. Competent doctors, dentists, and specialists in all fields are available, and most, except in some areas of Quebec, speak English. Canadian medical educational standards are equivalent to those in the U.S., particularly in dentistry and ophthalmology. There is a shortage of trained personnel and facilities in the physical rehabilitation field, although availability of these services has improved in recent years.

Laboratories and hospitals maintain high standards and are well equipped. Professional fees and hospital and prescription drug costs are comparable to those in the U.S. Pharmaceutical facilities are excellent.

There are no special health risks. Standards of community health and sanitation are very good, and no diseases are endemic to large cities; however, several possible health problems should be noted. Winnipeg's climate might affect visitors seriously afflicted with asthma, sinusitis, or Raynaud's disease, a circulatory vascular condition. Hay fever sufferers should remember that Toronto has the highest pollen count of any large North American city. While the hay fever season is shortabout six weekspersons with hay fever experience great discomfort unless they take medication or remain in air-conditioned areas.

Clothing and Services

Americans find that tastes and standards in clothing are basically the same as in the U.S. The climate in winter makes warm clothes essential. For the most part, summers are somewhat cooler in Canada, but hot periods occur, and lightweight clothing is necessary. Wraps are usually needed for evenings, even in summer. Children dress casually, as in the U.S., but those who attend private schools ordinarily wear uniforms.

Ready-made clothes of all kinds are available at every price level. Items manufactured in the U.S. are expensiveoften one-third higher than the American retail price.

Practically all services and supplies are available in the cities throughout Canada. The prices are often higher, but the current favorable exchange rate offsets the expense. Domestic help is difficult to find (as in the U.S.), and if the level of competence and experience is favorable, wages also are high. Professional catering and cleaning services are available.

NOTES FOR TRAVELERS

Passage, Customs & Duties

When entering from the United States, U.S. citizens must show either a U.S. passport or proof of U.S. citizenship and photo ID. U.S. citizens entering Canada from a third country must have a valid passport. A visa is not required for U.S. citizens for a stay up to 180 days. Anyone with a criminal record (including a DWI charge) should contact the Canadian Embassy or nearest Canadian consulate before travel. For further information on entry requirements, travelers may contact the Embassy of Canada at 501 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20001, telephone (202) 682-1740, Internet address:http://www.cdnemb-washdc.org; or the Canadian consulates in Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, San Juan or Seattle.

U.S. citizens living in or visiting Canada may register at the Consular Section of the U.S. Embassy or at a U.S. Consulate General in Canada, and may obtain updated information on travel and security within Canada.

The U.S. Embassy is in Ottawa, Ontario, at 490 Sussex Drive, K1N 1G8, telephone (613) 238-5335, fax (613) 688-3082. The Embassy web site is http://www.usembassycanada.gov. The Embassy's consular district includes Baffin Island, the following counties in eastern Ontario: Lanark, Leeds, Prescott, Renfrew, Russell and Stormont; and the following counties in western Quebec: Gatineau, Hull, Labelle, Papineau, Pontiac and Tamiscamingue.

U.S. Consulates General are located at:

Calgary, Alberta, at Suite 1050, 615 Macleod Trail SE, telephone (403) 266-8962; emergency-after hours (403) 228-8900; fax (403) 264-6630. The consular district includes Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and the Northwest Territories, excluding Nunavut.

Halifax, Nova Scotia, at Suite 904, Purdy's Tower II, 1969 Upper Water Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 3R7, telephone (902) 429-2480; emergency-after hours (902) 429-2485; fax (902) 423-6861. The consular district includes New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.

Montreal, Quebec, at 1155 St. Alexander Street, telephone (514) 398-9695; emergency-after hours (514) 981-5059; fax (514) 398-0702. The consular district includes southwestern Quebec with the exception of the six counties served by the U.S. Embassy in Ottawa.

Quebec City, Quebec, at 2 Place Terrasse Dufferin, telephone (418) 692-2095; emergency-after hours (418) 692-2096; fax (418) 692-4640. The consular district includes the counties of Abitibi-West, Abitibi-East, St. Maurice, Trois-Rivieres, Nicolet, Wolfe, Frontenac and all other counties to the north or east within the province of Quebec. The new arctic territory of Nunavut is also in this district.

Toronto, Ontario, at 360 University Avenue, telephone (416) 595-1700; emergency-after hours (416) 201-4100; fax (416) 595-5466. The consular district includes the province of Ontario except the six counties served by the U.S. Embassy in Ottawa.

Vancouver, British Columbia, at 1095 West Pender Street, telephone (604) 685-4311; fax (604) 685-7175. The consular district includes British Columbia and the Yukon Territory.

Pets

Dogs and cats imported from the U.S. must be accompanied by a veterinarian's certificate showing that the dog or cat has been vaccinated against rabies during the three years preceding entry. From countries recognized by Canada to be free of rabies, a certificate issued by a veterinarian of the National Veterinary Service of the country of origin is required, certifying that the animal has been in that country for a continuous six-month period preceding shipment. From all other countries, a certificate issued by a veterinarian of the National Veterinary Service should certify that the animal was vaccinated against rabies not less than 30 days nor more than one year preceding shipment. Dogs and cats from countries other than the U.S. arriving without a certificate will be placed in quarantine for a 30-day period and vaccinated for rabies.

Firearms & Ammunition

Firearms are strictly controlled. As of January 1, 2001, visitors bringing firearms into Canada, or planning to borrow and use firearms while in Canada, are required to declare the firearms in writing using a Non-Resident Firearm Declaration form. Multiple firearms can be declared on the same form. At the border, three copies of the unsigned declaration must be presented to a Canadian Customs officer. The declaration will serve as a temporary license and registration certificate for up to 60 days. The Non-Resident Firearm Declaration costs $50 (Canadian). Visitors planning to borrow a firearm in Canada must obtain in advance a Temporary Firearms Borrowing License, which costs $30 (Canadian). The form must be signed before a Canadian Customs officer and the fee paid at the border. In order to save time at the border, Canadian authorities recommend that visitors complete the declaration form, but not sign it, and make two copies of the completed form before arriving at the port-of-entry. Requests made at the border for photocopies of the form may be denied. Full details on this new policy are available at the Canadian Firearms Centre web site,http://www.cfc-ccaf.gc.ca, under the heading "Visitors to Canada." The Non-Resident Firearm Declaration and the Temporary Firearms Borrowing License applications may also be obtained from this web site.

Canada has three classes of firearms: non-restricted, restricted, and prohibited. Non-restricted firearms include most ordinary hunting rifles and shotguns. These may be brought temporarily into Canada for sporting or hunting use during hunting season, for use in competitions, for in-transit movement through Canada, or for personal protection against wildlife in remote areas of Canada. Anyone wishing to bring hunting rifles into Canada must be at least 18 years old, and the firearm must be properly stored for transport. Restricted firearms are primarily handguns; however, pepper spray and mace are also included in this category. A restricted firearm may be brought into Canada, but an Authorization to Transport permit must be obtained in advance from a Provincial or Territorial Chief Firearms Officer. Prohibited firearms include fully automatic, converted automatics, and assault-type weapons. Prohibited firearms are not allowed into Canada.

In advance of any travel, please contact a Canadian embassy or consulate, or the Canadian Firearms Centre (http://www.cfc.ccaf.gc.ca) for detailed information and instructions on temporarily importing firearms. In all cases, travelers must declare to Canadian Customs authorities any firearms and weapons in their possession when entering Canada. If a traveler is denied permission to bring in the firearm, there are often facilities near border crossings where firearms may be stored, pending the traveler's return to the United States. Canadian law requires that officials confiscate firearms and weapons from those crossing the border who deny having them in their possession. Confiscated firearms and weapons are never returned.

Currency, Banking, and Weights and Measures

Canada covers seven time zones. The time in Newfoundland is Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) minus three-and-a-half. The time in Halifax is GMT minus four. The time in Ottawa, Toronto, Montreal, Quebec City, Hamilton, London, and Windsor is GMT minus five (Eastern Time in the U.S.). The time in Winnipeg and Regina is GMT minus six (Central Time in the U.S.). The time in Calgary and Edmonton is GMT minus seven (Mountain Time in the U.S.). The time in Vancouver is GMT minus eight (Pacific Time in the U.S.).

The unit of currency is the Canadian dollar, divided into half-dollar, quarter, dime, nickel, and penny coins, all similar in size and shape to U.S. currency. Canadian and U.S. dollars are fully convertible at banks. The conversion rate fluctuates.

Canada officially adopted the metric system in September 1977. Most road signs are now showing distances in kilometers and speed limits in kilometers/hour. Containers show contents and weights in both pounds and ounces, quarts and kilograms, and grams and liters.

LOCAL HOLIDAYS

Jan. 1 New Year's Day

Feb. 2 Groundhog Day

Feb. 14 St. Valentine's Day

Mar. 17 St. Patrick's Day

Mar/Apr. Good Friday*

Mar/Apr. Easter*

Mar/Apr. Easter Monday*

Apr. 1 April Fool's Day

Apr. 22 Earth Day

Apr. 28 National Day of Mourning

May Victoria Day*

May (2nd Sun) Mother's Day*

June(3rd Sun) Father's Day

July 1 Canada Day

Aug. (first Mon) Civic Holiday (Calgary, Toronto, Ottawa, and Vancouver. Called Natal Day in Nova Scotia)*

Sept. 3 Labor Day

Oct. Columbus Day*

Oct. (second Mon) Thanksgiving* Day*

Oct. 31 Halloween

Nov. 11 Remembrance Day

Dec. 25 Christmas Day

Dec. 26 Boxing Day

Dec. 31 New Year's Eve

*Variable

RECOMMENDED READING

The following titles are provided as a general indication of the material published on this country:

Berlitz Editors. Canada 1992 Travellers Guide. New York: Berlitz, 1992.

Bothwell, Robert. Canada & The United States: The Politics of Partnership. New York: Macmillan, 1992.

Canada 1991. New York: Bantam, 1991.

Eagles, et al. The Almanac of Canadian Politics. Concord, MA: Paul & Company Publishers, 1992.

Fodor's Canada 1991. New York:McKay, 1991.

Halsey, David. Magnetic North: Take Across Canada. San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club, 1990.

Harris, Bill. Canada: Photo Journey. Avenal, NJ: Outlet Book Co., 1991.

Harvey, David D. Americans in Canada: Migration & Settlement Since 1840. Lewiston, NY: Edward Mellen Press, 1991.

Hobbs, Pam. The Adventure Guide to Canada. Edison, NJ: Hunter Publishing, 1991.

LeVert, Suzanne. Canada: Facts & Figures. Let's Discover Canada Series. New York: Chelsea House, 1992.

LeVert, Suzanne. Dominion of Canada. Let's Discover Canada Series. New York: Chelsea House, 1992.

Lipset, Seymour M. North American Culture: Values & Institutions in Canada and the United States. Edited by Mary Williams. Orono, ME: Canadian-American Centre, 1990.

Malcolm, Andrew H. The Canadians. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991.

Marchant, Garry. Canada. Edited by Kathleen Griffin and Martin Gamon. Oakland, CA: Compass America, 1991.

Marsh, James H., ed. The Canadian Encyclopedia. 4 vols. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale Research, 1988.

Morris, Jan. O. Canada: Travels in an Unknown Country. New York: Harper Collins, 1992.

Pratson, Frederick. Guide to Eastern Canada. 4th ed. Old Say-brook, CT: Globe Peguot Press, 1992.

Pratson, Frederick. Guide to Western Canada. 2nd ed. Old Say-brook, CT: Globe Peguot Press, 1992.

The Penguin History of Canada. New York: Viking Penguin, 1988.

Watkins, Mel, and James Warren, eds. Canada. New York: Facts on File, 1992.

Weaver, P. Kent, ed. The Collapse of Canada? Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1992.

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Canada

CANADA

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT
TOPOGRAPHY
CLIMATE
FLORA AND FAUNA
ENVIRONMENT
POPULATION
MIGRATION
ETHNIC GROUPS
LANGUAGES
RELIGIONS
TRANSPORTATION
HISTORY
GOVERNMENT
POLITICAL PARTIES
LOCAL GOVERNMENT
JUDICIAL SYSTEM
ARMED FORCES
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
ECONOMY
INCOME
LABOR
AGRICULTURE
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
FISHING
FORESTRY
MINING
ENERGY AND POWER
INDUSTRY
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
DOMESTIC TRADE
FOREIGN TRADE
BALANCE OF PAYMENTS
BANKING AND SECURITIES
INSURANCE
PUBLIC FINANCE
TAXATION
CUSTOMS AND DUTIES
FOREIGN INVESTMENT
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
HEALTH
HOUSING
EDUCATION
LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS
MEDIA
ORGANIZATIONS
TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION
FAMOUS CANADIANS
DEPENDENCIES
BIBLIOGRAPHY

CAPITAL: Ottawa

FLAG: The national flag, adopted in 1964, consists of a red maple leaf on a white field, flanked by a red vertical field on each end.

ANTHEM: Since 1 July 1980, O Canada has been the official anthem.

MONETARY UNIT: The Canadian dollar (c$) is a paper currency of 100 cents. There are coins of 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 cents, 1 dollar and 2 dollars, and notes of 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 1,000 Canadian dollars. Silver coins of 5 and 10 dollars, commemorating the Olympics, were issued during 197376. c$1 = us$0.82645 (or us$1 = c$1.21) as of 2005. US currency is usually accepted, especially in major cities and along the border.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES: The metric system is the legal standard.

HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Good Friday; Easter Monday; Victoria Day, the Monday preceding 25 May; Canada Day, 1 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Thanksgiving Day, 2nd Monday in October; Remembrance Day, 11 November; Christmas Day, 25 December; Boxing Day, 26 December. Other holidays are observed in some provinces.

TIME: Newfoundland, 8:30 am = noon GMT; New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Québec, 8 am = noon GMT; Ontario east of 90° and western Québec, 7 am = noon GMT; western Ontario and Manitoba, 6 am = noon GMT; Alberta and Saskatchewan, 5 am = noon GMT; British Columbia and Yukon Territory, 4 am = noon GMT.

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

Canada consists of all of the North American continent north of the United States except Alaska and the small French islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon. Its total land area of 9,976,140 sq km (3,851,809 sq mi) makes it the second-largest country in the world (slightly larger than China and the United States), extending 5,187 km (3,223 mi) ew from Cape Spear, Newfoundland, to Mt. St. Elias in the Yukon Territory and 4,627 km (2,875 mi) ns from Cape Columbia on Ellesmere Island to Pelee Island in Lake Erie. Canada is bounded on the n by the Arctic Ocean, on the e by Kennedy Channel, Nares Strait, Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, and the Atlantic Ocean, on the s by the United States, and on the w by the Pacific Ocean and the US state of Alaska. The coastal waters of Canada also include the Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay. The country's total land boundary length is 8,893 km (5,526 mi). Its total coastline length is 202,080 km (125,566 miles) Canada's capital city, Ottawa, is located in the southeastern part of the country.

TOPOGRAPHY

Canada's topography is dominated by the Canadian Shield, an ice-scoured area of Precambrian rocks surrounding Hudson Bay and covering half the country. This vast region, with its store of forests, waterpower, and mineral resources, is being increasingly developed. East of the Shield is the maritime area, separated from the rest of Canada by low mountain ranges pierced by plains and river valleys, and including the island of Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island. South and southeast of the Shield are the Great LakesSt. Lawrence lowlands, a fertile plain in the triangle bounded by the St. Lawrence River, Lake Ontario, and Georgian Bay.

West of the Shield are the farmlands and ranching areas of the great central plains, some 1,300 km (800 mi) wide along the US border and tapering to about 160 km (100 mi) at the mouth of the Mackenzie River. Toward the north of this section is a series of rich mining areas, and still farther north is the Mackenzie low-land, traversed by many lakes and rivers. The westernmost region of Canada, extending from western Alberta to the Pacific Ocean, includes the Rocky Mountains, a plateau region, the coastal mountain range, and an inner sea passage separating the outer island groups from the fjord-lined coast. Mt. Logan, the highest peak in Canada, in the St. Elias Range near the Alaska border, is 5,959 m (19,551 ft) high. The Arctic islands constitute a large group extending north of the Canadian mainland to within 885 km (550 mi) of the North Pole. They vary greatly in size and topography, with mountains, plateaus, fjords, and low coastal plains.

The central Canadian Shield area is drained by the Nelson-Saskatchewan, Churchill, Severn, and Albany rivers flowing into the Hudson Bay. The 4,241-km (2,635-mi) Mackenzie Riverwith its tributaries and three large lakes (Great Bear, Great Slave, and Athabasca)drains an area of almost 2.6 million sq km (1 million sq mi) into the Arctic Ocean. The Columbia, Fraser, and Yukon rivers are the principal drainage systems of British Columbia and the Yukon Territory. The Great Lakes drain into the broad St. Lawrence River, which flows into the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Other rivers flow laterally from the interior into Hudson Bay or the Atlantic or Pacific ocean.

CLIMATE

Most of northern Canada has subarctic or arctic climates, with long cold winters lasting 8 to 11 months, short sunny summers, and little precipitation. In contrast, the populated south has a variety of climatological landscapes. The greatest temperature range is in the Northwest Territories, where the average temperature at Fort Good Hope ranges from -31°c (-24°f) in January to 16°c (61°f) in July.

Cool summers and mild winters prevail only along the Pacific coast of British Columbia. There the mean temperatures range from about 4°c (39°f) in January to 16°c (61°f) in July, the least range in the country. On the prairies there are extreme differences in temperature between day and night and summer and winter. In Ontario and Québec, especially near the Great Lakes and along the St. Lawrence River, the climate is less severe than in western Canada. This region has abundant precipitation that is highly uniform from season to season. The growing season is short, even in the south. Much of the interior plains area does not get enough rain for diversified crops.

East of the Rockies across the flat prairie lies the meeting ground for air from the Arctic, Pacific, and American interior. The mixing of air masses leads to a turbulent atmosphere and the emergence of cyclonic storms, producing most of the rain and snow in the country. The northwest and the prairies, having fewer or weaker storms, are the driest areas, although the prairies are the site of some heavy blizzards and dramatic thunderstorms. The windward mountain slopes are exceptionally wet; the protected slopes are very dry. Thus, the west coast gets about 150300 cm (60120 in) of rain annually; the central prairie area, less than 50 cm (20 in); the flat area east of Winnipeg, 50100 cm (2040 in); and the maritime provinces, 115150 cm (4560 in). The annual average number of days of precipitation ranges from 252 along coastal British Columbia to 100 in the interior of the province.

FLORA AND FAUNA

A great range of plant and animal life characterizes the vast area of Canada, with its varied geographic and climatic zones. The flora of the Great LakesSt. Lawrence region resembles that of the adjacent US section, with white pine, hemlock, sugar and red maples, yellow birch, and beech trees. Coniferous treesparticularly red sprucepredominate in the Maritime region, black spruce in the eastern Laurentian zone, white spruce in the western. In the east are also found the balsam fir, white cedar, tamarack, white birch, and aspen, with jack pine in the drier areas. From the prairie grassland to the Arctic tundra there are aspen, bur oak, balm of Gilead, cottonwood, balsam poplar, white birch, and other deciduous trees. Conifers dominate the northern section. Many types of grasses grow on the interior plains. The wet area along the west coast is famous for its tall, hard conifers: western hemlock and red cedar, Douglas fir, Sitka spruce, and western white pine. Subalpine forests cover the Rocky Mountain area, where there are such conifers as alpine fir, Engelmann spruce, lodgepole pine and aspen, and mountain hemlock. The great Arctic region is covered with low-growing grasses, mosses, and bushes.

The fauna of the Great LakesSt. Lawrence region includes deer, black bear, opossum, gray and red squirrels, otter, beaver, and skunk; birds include eastern bluebird, red-winged blackbird, robin, wood thrush, woodpecker, oriole, bobolink, crow, hawk, bittern, heron, black duck, and loon. In the boreal forest area there are moose, caribou, black bear, lynx, timber wolf, marten, beaver, porcupine, snowshoe rabbit, red squirrel, and chipmunk. Typical mammals of the Rocky Mountain area are grizzly bear, mountain goat, moose, wapiti, cougar, and alpine flying squirrel. In the plains are rabbits, gophers, prairie birds, and waterfowl. Abundant on the west coast are deer, Cascade mountain goat, red squirrel, mountain beaver, various species of mice, and Puget striped skunk; common birds include northern Pigmy-owl, band-tailed pigeon, black swift, northern flicker, crow, rufous-sided towhee, and black brant. Over the stretches of the Arctic are the musk ox and reindeer, polar bear, caribou, white and blue fox, arctic hare, and lemming, as well as the snowy owl, ptarmigan, snow bunting, arctic tern, and other birds. Walrus, seals, and whales inhabit Canada's coastal waters.

ENVIRONMENT

Canada's principal environmental agency is the Department of the Environment, established in 1971 and reorganized in 1979. Responsibilities of this department, also known as Environment Canada, include air and water pollution control, land-use planning, and wildlife preservation. Responsibility for maritime resources was vested in the Department of Fisheries and Oceans under the 1979 reorganization. Air pollution and the resulting acid rain have posed a threat to lakes and forests in an area of eastern Canada about 2.6 million sq km (1 million sq mi). Canadian sources estimate that about 14,000 lakes in eastern Canada are acidified and another 300,000 lakes will remain in danger if adequate emission reductions are not implemented. As of the mid-1990s, acid rain had affected a total of 150,000 lakes throughout Canada. Waterfowl populations have already been depleted. About half the acid rain comes from emissions from Canadian smokestacks, but Canada has blamed US industry for 75% of the Ontario pollution.

Canada's rivers and ocean waters have been contaminated by toxic pollutants from agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities. As of the mid-1990s, 50% of Canada's coastal shellfish areas were closed because of the dangerous levels of pollutants.

Canada has more than 90 bird sanctuaries and 44 National Wildlife Areas, including reserves in the western Arctic to protect waterfowl nesting grounds. In May 1986, Canada and the United States signed an agreement to restore the breeding habitat of mallard and pintail ducks in the midcontinental regions of both countries. The project, which spanned 15 years and cost c$1.5 billion, was meant to protect and improve 1,200,000 hectares (3,000,000 acres) of duck habitat in order to reverse the decline in waterfowl populations and raise the average annual fall migration to 100 million birdsthe level of the 1970s. The project also called for the protection of waterfowl habitats in the lower Mississippi River and Gulf Coast region, and the black duck habitat in eastern Canada and the East Coast of the United States.

The annual Newfoundland seal hunt, producing seals for pelts and meat, drew the ire of environmentalists chiefly because of the practice of clubbing baby seals to death (adult seals are shot). Approval by the European parliament of a voluntary boycott on seal-skin imports undercut the market, and the Newfoundland seal catch dropped from about 1,400 in 198182 to 360 in 198283. In 1987, Canada banned the offshore hunting of baby seals, as well as blueback hooded seals.

According to a 2006 report issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), the number of threatened species included 16 types of mammals, 19 species of birds, 2 types of reptiles, 1 species of amphibian, 24 species of fish, 1 type of mollusk, 10 other invertebrates, and 1 species of plant. Endangered species in Canada include the Vancouver Island marmot, eastern puma, wood bison, sea otter, right whale, St. Lawrence beluga, Acadian whitefish, mountain plover, piping plover, spotted owl, leatherback turtle, cucumber tree, Furbish's lousewort, Eskimo curlew, Kirtlands warbler, American peregrine falcon, whooping crane, and the southern bald eagle. The longjaw cisco, the Labrador duck, and the great auk have become extinct.

POPULATION

The population of Canada in 2005 was estimated by the United Nations (UN) at 32,225,000, which placed it at number 36 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In 2005, approximately 13% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 18% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 98 males for every 100 females in the country. According to the UN, the annual population rate of change for 200510 was expected to be 0.3%, a rate the government viewed as satisfactory. The projected population for the year 2025 was 36,027,000. The population density was 3 per sq km (8 per sq mi).

Statistics Canada is the Canadian government bureau that conducts the census; every five years, forms are included with the annual income tax returns that are sent to every mailing address. The population doubled between 1945 and 1993, although the growth rate has been declining since the 1970s, when it was 12.9% (197181).

The UN estimated that 79% of the population lived in urban areas in 2005, and that urban areas were growing at an annual rate of 1.05%. The capital city, Ottawa, had a population of 1,093,000 in that year. The Toronto metropolitan area had an estimated population of 5,060,000; Montréal, 3,511,000; Vancouver, 2,125,000; Edmonton, 1,005,000; and Calgary, 1,074,000. Other large cities and their estimated populations include Winnipeg, 706,900; Québec, 670,000; Hamilton, 662,401; Kitchener, 450,100; London, 432,451; St. Catherines-Niagara, 377,009; Halifax, 375,000; Victoria, 335,000; Windsor, 307,877; Oshawa, 296,298; and Saskatoon, 236,000. Ontario, with 81.8% of its population classed as urban, was the most urbanized province, followed by British Columbia (80.4%), Alberta (79.8%), and Québec (77.6%). Only New Brunswick (47.7%), Prince Edward Island (39.9%), and the Northwest Territories (36.7%) have less than half their population in urban areas.

The population is unevenly distributed, ranging from 0.045 per sq km (0.02 per sq mi) in the Northwest Territories to 59 per sq km (22.8 per sq mi) on Prince Edward Island. Nearly 85% of the people live within 150 km (93 mi) of the US boundary. All except the Maritime provinces have large areas virtually uninhabited.

MIGRATION

Canadians of French origin are descendants of about 10,000 settlers who arrived in the 17th century and in the first half of the 18th century. Black slaves were brought to Canada as early as 1608. Later in the 18th century, thousands of British settlers came to Canada from New England and other colonies to the south. By 1850, 500,000 persons had left the British Isles for Canada; between 184654, an additional 500,000 arrived, mainly from Ireland. The Underground Railway, a network of people and safe houses that helped runaway slaves reach freedom, operated from 184060, and enabled about 30,000 blacks to reach Canada. The peak year for immigration was 1913, when 400,870 people arrived. From 192130, there were 1,230,202 immigrants; in 193140, 158,562; in 194665, 2,504,120. Many re-emigrated, mainly to the United States; by 1950, Canadian-born persons formed the second-largest group of foreign-born US inhabitants. Between 195156, however, the excess of immigration over emigration was almost 600,000. After a lull in the early 1960s, immigration reached a peak of 222,876 in 1967. In 1974, immigration controls were tightened, and between 197585, the number of immigrants per year averaged 118,656, and between 198693, 193,881. In 1993, total immigration was 252,042. Of these, immigrants from Asia numbered 134,532; from Europe, 50,050; Africa, 19,033; the Caribbean, 19,028; the United States, 6,565; and South America, 11,327. Emigration is mainly to the United States.

The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, which became law in 2001, determines admissibility, emphasizing education, language, and skills. As of May 2001, 18.4% of Canada's population was foreign born. Over half was made up of immigrants from Asia and the Middle East. In 2004 Canada led the G-8 nations (Canada, the United States, the Russia, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, and Japan) in gains in migratory exchanges, with the highest international migration rate of any G8 country. In 2005, the net migration rate for Canada was estimated as 5.9 migrants per 1,000 population.

Interprovincial migration is generally from east to west. During 199091 British Columbia gained 37,620 more people from other provinces than it lost, and Alberta 7,502, while provinces experiencing net population loss were Ontario (lost 22,301), Saskatchewan (9,941), and Québec (7,690). However, from 19962001, the Northwest Territories, Yukon Territory, and Nunavut, respectively, had the greatest percentage population increases among the provinces, and Québec and Ontario had the lowest.

In 2004, Canada had 168,688 applications for asylum, primarily from Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Colombia, China, Iran, and Sudan. There were 141,398 refugees in the country in 2004, and 27,290 asylum seekers.

ETHNIC GROUPS

More than 80% of the population is Canadian-born. In general, the percentage of the population born outside Canada increases as one goes westward from Newfoundland to British Columbia. Persons of whole or partial British (including Irish) origin make up about 28% of the total population; those of whole or partial French origin (centered mainly in Québec, where they constitute some 80% of the population) make up 23%. Other European groups account for 15% of the total populace. About 26% of the population are from mixed backgrounds. Others, mostly Asian, African, and Arab, make up about 6% of the population.

Amerindians constituted about 2%. These Amerindians were classified into ten major ethnolinguistic groups; the métis, of mixed European and Indian extraction, were recognized as an aboriginal people in the Constitution Act of 1982. Most of the Inuit (Eskimos) live in the Northwest Territories, with smaller numbers in northern Québec and northern Newfoundland (Labrador). Since 1959, Inuit cooperatives have been formed to finance fishing, fish processing, retail, housing, and tourist enterprises, and to promote the graphic arts.

LANGUAGES

English and French are the official languages of Canada and have equal status and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all governmental institutions. The federal constitution also gives the English and French minorities the right to publicly funded education in their own language at the primary and secondary levels, wherever the number of children warrants it.

The constitution provides for bilingualism in the legislature and courts of Québec, New Brunswick, and Manitoba. Although there are no similarly entrenched constitutional rights in Ontario and Saskatchewan, these provinces have made English and French the official languages of the courts. In 1984, the Northwest Territories Council adopted an ordinance providing for the use of aboriginal languages and establishing English and French as official languages.

English was proclaimed the sole official language of Manitoba in 1890, and French was made the official language of Québec in 1974. However, the 1890 Manitoba legislation was declared unconstitutional in 1979, as was a Québec law passed in 1977 declaring French to be the sole language of the legislature and the courts.

Although Canada is frequently referred to as a bilingual country, only a minority are able to speak both English and French. In Québec, more than 80% of the people speak French as a native language; in the other provinces, most of the people speak only English, although there are sizable proportions of people able to speak French in New Brunswick and parts of Ontario and Manitoba. Some 60% of Canadians report that their only mother tongue is English, and only about 24% say that is French. About 15% report a single mother tongue other than English or French. Italian, German, Chinese, Ukrainian, Portuguese, and Polish are spoken by small numbers of people. There are at least 58 different Indian languages and dialects, in 10 major language groups. Cree is the most common Indian language.

RELIGIONS

About 74.6% of the Canadian population belong to Christian denominations. Roman Catholics constitute the largest single group, with 43% of the population. Other Catholic groups include Eastern Orthodox and Ukrainian Catholics. Protestants make up 29% of the populace; the largest denominational groups include the United Church; Anglicans, Presbyterians, Lutherans, Baptists, and Pentecostals. Members of other religions include Jews (1.1% of the population), Muslims (2%), Buddhists, Hindus, and Sikhs. There are a number of parareligious faiths, including Scientology, Kabalarianism, and Rastafarianism. Shintoism and Taoism are also represented within the country. Approximately 16% of the population has no religious affiliation.

Freedom of religion has been specifically protected by the constitution and the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The right has generally been respected in practice. Certain Christian holidays are observed as public holidays. In 2003, a group of Muslims in Ontario established an Islamic Court of Civil Justice, designed to rule on civil disputes between Muslims using the tenets of Shariah law.

TRANSPORTATION

With such a vast land area, and with most production inland, all forms of transportation are vital. Since 1945, with the rapid growth of road, air, and pipeline services, the trend has been away from railways for carrying both freight and passengers. But because they can supply all-weather transportation in large volume over continental distances, railways are still important. The federal government, through the Canadian Transport Commission, has allowed a few rate rises and has insisted on a slow curtailment of services; nevertheless, the companies have traditionally operated at a deficit or very low margin of profit because of competition and rising costs. In 2004, the Canadian railway system consisted of 48,683 km (30,281 mi) of all standard gauge track. Two great continental systems operate about 90% of the railway facilities, the formerly government-owned Canadian National Railways (CNR), which was privatized in 1995, and the privately owned Canadian Pacific Ltd. (CP). They compete in some areas but cooperate where duplication of service is not profitable. In addition to their railway operations, CNR and CP maintain steamships and ferries, nationwide telegraph services, highway transport services, and hotel chains.

The populated sections are generally well supplied with roads and highways, but because of difficult winter weather conditions, road maintenance is a recurring and expensive task and puts a tremendous strain on road-building facilities. As of 2002, there are about 1,408,800 km (876,273 mi) of roads, 493,080 km (306,696 mi) of which are paved, including 16,906 km (10,516 mi) of expressways. The 7,820-km (4,860-mi) paved Trans-Canada Highway, a c$500-million project financed jointly by the federal and provincial governments, was completed in 1962. Canada ranks next to the United States in per capita use of motor transport, with one passenger car for every 2 persons. Motor vehicles in use in 2003 totaled 18,495,531, including 17,755,075 passenger cars and 740,456 commercial vehicles.

Bounded by water except for the Alaskan and southern land boundaries with the United States, Canada has many inland lakes and rivers that serve as traffic arteries. In addition, there is also the 3,769-km (2,355-mi) Saint Lawrence Seaway (which includes the 3,058 km/1,911 mi Saint Lawrence River) and Canada's portion of the Great Lakes, each of which are shared with the United States. Canada has access to three oceans, the Pacific, the Atlantic, and the Arctic. Canada's merchant fleet was comprised of 169 ships, totaling 1,784,229 GRT, in 2005. Most overseas commerce is carried by foreign ships. Montréal is Canada's largest port and the world's largest grain port. Others among the many well-equipped ports are Toronto, Hamilton, Port Arthur, and Fort William on the Great Lakes, and Vancouver on the Pacific Coast. The Montréal and lake ports are closed by ice from December to April, during which time Halifax on the Atlantic and Saint John on the Bay of Fundy are the only Atlantic Ocean traffic terminals.

The St. Lawrence Seaway and Power Project, constructed jointly by Canada and the United States, and its many canals provide an 8-m (27-ft) navigation channel from Montréal to Lake Superior. The Athabasca and Slave rivers and the Mackenzie, into which they flow, provide an inland, seasonal water transportation system from the end of the railway in Alberta to the Arctic Ocean. The Yukon River is usually open from mid-May to mid-October. All Canadian inland waterways are open on equal terms to the shipping of all nations.

Canada had an estimated 1,326 airports in 2004. As of 2005, a total of 508 had permanent runways and there were also 319 heliports. Principal airports include Calgary International at Calgary, Edmonton International at Edmonton, Halifax International at Halifax, Lester Pearson at Toronto, Vancouver International at Vancouver, Winnipeg International at Winnipeg, and Dorval International and Mirabel International at Montréal. International air service is provided by government-owned Air Canada and Canadian Airlines. Regional service is provided by some 570 smaller carriers. Air transport is the chief medium in the northern regions for passengers and freight. Canadian airlines transported 35.884 million passengers in 2003.

HISTORY

The first inhabitants of what is now Canada were the ancient ancestors of the Inuit. Exactly where they originated or when they arrived is uncertain, but they probably crossed from eastern Siberia to Alaska, Canada, and Greenland between 15,000 and 10,000 bc. Their descendants, the Dorset people, who inhabited the central Canadian Arctic region from about 700 bc to ad 1300, were primarily hunters of walrus and seal. The shorter-lived Thule culture, which may have assimilated the Dorset, lasted from about 1200 to the first arrival of the Europeans. Although most Inuit lived near the coast, some followed the caribou herds to the interior and developed a culture based on hunting and inland fishing.

Although the Norse had occupied a settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland by ad 1000, the first fully documented arrival by Europeans was in 1497 by the Italian-born John Cabot, who led an English expedition to the shore of a "new found land" (Newfoundland) and claimed the area in the name of Henry VII. In 1534, the French, under Jacques Cartier, planted a cross on the tip of the Gaspé Peninsula; the following year, his expedition discovered and ascended the St. Lawrence River. By 1604, Pierre du Guast, Sieur de Monts, along with Samuel de Champlain had founded the first permanent French colony, Port Royal (now Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia). Four years later, Champlain established the town of Québec. The great St. Lawrence waterway led Étienne Brulé and others after him to the Great Lakes and the rivers flowing south through the center of the North American continent. Missionaries and fur traders soon arrived, and an enormous French territory was established. Between 1608 and 1756, about 10,000 French settlers arrived in Canada. In the hope of protecting French settlers and the fur trade, Champlain supported the Huron Indians against their enemies, the Iroquois. When the Iroquois demolished the Hurons, the French colony was almost destroyed.

In the 17th century, England pressed its claim (by virtue of Cabot's expedition) to the rich fur-trading colony, and during the frequent skirmishing between New France and New England the English conquered Québec (1629). Restored to France in 1632, Québec, together with the rest of New France, was placed under the absolute control of a chartered commercial organization, the Company of One Hundred Associates, with the twofold purpose of exploiting the fur trade and establishing settlements. In 1663, New France became a royal province of the French crown. Thereafter, three important officialsthe royal governor, the intendant, and the bishopcompeted in exercising control of the government. Under the seigneurial system, which had been founded in 1598, large land grants were made to seigneurs, who made other grants to settlers. The actual farmers owed some quasi-feudal dues and could sell the property only by paying a large duty to the seigneur.

The movement of exploration, discovery, commercial exploitation, and missionary enterprise, which had begun with the coming of Champlain, was extended by such men as Jacques Marquette, Louis Jolliet, and Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, reaching its climax in the last three decades of the 17th century. At that time, French trade and empire stretched north to the shores of Hudson Bay, west to the head of the Great Lakes, and south to the Gulf of Mexico. Meanwhile, a British enterprise, the Hudson's Bay Company, founded in 1670, began to compete for the fur trade.

The European wars between England and France were paralleled in North America by a series of French and Indian wars. The imperial contest ended after British troops commanded by James Wolfe defeated Marquis Louis Joseph de Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham, bringing about the fall of Québec in 1759. The French army surrendered at Montréal in 1760, and the Treaty of Paris in 1763 established British rule over what had been New France. The Québec Act of 1774 established English criminal law but secured seigneurial tenure, a modified oath of office allowing Roman Catholics to serve in the conciliar governments, and the right of the Roman Catholic Church to collect tithes.

These concessions, which reflected the sympathy of the British ruling class for the French upper classes, instituted the separateness of French-speaking Canada that has become a distinctive feature of the country. It also secured the loyalty of the French clergy and aristocracy to the British crown during the American Revolution. Although the poorer French settlers (habitants) sympathized with the Revolutionists, efforts to take Canada by arms for the revolutionary cause failed in the Québec campaign. Some 40,000 Loyalists from the colonies in revolt fled northward to eastern Canada and did much to change the political character of their new country. The Constitutional Act of 1791 divided Lower Canada (now southern Québec) from Upper Canada (now southern Ontario) and provided for elected assemblies with limited powers, the first organs of self-government in the territory.

In the 1780s, the newly organized North West Company began to challenge the Hudson's Bay Company's fur-trade monopoly. The period was one of expansion, marked by Alexander Mackenzie's journey to the Arctic Ocean in 1789 and his overland voyage to the Pacific Ocean in 1793. British mariners secured for Britain a firm hold on what is now British Columbia.

The War of 1812, in which US forces attempting to invade Canada were repulsed by Canadian and British soldiers, did not change either the general situation or the US-Canadian boundary. After amalgamating the North West Company in 1821, the Hudson's Bay Company held undisputed sway over most of the north and west. Eastern border problems with the United States were resolved by the Webster-Ashburton Treaty in 1842; in the west, however, US expansionists sought to fix the border at 54°40n. In 1846, the border was resolved at 49°n, and since then, except for minor disputes, the long border has been a line of peace.

The continuing influx of immigrants stimulated demands for political reforms. In Nova Scotia and New Brunswick the reformers had some early success, but in the two Canadas it was not until groups led by Louis Joseph Papineau in Lower Canada and William Lyon Mackenzie in Upper Canada had conducted separate futile rebellions in 183738 that the British government acted. John George Lambton, Earl of Durham, was sent to Canada as governor-general in 1838; he resigned later that year, but in 1839 submitted a report to the crown in which he recommended the granting of some forms of self-government. He also advised the immediate union of the two Canadas for the express purpose of Anglicizing the French Canadians. Union of the two provinces was approved in 1840, but responsible government was not achieved until 1849, after strenuous efforts by leaders in the various provinces. There was, however, no single unified nationonly a string of provinces in the east and the Hudson's Bay Company domain in the west and north.

The movement for Canadian confederationpolitical union of the colonieswas spurred in the 1860s by the need for common defense and the desire for a common government to sponsor railroads and other transportation. John Alexander Macdonald and George Brown, rival political leaders, agreed in 1864 to unite Upper Canada and Lower Canada under a common dominion government. Already the Maritime provinces were seeking union among themselves; their Charlottetown Conference in 1864 was broadened to admit delegates from the Canadas. After two more conferences, in 1864 and 1866, the dominion government was established under the British North America Act of 1867. The dominion was a confederation of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the two provinces of Canada. There had been much opposition, and Nova Scotia and New Brunswick were brought to accept the union only through the efforts of Sir Charles Tupper and Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley and by the fear and indignation roused by the invasion of Canada by Fenians (militant Irish nationalists) from the United States in 1866. Since the name Canada was chosen for the entire country, Lower Canada and Upper Canada became the provinces of Québec and Ontario, respectively.

In 1869, the Hudson's Bay Company relinquished its territorial rights to Rupert's Land and the Northwest Territories. In 1870, the province of Manitoba was established and admitted to the confederation, and the Northwest Territories were transferred to the federal government. In 1871, British Columbia, on the Pacific shore, joined the confederation, largely on the promise of a transcontinental railroad. Prince Edward Island did not join until 1873. Pushing through the Canadian Pacific (CP) Railway was a main achievement of Macdonald's Conservative administration. The CP was given large grants of land in return for its promise to aid in settling these lands, a policy that is still being carried on. Objection in the west to being taken over by the east led to two métis rebellions, headed by Louis Riel, in 186970 and 1885, but the west was opened to settlement nonetheless.

Under the long administration (18961911) of the Liberal Party under Sir Wilfrid Laurier, immigration to the prairie provinces was greatly accelerated. The prairie agricultural empire bloomed. Large-scale development of mines and of hydroelectric resources helped spur the growth of industry and urbanization. Alberta and Saskatchewan were made provinces in 1905. In 1921, Manitoba, Ontario, and Québec were greatly enlarged to take in all territory west of Hudson Bay and south of 60°n and all territory east of Ungava Bay. In February 1931, Norway formally recognized the Canadian title to the Sverdrup group of Arctic islands (now the Queen Elizabeth Islands); Canada thus held sovereignty in the whole Arctic sector north of the Canadian mainland. Newfoundland remained apart from the confederation until after World War II; it became Canada's tenth province in March 1949.

Canadian contributions of manpower and resources were immensely helpful to the Allies when Canada joined the British side in World War I; more than 600,000 Canadians served in Europe, and over 60,000 were killed. The war contributions of Canada and other dominions helped bring about the declaration of equality of the members of the British Commonwealth in the Statute of Westminster of 1931. The wartime struggle over military conscription, however, deepened the cleavage between French Canadians and other Canadians. After the war, the development of air transportation and roads helped weld Canada together, and the nation had sufficient strength to withstand the depression that began in 1929 and the droughts that brought ruin to wheat fields. The farmers developed huge cooperatives, especially in Nova Scotia and the prairie provinces, and also took up radical political doctrines, notably through the Social Credit and the Socialistic Cooperative Commonwealth Federation parties.

Canada was again vitally important in World War II, under the premiership of William Lyon Mackenzie King. More than one million Canadians took part in the Allied war effort, and over 32,000 were killed. The nation emerged from the war with enhanced prestige, actively concerned with world affairs and fully committed to the Atlantic alliance.

Domestically, a far-reaching postwar development was the resurgence in the 1960s of French Canadian separatism, symbolized by a series of cultural agreements between France and Québec. In 1970, terrorist acts by the Québec Liberation Front led to the banning of that organization and to the federal government's first invocation in peacetime of emergency powers under the War Measures Act. The emergency measures, imposed on 16 October, were not lifted until 30 April 1971. Although administrative reformsincluding the establishment of French as Québec's official language in 1974helped meet the demands of cultural nationalists, separatism continued to be an important force in Canadian politics. In the 1976 provincial elections, the separatist Parti Québécois came to power in Québec, and its leader, Premier René Lévesque, proposed that Québec become politically independent from Canada, in a relationship termed sovereignty-association. In a referendum on 20 May 1980, in which 82% of those eligible voted, the proposal was defeated, 59.5% to 40.5%. Meanwhile, other provinces had their own grievances, especially over oil revenues. Alberta objected to federal control over oil pricing and to reduction of the provincial share of oil revenues as a result of the new National Energy Program announced in late 1980; the failure of Newfoundland and the federal government to agree on development and revenue sharing hindered the exploitation of the vast Hibernia offshore oil and gas field in the early 1980s.

Since 1927, when discussions first began on the question of rescinding the British North America Act, disagreements between the provinces and the federal government over constitutional amendment procedures had stood in the way of Canada's reclaiming from the United Kingdom authority over its own constitution. In 1980, Liberal Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau made "patriation" of the constitution a principal priority of his administration. Initially he faced considerable opposition from 8 of the 10 provincial premiers, but a compromise on amending procedures and a charter of rights eventually proved acceptable to all but Québec. The Constitution Act, passed in December 1981 and proclaimed by Queen Elizabeth II on 17 April 1982, thus replaced the British North America Act as the basic document of Canadian government. In 1987, Québec was to sign the new constitution, after winning the inclusion of a clause acknowledging that Québec is a "distinct society." The Meech Lake Accord of 1987, however, failed to compel Québec into signing the constitution, and Québec's status has been in limbo ever since. New Brunswick and Manitoba failed to ratify the Accord because of the perceived preferential status Québec would have received. The Charlottetown Accord also proposed recognizing Québec as a "distinct society" in addition to acknowledging aboriginals' inherent right to self-government and converting the senate into an elected and more effective legislative body. On 26 October 1992, however, the majority of Canadians chose not to support the Charlottetown Accord in a national referendum.

Canada joined with the United States and Mexico to negotiate the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which was built upon the US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA). The three nations came to an agreement in August 1992 and signed the text on 17 December 1992. NAFTA created a single market of 370 million people with a combined GNP exceeding us$6 trillion and was implemented in 1994.

Like the French Canadians of Québec, Canada's native peoples have also challenged the federal government on issues of identity and autonomy. In 1992 the Inuits approved an agreement by which the country's Northwest Territories would be divided in two, with the eastern part comprising the semiautonomous Nunavut territory, which would serve as an Inuit homeland. Other native groups also advanced land claims.

On 30 October 1995, the province of Québec held a referendum on secession from Canada; the measure was defeated by the narrowest of marginsa majority of less than 1%. As the 1990s ended, the province remained deeply divided over the secession issue, and the constitutional impasse over the status of Québec persisted. In 1998, Canada's Supreme Court ruled that in order for Québec to secede from the country, it had to reach agreement with the other provinces and the federal government on issues including a common currency and payment of the national debt. In 2003, the Liberal Party defeated the Bloc Québécois in provincial elections in Québec, ending nine years of rule by the pro-independence party.

After ousting the Progressive Conservatives in the 1993 national election, the Liberal party, led by Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, won a second consecutive parliamentary victory for the first time in 40 years in June 1997. However, the party's majority was significantly reduced from its previous size, and the right-wing Reform Party replaced the Bloc Québécois as the leading opposition group, a development that added to the regional fragmentation posing an increasing threat to the national unity of Canada. To overcome regional divisions within their own ranks, Canada's conservatives voted to create the new Canadian Alliance party early in 2000, in an attempt to unite the western-based Reform Party with the Progressive Conservatives. In 2003, the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservatives voted to disband and form the new Conservative Party of Canada.

In the late 1990s, Canada's native peoples achieved two historic milestones in their quest for autonomy. In 1998 the Nisga'a Indians ratified a treaty according them 1930 sq km (745 sq mi) of land in British Columbia. The following year, the Nunavut territoryoccupying an area larger than Western Europewas officially founded as a homeland for the Inuit in the Northwest Territories.

In March and April 2003, Toronto was the site of the largest outbreak of the deadly severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus outside Asia. The World Health Organization (WHO) imposed a travel advisory to Toronto which lasted a week. Some 300 people were affected and 33 died. That August, Toronto, Ottawa, and other parts of Ontario as well as many cities in the United States were affected by the largest power outage in North American history.

On 12 December 2003, former finance minister and member of the Liberal Party Paul Martin was sworn in as prime minister, ending 10 years of leadership by Jean Chrétien. In February 2004, a financial scandal erupted over the misuse of government funds being used for advertising and sponsorship. The Liberal Party was accused of receiving kickbacks from advertising contracts awarded in Québec in the late 1990s. Paul Martin ordered an official inquiry. In June 2004, Martin was returned to power in parliamentary elections, but the Liberal Party was no longer in the majority. In February 2005, Martin and Chrétien appeared before a commission set up to investigate the financial scandal involving the misspent government funds. That May, the government won a confidence motion in parliament by only one vote.

In July 2005, Canada became the fourth nation in the world to legalize same-sex marriages. The other countries having such laws at that time were Belgium, the Netherlands, and Spain.

Canada has collaborated with the United States in its war against international terrorism. Securing the long border shared between the two countries in order to prevent possible terrorist infiltration has been a challenge, and has caused Canada and the United States to cooperate on sharing intelligence. However, Canada did not join the US-led coalition in the war in Iraq which began in 2003, prompting much domestic debate and US criticism of Jean Chrétien, who was prime minister at the time.

GOVERNMENT

Canada is a federation of 10 provinces and three northern territories (including the Nunavut territory formed in 1999). Under the British North America Act of 1867, which united the four original provinces of Québec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick into one dominion under the name of Canada, the federation was provided with a powerful central government, which, besides its areas of exclusive authority, held residual authority in matters beyond the powers of local or private concern specifically assigned to the provincial legislatures. The British North America Actwhich effectively served, together with a series of subsequent British statutes, as Canada's constitutioncould be amended only by the British Parliament. In 1982, the British North America Act was superseded by the Constitution Act (or Canada Act), the principal innovations of which are the Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the provision for amendment. For passage, an amendment requires approval by the federal parliament and the legislative assemblies of at least two-thirds of the provinces, which must hold an aggregate of at least half the population of all the provinces. However, when an amendment derogates from provincial rights, it will not apply in any province in which the legislative assembly dissented by majority vote. When such an amendment deals with education or other cultural matters, the federal government must pay compensation to any dissenting province, to make up for the funds that would have been transferred had the province accepted the amendment.

Under the Constitution Act, the British sovereign remains sovereign of Canada and head of state; for the most part, the personal participation of Queen Elizabeth II in the function of the crown for Canada is reserved to such occasions as a royal visit. The queen's personal representative in the federal government is the governor-general, appointed by the crown on the advice of the prime minister of Canada; the governor-general is usually appointed for a term of five years. Active executive authority resides in the cabinet, or ministry, headed by the prime minister.

The federal parliament is made up of the House of Commons and the Senate. A new House of Commons, with 308 members as of 2005, is elected at least once every five years by all Canadian citizens 18 years of age or older. Representation by provinces and territories is based on population, ranging from one for the Yukon Territory to 106 for Ontario.

The leader of the party that wins the largest number of seats in a newly elected House of Commons is asked to form the government. The governor-in-council (cabinet), responsible for determining all important government policies and for securing the passage of legislation, financial measures, and administrative provisions, is chosen by the prime minister.

The 105 members of the Senate, or upper house, are appointed for life, or until age 75, by the governor-general on the nomination of the prime minister, with equality of representation for regional divisions. There are roughly equal proportions of senators from the Maritime provinces, Ontario, Québec, and the western provinces. In October 1992, Canadian voters declined a constitutional amendment that would have made the Senate an elected body.

POLITICAL PARTIES

Throughout most of the 20th century and into the 21st, national unity has been the primary aim of every Canadian government: leaders of both the English-speaking majority and the French-speaking minority have cooperated to develop a united Canada with a great destiny to which differences arising from national origin were subordinate. In the 1970s, this unity was challenged by a growing demand for French Canadian autonomy. Despite cultural division, national unity has remained a basic factor in Canadian foreign policy. Two elements have contributed to the growth of Canadian nationalismdeliberate government policy and reaction against overidentification with either the United Kingdom or the United States.

Continuity of policy characterizes party relationships. The Liberal Party (LP), which held office from 1935 to 1957, from 1968 to 1984 (except for part of 1979), and since 1993, is nationwide in its representation but has its main strength in Québec. It traditionally emphasizes trade and cultural relationships with the United States. Its principal rival, the Conservative Party (formerly the Progressive Conservative Party or PC), which held power from 1957 to 1968, from May to December 1979, and from 1984 to 1993, stresses Canada's relationships with the United Kingdom. In economic policy, the Liberals generally champion free trade, while the Conservatives favor a degree of protection; but practical political considerations have modified this distinction.

The Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a farmer-labor party with its main strength in Saskatchewan. Its foreign policy was much like that of the British Labour Party, but with an admixture of traditional Canadian prairie radicalism. It merged with the Canadian Labour Congress to form the New Democratic Party (NDP) in 1961. The Social Credit Party (SCP) has headed governments in Alberta and British Columbia but has not done well nationally. In June 1962, the group collapsed into independent factions, leaving only five representatives in the Commons. In September, the Québec wing of the party united to form the Ralliement des Créditistes, which after the 1965 elections became the new focal point of French Canadian interests.

After 22 years of uninterrupted rule, the Liberals were defeated by the PC in the 1957 elections. This was widely interpreted as a vote of protest against individual Liberal ministers and high taxes, as a reflection of concern over US economic penetration, and as a demonstration of widespread feeling that it was "time for a change." In the general election on 31 March 1958, the PC was returned to power with an unprecedented majority, taking 208 of the 265 seats. The LP was reduced to 49 seats, the smallest number in its history. In the election of June 1962, the PC lost 92 seats. The following February, the PC government lost a vote of confidence, the major issue being defense policy and the refusal of the prime minister to accept nuclear weapons from the United States. In the election of April 1963, the resurgent Liberals gained an additional 29 seats for a total of 129 (four short of a parliamentary majority). With some support from the SCP, Liberal leader Lester B. Pearson formed a new government.

In April 1968, the new Liberal Party leader, Pierre Elliott Trudeau, was elected prime minister in a colorful campaign emphasizing personality more than specific issues. In the June general election, which he called for almost immediately, the LP took 155 seats and the PC 72; the SCP lost all five of its seats. In the general elections of 30 October 1972, the Liberals lost their parliamentary majority, winning only 109 seats to the PC's 107. The NDP increased its representation from 22 seats to 31, and the Créditistes, who had resumed calling themselves the SCP in 1971, won 15 seats. When the NDP decided to support the continuance of Liberal rule, Prime Minister Trudeau formed a new cabinet. The Liberal-NDP alliance collapsed on 8 May 1974 when, for the first time in Canadian history, the government received a vote of no confidence on a budget bill. Elections were called, and the campaign was fought largely on the issue of inflation, with the PC calling for a system of wage and price controls. In the elections of 8 July 1974, the Liberals regained their majority.

In the general elections of 22 May 1979, the Liberals lost to the PC, taking 114 seats of the now 282-seat parliament to the PC's 136, and were unable to form a government in any province. However, on 13 December 1979, the government of Prime Minister Joe Clark was defeated by a Liberal and NDP coalition on a vote of no confidence on a budget bill that called for an increase of 18 cents a gallon in the excise tax on gasoline. Trudeau, who in November had announced his planned retirement, decided to continue as Liberal leader, and again became prime minister after elections on 18 February 1980 gave the Liberals 147 seats. Four years later, on 29 February 1984, Trudeau again announced his impending retirement, and his party chose John Turner as successor. Brian Mulroney became prime minister following a landslide PC victory in the September 1984 elections, which gave the PC 211 seats, the Liberals 40 (their lowest number ever), the NDP 30, and an independent 1. However, the Liberals regained strength over the next year and in 1985 won the Québec general election and, in a coalition with the NDP, ended 42 years of PC government in Ontario.

In 1993, the PC fell from power, primarily due to one of the worst Canadian recessions in nearly 60 years and the failure of the PC government to implement constitutional reforms. Brian Mulroney resigned and was succeeded by Kim Campbell. Liberals soundly defeated the PC in the October 1993 election, with 177 of the 295 seats (up from only 80 in 1988). The PC retained only two of their 157 seats. The Liberal party named Jean Chrétien as the new prime minister.

The Liberal Party's majority in parliament was reduced to 155 in elections called by Chrétien in June 1997. The majority of opposition seats were won by the right-wing populist Reform Party, formed in Alberta in 1988 and led by Robert Manning, which increased its representation to 60 seats, winning broad support in the western provinces. Other party totals were Bloc Québécois, 44; New Democratic, 21; Progressive Conservative, 20; and Independent, 1. In 2000, members of the Reform Party voted to create a broader conservative grouping called the Canadian Alliance, uniting the western-based, populist Reform Party with the eastern-based Progressive Conservatives in an attempt to eventually unseat the dominant Liberals. In 2003, the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservatives disbanded to create the Conservative Party of Canada.

On 12 December 2003, former finance minister and member of the Liberal Party Paul Martin was sworn in as prime minister, ending 10 years of leadership by Jean Chrétien. Parliamentary elections were held in June 2004. The distribution of the vote by percentage and seats was as follows: Liberal Party, 36.7%, (134 seats); Conservative Party, 29.6% (99 seats); New Democratic Party, 15.7% (19 seats); Bloc Québécois, 12.4% (54 seats); Greens, 4.3% (no seats); independents held 2 seats in the new House of Commons.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Canada is made up of 10 provinces and three territories. Each province has a premier and a legislature. They function like those of the central government. However, the provincial parliaments are unicameral. In each province, the sovereign is represented by a lieutenant-governor appointed by the governor-general. The provinces are empowered to regulate their own affairs and dispose of their own revenues. Civil and property rights, civil law, education, health, labor conditions, licenses, management and sale of public land, municipal government, and direct provincial taxation are within the jurisdiction of the provinces. Although the federal government still exercises considerable authority over the northern territories, they now have elected legislative bodies. In Yukon, the powers of the federal commissioner have been greatly reduced, and the newly formed Nunavut territory, an Inuit homeland, is semiautonomous.

Each province is divided into municipalities, the number and structure of which vary from province to province. In Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, and Québec the first order of municipalities consists of counties, which are further subdivided into cities, towns, villages, and townships, although there are minor variations. In Newfoundland and the four western provinces there are no counties; municipalities are either rural or urban, the latter being made up of cities, towns, and villages, but again with minor variations. Municipalities are usually administered by an elected council headed by a mayor, overseer, reeve, or warden. Local governments are incorporated by the provinces, and their powers and responsibilities are specifically set forth in provincial laws.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

The civil law follows English common law everywhere except in Québec, where it follows the Napoleonic Code. The main body of criminal law is derived from English sources; most criminal statutes, being federal, are uniform throughout the country. Police magistrates and justices of the peace are appointed by the provincial governments. Civil and criminal courts exist on county, district, and superior levels; all judges of the superior, federal, tax, district, and county courts are appointed for life (but not beyond age 75) by the governor-in-council (the cabinet) and are paid by the federal parliament. The Supreme Court in Ottawa has appellate, civil, and criminal jurisdiction throughout Canada; its chief justice and eight associate ("puisne") justices (at least three of whom must come from Québec) are appointed by the governor-general. The Federal Court of Canada (formerly the Exchequer Court), organized into trial and appeal divisions, hears cases having to do with taxation, claims involving the federal government, copyrights, and admiralty law. Its appeal jurisdiction includes review of rulings by federal boards and commissions. The Tax Court, with seats in major cities throughout the country, rules on cases involving tax and revenue matters.

The death penalty in Canada was abolished in 1976; that decision was upheld in a vote by the House of Commons in June 1987.

The judiciary is independent of the legislative and executive branches. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, part of the 1982 revised constitution, guarantees a number of individual fundamental rights.

Criminal defendants are afforded a wide range of procedural due process protections including a presumption of innocence, a right to counsel, public trial, and appeal.

Canada accepts compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice with reservations.

ARMED FORCES

In 2005 the armed forces numbered 62,000 active and 36,900 reserve personnel. The army (land forces) consisted of 33,000 active and 15,500 reserve personnel. Equipment included 114 main battle tanks, 303 reconnaisance vehicles and 1,278 armored personnel carriers. The air force (air command) had a strength of 14,500 active personnel, and 2,600 reservists with 140 combat aircraft. The navy (maritime command) had 12,000 active personnel and 4,00 reservists, with 4 guided missile destroyers, 12 frigates, and 2 submarines. Major deployments of Canadian troops include Bosnia and Afghanistan. Canadian personnel are also deployed in nine other overseas peacekeeping operations. Paramilitary organizations had 9,350 members and consisted of the Canadian Coast Guard and Department of Fisheries and Oceans. Defense spending in 2004 totaled c$15 billion.

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

A Commonwealth nation, Canada became a charter member of the UN on 9 November 1945 and participates in ECE, ECLAC, and several nonregional specialized agencies. A Canadian, Lester B. Pearson, served as president of the General Assembly in 1952/53. Maj. Gen. E. L. M. Burns of Canada was chief of staff of the UN Truce Supervision Organization in the Middle East from August 1954 to November 1956, when UNEF was established, and he served as UNEF commander for the next three years. Canada has contributed to UN peacekeeping efforts in Cyprus (est. 1964), Sierra Leone (est. 1999), and the DROC (est. 1999).

The country is a member of NATO and other intergovernmental organizations, such as the Asian Development Bank, APEC, ASEAN (dialogue partner), OECD, the OSCE, the OAS, and the WTO (1995). Canada participates in G-7, G-8, the Paris Club (G-10), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, and the Inter-American Development Bank. The country is an observer in the Council of Europe.

Canada cooperates with the United States in North American defense through the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD). A free-trade agreement with the United States signed in 1988 was extended to include Mexico with the 1992 signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), creating a free trade bloc among the three countries. The agreement was ratified by the governments of all the countries in 1993 and went into effect the following year. Canada supported joint military actions with the United States in Afghanistan throughout 200205, with plans for ongoing support as necessary. Canada is a member of the United Nations, Monitoring, Verification, and Inspection Commission, which was originally established in 1999 as the Special Commission for the Elimination of Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction. Though Canada did not participate in the 2003 military coalition in Iraq, it has offered financial support for reconstruction efforts.

Canada is part of Nuclear Energy Agency and the Nuclear Suppliers Group (London Group). In environmental cooperation, Canada is part of the Antarctic Treaty, the Basel Convention, Conventions on Biological Diversity and Air Pollution, Ramsar, CITES, International Tropical Timber Agreements, the Kyoto Protocol, the Montréal Protocol, MARPOL, the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, and the UN Conventions on the Law of the Sea, Climate Change, and Desertification.

ECONOMY

The Canadian economy is the eighth-largest in the world (measured in US dollars at market exchange rates), behind the United States, Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, China, and Italy. The postwar period saw a steady shift from the production of agricultural goods toward increased emphasis on manufacturing and services. The service sector employed three-fourths of the workforce in 2006, compared to only half of the workforce in 1960. Canada is a world leader in the production and export of asbestos, nickel, silver, zinc, uranium, cadmium, cobalt, magnesium, gypsum, molybdenum, potash, aluminum, gold, iron ore, copper, fluorspar, and lead. Although no longer the foremost sector of the economy, agriculture is of major importance to the economy as a whole and still is basic in many areas; Canada is the world's second-largest wheat exporter, after the United States. Canada is also the world's leading producer of newsprint and ranks among the leaders in other forestry products.

Canada in the postwar period changed from a country producing and exporting mainly primary products to one that increasingly produced and exported manufactured goods. In the 1980s, machinery and equipment joined automotive products among the country's leading exports; at the same time, the importance of natural resource products declined (partly reflecting the 1986 collapse of oil prices). However, by 2006, the engines of growth for the Canadian economyautomobiles and high-tech industriesslowed or had shrunk considerably. In their place, such perennial industries as mining had gained in importance. By that year, natural resources, construction, and business services (including work by architects and engineers) were the three fastest-growing sectors of the economy. Natural resources, and particularly energy, account for more than 60% of Canada's exports. With oil prices high in the mid-2000s, Canada's wealth increased.

Canada was hard hit by the recession of the early 1980s, with interest rates, unemployment, and inflation all running higher than in the United States. The effects of the recession on minerals and manufacturing were especially severe. By the end of 1982, all mining operations in the Yukon were closed, and throughout the country more than 70,000 of 115,000 miners were unemployed. The economy recovered during the mid-1980s, and Canada's economic growth rate was among the highest of OECD countries during 198486. However, differences in prosperity among the provinces increased during the 1980s, with the central provinces relatively robust, the western provinces suffering declines in growth because of lower prices for oil and other natural resources, and the Atlantic provinces depressed. Although the 1990s were marked by continued high rates of unemployment and restrained domestic spending, the economy posted an average growth rate in GDP of about 3%. From 200105, real GDP growth averaged 2.5%. GDP growth was forecast at 2.7% in 2006 and 2.8% in 2007.

Unemployment was rated at a peak of about 12% in 1992 but had gone down to 8% in 1999. The unemployment rate stood at 7% in 2004, but was considerably lower in rural areas and in the western provinces, where employment in the natural resource sector had increased; blue-collar work grew more rapidly than white-collar employment in urban areas after 2000. As of 2006, the unemployment rate in Alberta was half the national average.

The Canadian economy is highly integrated with the US economy, which absorbed nearly 85% of Canada's exports and was the source of 64% of its imports in 2004. Most Canadians live in a narrow strip north of the US border, which makes them vulnerable to potential US economic and cultural domination.

INCOME

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that in 2005 Canada's gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $1.1 trillion. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP) rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars. The per capita GDP was estimated at $32,800. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 2.8%. The average inflation rate in 2005 was 2.3%. It was estimated that agriculture accounted for 2.2% of GDP, industry 29.1%, and services 68.7%.

Foreign aid receipts amounted to $50 million and accounted for approximately 4.2% of the gross national income (GNI).

The World Bank reports that in 2003 household consumption in Canada totaled $407.97 billion or about $12,910 per capita based on a GDP of $856.5 billion, measured in current dollars rather than PPP. Household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings. It was estimated that for the period 1990 to 2003 household consumption grew at an average annual rate of 2.8%. Approximately 14% of household consumption was spent on food, 10% on fuel, 4% on health care, and 21% on education. It was estimated that in 2003 about 15.9% of the population had incomes below the poverty line.

LABOR

In 2005, Canada's labor force numbered an estimated 17.35 million workers. In 2004, the service sector accounted for 75% of all workers, with 14% in manufacturing; 2% in agriculture, 5% in construction, and the remaining 3% in various other occupations. The rate of unemployment was estimated at 6.8% in 2005.

In 2005, about 30% of the civilian workforce was unionized. All workers have the right to strike except those in essential services.

Child labor legislation, standard work hours, and minimum wage rates vary from province to province. Most provinces prohibit employment for children under the age of 15 or 16 from working without parental consent, at night, or in hazardous conditions. However, Alberta allows minors between the ages of 12 and 14 to work work for limited periods in certain sectors of the economy, without a permit from the director of employment standards. In British Columbia minors between 12 and 14 can be employed with the written consent of the parent or guardian. The province also allows children under 12 to be employed in "exceptional circumstances," such as in the entertainment industry, with the permission of the director of employment standards.

All provinces limit the regular workweek to 40 or 48 hours, wiThat least 24 hours of rest. Minimum wage rates in 2005 ranged from c$5.90 to c$8.00 per hour. A family with only one wage earner at the minimum level would fall below the poverty line. Federal and provincial laws effectively protect the health and safety of workers.

AGRICULTURE

Until the beginning of the 1900s, agriculture was the predominant occupation, and farmers and their families made up the majority of the population. Since then, however, the farm population has been shrinking both relatively and absolutely. Even in Saskatchewan, the province with the highest proportion of farm population, farm families account for no more than 25% of the total population. For Canada as a whole, agriculture engaged only 2.1% of the economically active population in 2000. Farm production continues to increase, as have the size of holdings, crop quantity, quality and variety, and cash income. Canada is still one of the major food-exporting countries of the world; agriculture engages about 362,000 people and generates about 2% of GDP. Farm cash receipts for crops totaled almost c$14.5 billion in 2004, or 40% of total farm receipts.

Of Canada's total land area, about 5% is classified as arable land; another 3% is considered as permanent pasture land. More than 90% of the cultivated area is in the three prairie provinces. The trend is toward fewer and larger farms and increased mechanization and specialization. Ontario and Saskatchewan together account for about half of all farm cash receipts. Sale of field crops provide more than 50% of farm cash income in the prairie region, but less than 10% elsewhere in Canada.

The estimated harvest of principal field crops in 2004 (in thousands of tons produced per thousand hectares) was wheat, 25,860 produced on 9,862; barley, 13,186 on 4,050; corn, 8,388 on 1,072; oats, 3,680 on 1,320; and rapeseed (canola), 7,728 on 5,564.

Formerly, Canada imported only such items as could not be grown domesticallycoffee, tea, cane sugar, spices, and citrus fruitswhile exporting large surpluses of wheat, barley, and livestock. However, food imports have risen sharply in recent years. Nevertheless, Canada remains a significant food exporter; in 2004, Canadian grain exports totaled 18,984,000 tons, fifth after the United States, France, Australia, and Argentina.

Federal and provincial departments of agriculture provide guidance and aid to farmers in almost every field of operation. Activities include research and experimentation, protection of animals and crops, irrigation and reclamation, and price stability and farm credit measures. The government can stabilize the price of any agricultural product (except wheat, for which separate provision is made) by outright purchase or by supporting the market with guarantees or deficiency payments.

The departments of agriculture apply fundamental scientific research to soil management and crop and animal production, promote agricultural production, and enact financial measures to ensure greater stability of the farm economy. Long-term and short-term mortgages are made available; other loans are granted for equipping, improving, and developing farms. Various federal acts assist the marketing of produce. Governments, working with product organizations, also set limits on the production of milk, eggs, tobacco, chicken, and turkey meat. Price supports may be given to any designated natural or processed product but are mandatory for cattle, sheep, hogs, dairy products, wheat, oats, and barley. Farmers who have suffered severe crop losses through drought may obtain compensation, and prairie farmers who cannot deliver all their grain to market are given temporary financial assistance. The rail freight rates paid by western farmers to ship their grain to eastern markets, basically unchanged since 1897, increased five-fold between 1983 and 1991. The increase, partially subsidized by the federal government, would pay for improvements in the western rail system.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

Canada traditionally exports livestock products, producing more than the domestic market can use. Animal production (livestock, dairy products, and eggs) now brings in about half of total farm cash income. Stock raising is the foundation of agricultural economy in the foothills of the Rockies, across northern Alberta and Saskatchewan and southern Manitoba, on the interior plateaus of British Columbia, in the Georgian Bay district of Ontario, in Prince Edward Island, and in western Nova Scotia. One of the great ranching sections is located in the Palliser Triangle of southern Saskatchewan and Alberta.

Livestock on farms in 2004 numbered 14,660,000 head of cattle; 14,623,000 pigs and hogs; 1,005,000 sheep; and 160 million chickens. In 2004, meat production included 1,460,000 tons of beef, 1,930,000 tons of pork, and 16,100 tons of mutton and lamb. Poultry production totaled 969,716 tons. Milk production in 2004 was 8 million tons; butter production amounted to about 88,400 tons, and cheese production to 366,355 tons. Most dairy products are consumed within Canada. In 2004, 376,560 tons of eggs were produced. Cash receipts in 2004 for cattle amounted to c$5,069 million; for dairy products, c$4,598 million; for hogs, c$4,261 million; and for poultry, c$1,845 million.

The wild fur catch, which was important in Canada's early history, is now limited to the northern parts of the provinces, Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, and the Yukon. In 2003, the value of fur production totaled c$103.6 million, with ranch-raised pelts accounting for 82% and wildlife pelts for 18%.

FISHING

With a coastline of nearly 29,000 km (18,000 mi) and a lake-and-river system containing more than half the world's fresh water, Canada ranked 20th among the world's major fish producers in 2003 and was the world's fifth-leading exporter of fresh, chilled, and frozen fish by value. That year, Canada exported $3.3 billion in fishery commodities, accounting for 15.8% of agricultural exports.

Two of the world's great fishing grounds are located off Canada. One lies along the Atlantic coast of the Maritime provinces, and in this region the Grand Banks of Newfoundland constitute the largest area. More than one billion pounds of cod, haddock, halibut, pollock, and other fish are caught every year along the Atlantic in deep-sea and shore operations. Most of the cod and about a third of the total catch is dried and salted for export to Mediterranean and Latin American countries; another third is sold fresh; the rest is canned. Vast numbers of lobsters and herring are caught in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Bay of Fundy. The other great fishing region includes the bays, inlets, river mouths, and fjords of British Columbia. Salmon, the specialty of the Pacific fisheries, is canned for export and constitutes the most valuable item of Canadian fish production. Also exported are fresh halibut and canned and processed herring. Other important export items are whitefish, lake trout, pickerel, and other freshwater fish caught in the Great Lakes and some of the larger inland lakes. Feed and fertilizer are important by-products.

Canada's total fish and seafood landings were estimated at 1,229,925 tons in 2003, of which all but 45,876 tons were from marine fishing. Pelagic species and other finfish (primarily salmon and herring) accounted for 33% of the 2003 marine catch; shellfish (mostly shrimp, oysters, and crabs), 42%; and groundfish (mostly hake and redfish), 25%. The United States imported about 58% of Canada's fish product exports by volume in 2003. Japan is the second most important market for fish exports.

Canadian aquacultural production in 2003 consisted of 151,264 tons, primarily salmon. Canada's aquaculture industry faces many federal and provincial regulatory impediments that restrict its growth, such as regulations on the introduction and transfer policy of new species and salmon tagging. However, in 2002, the British Columbia government announced that new environmental standards would allow for a managed expansion of salmon aquaculture, ending a moratorium on fish farms in effect since 1995. In 2004, gross output of aquaculture amounted to c$726.1 million, primarily from British Columbia and New Brunswick.

The government protects and develops the resources of both ocean and inland waters and helps expand the domestic market for fish. It extends loans to fishermen for the purchase of fishing craft. Canadian-US action has helped restore Pacific salmon runs and halibut stocks and the Great Lakes fisheries, but pollution represents a threat to freshwater sport fishing, especially in Ontario.

FORESTRY

Canada's National Forestry Database (CNFD) reports total forestland area at 417.6 million hectares (1,031.9 million acres), equivalent to 42% of the total land area. Only about 6% of Canada's forests are privately owned. Of the 94% under crown (public) control, provincial governments manage 71% and the federal government manages 23%. Some 9.6 million hectares (23.7 million acres) of the public forest land are for uses other than timber production, including parks, game refuges, water conservation areas, and nature preserves. Most of the provincial crown forestland is in Québec, British Columbia, and Ontario. The crown forests are leased to private individuals or companies. Each province and territory regulates and controls the harvest rate on crown land through an allowable annual cut.

In 2003, an estimated 194.7 million cu m (6.9 billion cu ft) of roundwood was harvested. Canada ranks as the third-largest producer of coniferous wood products (after the United States and Russia), and is the leading supplier of softwood products to world markets. Chief forest products in eastern Canada are pulp and paper manufactures, especially newsprint. Canada leads the world in newsprint production, with 8,201,000 tons in 2004, accounting for 21% of the world's production. Exports of newsprint were valued at over c$4 billion, with about three-fourths going to the United States. In the west, the chief product is sawn timber. The value of Canada's forestry exports in 2003 amounted to over $24 billion, or 16% of the world's forestry exports that year. In 2003, production for leading export commodities included: sawnwood, 57.5 million cu m (2 billion cu ft); wood pulp, 26.2 million cu m (925 million cu ft); industrial roundwood, 191.7 million cu m (6.8 billion cu ft); wood-based panels, 16.7 million cu m (590 million cu ft); and paper and paperboard, 20.1 million tons. About 75% of forestry exports are sent to the United States. Exports of wood products contribute about 14% to the value of all Canadian exports.

Other well-known Canadian forestry sector products include Christmas trees and maple syrup. Québec accounts for about 35% of the annual Christmas tree production and 90% of maple syrup production.

With such a large annual forestry output, conservation and reforestation are stressed. Both government and industry promote improvements in management practices and in the use of forest products. New manufacturing methods permit the use of inferior classes of wood. The government estimated there were 5,400 forest fires in 2000, 57% due to human activities.

MINING

The world's largest exporter of minerals and metals, Canada's mining sector was considered a pillar of the economy and a way of life for Canadians. Canada was the leading producer and exporter of potash (world's largest and richest reserves), the leading supplier of uranium, the second-largest producer of asbestos (possibly the largest deposits) and sulfur (17% of world output and 38% of world trade), the third-largest in titanium, platinum-group metals (PGMs) and mine zinc, fourth in aluminum (from imported oxide), fifth in copper, lead, silver, and gold, and among the leading producers of nickel, salt, and nitrogen in ammonia. Yet, the country only recently began to fully develop many of its most important mineral resources, and resources developed earlier continued to display great growth potential. This was reaffirmed by discoveries such as the huge and rich nickel, copper, and cobalt deposit at Voisey's Bay, and the Ekati diamond minesdiamond was expected to be the most sought-after mineral in the country.

The production, by value, of minerals, metals, and coal in 2003, totaled us$14.4 billion, up 1.2% from 2002. In addition, Canada's minerals industry played an integral part in Canada's new-technology-driven and knowledge-based economy. The value of nonfuel minerals production increased to us$13.4 billion in 2003, up 2.3% from 2002.

In terms of value, the top nonfuel mineral commodities in 2003 were: gold us$1.6 billion; nickel, us$1.4 billion; diamonds us$1.2 billion; cement, coal, and potash, at us$1.1 billion each; iron ore us$1.0 billion; copper, us$929 million; sand gravel, and stone us$714 million each; and zinc, us$643 million. Exports of minerals, and mineral products (excluding crude oil and natural gas), and metals (including smelted and refined), totaled us$35.3 billion in 2003.

Mined nickel (metal content) output in 2003 was 162,756 metric tons. The world's biggest newsmaker in nickel continued to be Inco Ltd.'s nickel-copper-cobalt project at Voisey's Bay. Proved reserves at the site totaled 30 million tons (2.85% nickel and 1.68% copper); indicated resources were 54 million tons (1.53% nickel, 0.70% copper); inferred resources, 16 million tons (1.60% nickel, 0.80% copper).

Gold output in 2003 was 140,559 kg, down from 151,904 kg in 2002. Gold has lost some of its luster. Three mines opened, while 13 closed, a result of low gold prices and/or depletion. Operating mines accounted for 92.5% of Canada's output, with the remainder coming from 19 base-metal mines (gold as a by product) and a number of placers. Ontario produced 49% of Canada's gold, followed by Québec at 21%, British Columbia at 15% and Manitoba at 4%, with the remaining provinces and territories accounting for the remainder.

Mined zinc output (metal content) was 788,328 metric tons in 2003, down from 923,931 metric tons in 2002. Zinc prices remained depressed in 2003 as a result of continued poor demand in Japan, slow growth in Europe, and increased mine production worldwide. The country's proven and probable reserves totaled 10.2 million tons, 35% of which was in New Brunswick.

Mined copper output (metal content) was 534,287 metric tons in 2003, down from 584,195 metric tons in 2002. Proven and probable reserves for the country totaled 8.4 million tons, 50% of which was in Ontario, and 35% in British Columbia.

The output of iron ore and concentrate (metal content) was 32,957,000 tons in 2003, up from 30,902,000 tons in 2002. Exploration continued in Roche Bay (Northwest Territories), the Peach River area of Alberta, and Ungava Bay and Schefferville (Québec). Total proven and probable reserves in Canada were 1,261 million tons.

Mined silver output (metal content) was 1,309,274 kg, down from 1,407,558 kg in 2002. Silver, the value of whose output dropped by almost 7% in 2003 versus 2002, was mainly a by-product of base-metal and gold mining. Proven and probable reserves in Canada totaled 15,738 tons.

Lead output (metal content) was 81,268 metric tons, down from 101,330 metric tons in 2002. Proven and probable reserves amounted to 1.85 million tons; 76% were in New Brunswick. In addition, Canada mined the metals antimony, arsenic trioxide, bismuth, cadmium, magnesium, molybdenum (121,000 tons of proven and probable reserves, all in British Columbia), pyrochlore, selenium, spodumene, tantalite (from Niobec, the world's third-largest producer, and the only operating columbium mine in North America), tellurium, and titanium. Calcium may have been produced as well.

Among industrial minerals, diamonds have been attracting much attention. Total output was 11.2 million carats in 2003, up 127% from 4.937 million carats in 2002. By value, diamond production in 2003 totaled us$1.2 billion versus us$552 million in 2002. Canada's first commercial production of diamondsby BHP Diamonds Inc., in the Ekati Minebegan in 1998, when production totaled 300,006 carats; 2000 was Ekati's first full year of operation, and it has became a factor in world markets. BHP Diamonds reported that the quality of diamonds recovered from the five kimberlite pipes at its Lac de Gras property, northwest of Yellowknife, compared favorably with the best pipes in the world. De Beers, which bought 35% of Ekati's output, has discovered 220 kimberlites, several of which had the potential to become diamond mines; one, the Snap Lake project, is due to start production in 2008, and is De Beers's first mine outside of Africa. Diavik Diamond Mines Inc.'s Diavik Mine began production in January 2003. At least 90% of Diavik's output is estimated to be of gem quality. More than 500 companies have been exploring for diamonds, on an off and on basis. The First Canadian Diamond Cutting Works, in Montréal, became the country's first fully integrated cutting and polishing factory, with the aim of handling Canada's diamond production at lower cost than European competitors; artisans came from Belgium.

Potash output was 9,131,000 tons in 2003, up by 9.2% from 8,361,000 tons in 2002. However, potash output by value increased only slightly in 2003 from 2002, to around us$1.65 billion versus us$1.63 billion. The 63%-government-owned Potash Corp. of Saskatchewan Inc. was the largest publicly held potash producer in the world, with an annual capacity of 8.2 million tons, 61% of Canada's total capacity. An area extending from central Saskatchewan southeast into Manitoba was probably the largest and richest reserve of potash in the world, and could probably supply all the world's needs for 1,000 years. Known national reserves amounted to 14 billion tons.

Asbestos output in 2003 was 240,500 metric tons, down slightly from 242,241 metric tons in 2002. The world's largest deposits of asbestos (including chrysotile, crocidolite, and amosite) were believed to be in a region of eastern Québec that included the Black Lake open pit and the Bell underground mines and the town of Asbestos. The nation's proven and probable reserves of fiber asbestos totaled 35.8 million tons.

Output totals for other industrial minerals in 2003 were: salt, 12,390,000 tons, with 264 million tons of proven and probable reserves; sulfur, 8,509,000 tons, with 130 million tons of proven and probable reserves; nitrogen (content of ammonia), 3,440,000 metric tons; and sand and gravel, 235,574 tons. In addition, Canada produced amethyst, anhydrite, barite, brucite, hydraulic cement, clay and clay products, diatomite, dolomite, gypsum (482,000 tons of proven and probable reserves), jade, lime, mica (scrap and flake), nepheline syenite, pyrite, pyrophyllite, pyrrhotite, silica (quartz), soapstone, sodium carbonate (soda ash), natural sodium sulfate (81.3 million tons of proven and probable reserves), and stone (including crushed, building, ornamental, and paving). Canada also had capacities to produce graphite and limestone.

Mining has been conducted in Canada since the seventeenth century, but the remarkably rapid development of mineral exploitation dates from the end of World War I. Petroleum has been found in the Midwest; iron ore deposits in Labrador, Québec, and Ontario; and uranium in Ontario and Saskatchewan. Ontario led the provinces, producing 30.8% of nonfuel mineral commodities, followed by Québec (19.5%), Saskatchewan (11.9%), and British Columbia (11.2%).

Land use, which had not been given much attention, has become an issue, with First Nation rights receiving consideration. Canada's provincial governments regulated most aspects of exploration and mining, and the exceptions, the Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, have been accumulating more independent powers. Federal agencies recently became able to review mining activity for environmental impact. Exploration for metals and petroleum has tended to move north in recent years, into the new territory Nunavut, which was created in 1999 out of the Northwest Territories; Nunavut included Baffin, Ellesmere, and the Queen Elizabeth islands, one-fifth of Canada's landmass. The Inuit have generally been receptive to mining proposals, including the new Nanisivik lead-zinc mine on Baffin Island, north of the Arctic Circle.

The Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects, which was to be enacted in 2001, covered all technical public disclosure on mineral projects and was intended to preserve Canada's preeminent position in world mining, exploration, development, and financing. The mineral industry consisted of 3,000 domestic and 150 foreign companies; 10% were actively engaged in mining; the rest were engaged in exploration, in advanced stages of development, or dormant, in search of financing. More than 200 mine sites, including coal sites, were active, and 3,000 mines and quarries produced sand, gravel, and other construction materials. Total employment in mining and mineral manufacturing in 2000, including coal, was 400,000, and 55,750 were employed in coal, metal, and nonmetal mining and quarrying. Most of the mineral industry was privately owned; an exception was government participation in potash and petroleum, which were transitioning to private ownership. Mining had the prospect of diversifying and strengthening Canada's economy. Canada was well positioned in terms of its mineral-resource base and its access to markets in the United States.

ENERGY AND POWER

Abundantly endowed with fossil fuels and hydroelectric resources, Canada was the world's seventh-leading energy producer, as of 2004. Energy production is exceeded only by manufacturing as a percent of Canada's gross domestic product (GDP).

In the late 1990s, Canada's oil industry made a strong recovery from low prices in the preceding years. Petroleum production in quantity began in 1947 with the discovery of oil 29 km (18 mi) south of Edmonton. Output of oil in 2004 was estimated at 3.1 million barrels per day (2.4 million barrels per day was crude oil). Canada's oil reserves were estimated in 2005 to total 178.8 billion barrels, of which 95% are oil sands. Petroleum is now the largest single contributor to mineral output. Heavy crude oil is produced entirely in western Canada, with 60% coming from Alberta and 40% from Saskatchewan. It is transported to eastern Canada and the United States through two major oil pipeline systems, both originating at Edmonton; one extends east to Toronto, and the other southwest to Vancouver and the state of Washington. On the east coast of Canada, oil exploration has been focused on the Jeanne d'Arc Basin off Newfoundland. Terra Nova, the second major project in the region, began production at the beginning of 2002, with a capacity of 115,000 barrels per day over six years. The White Rose oil field, in the same basin, was expected to become operational in 2004. There are potentially up to 300 billion barrels of synthetic crude oil available from western Canada's oil sands. Reserves at Athabasca in northern Alberta are among the world's two largest oil sand deposits.

Canadian natural gas reserves were estimated at 56.6 trillion cu ft as of 1 January 2005. Natural gas production was estimated in 2002 to have totaled 6.6 trillion cubic feet, and according to British Petroleum (BP), to have totaled 182.8 billion cu m in 2004. Gas production is mostly centered in Alberta, which accounts for about 80%. The 3,017 km (1,875 mi) Alliance Pipeline, which carries natural gas from western Canada to the Chicago region, is the longest pipeline in North America.

Canada ranks among the top producers of electric power in the world and first in the production of hydroelectricity. In 2002, Canada's installed capacity was estimated to have reached 111.0 million kW. In that same year, Canada generated an estimated total of 548.9 billion kWh of electricity, of which: 57% came from hydropower sources; 28% from conventional thermal; and 13% from nuclear sources, with geothermal making up the remainder. The marked trend toward the development of thermal stations, which became apparent in the 1950s, is due in part to the fact that most of the hydroelectric sites within economic transmission distance of load centers have already been developed. When the Churchill Falls project reached completion in 1974, the capacity of the plant was 5,225 MW, making it, at the time, the largest single generating plant of any type in the world. It has since been surpassed by Hydro-Québec's 5,328 MW generator, the first completed station of the massive James Bay project. Electricity consumption was estimated in 2002 to have totaled 487.3 billion kWh.

Low-cost electricity generated from waterfalls and fast-flowing rivers has been a major factor in the industrialization of Québec, Ontario, and British Columbia, most significantly in the establishment of metal-smelting industries. In other areas, hydroelectric power is not as abundant, but all provinces have turbine installations. As of 2002, Canada's hydroelectric resources still included substantial untapped potential.

Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. is responsible for research into reactor design and the application of nuclear power in the electric power field. In 1962, commercial electric power was first generated in Canada by a nuclear reaction when the Nuclear Power Demonstration Station at Rolphton, Ontario, became operative. Canada's first full-scale nuclear power station, completed in 1956 at Douglas Point on Lake Huron, produced its first power early in 1967. Nuclear power production declined from 102.4 billion kWh at its peak in 1994 to 69.8 billion kWh in 2000. However, in 2002, Canada's output of electrical power from nuclear sources rose to 71.750 billion kWh. In 1999, Canada had 14 nuclear reactors operating at five power facilities. Spurred by a desire to meet its obligations under the Kyoto Protocol, which Canada has signed, plans were put forth in 2004 by the government to build a new nuclear power plant in Ontario. It would be the first such plant in two decades.

Coal production in 2002 is estimated to have reached 73.2 million short tons in 2002, with reserves estimated at 7.3 billion short tons, for that year. About 90% of coal consumption is for electricity generation, and most of the remainder is for steel production. The increase in total output since 1970, especially the increased output from Alberta and British Columbia, is almost entirely due to the growth of the Japanese and South Korean export markets. In eastern Canada, however, domestic coal must be augmented by US coal imports.

INDUSTRY

Industry accounted for 26.4% of GDP in 2004, with approximately 15% of the labor force employed in manufacturing and 5% in construction. The leading industrial sectors are foods and beverages, transport equipment, petroleum, natural gas, coal products, paper and paper products, primary metals, chemicals, fabricated metals, electrical products, and wood products.

Canada's automotive industry is the nation's largest manufacturing sector, accounting for 12% of manufacturing GDP and 25% of manufacturing trade. It employs more than 170,000 people in automotive assembly and component manufacturing, and nearly 335,000 people in distribution and aftermarket sales and service. Canada in 2005 manufactured approximately 2.5 million passenger and commercial vehicles. Canada currently ranks eighth in the world in motor vehicle production. Canada's automotive sector is closely integrated with that of the United States.

More than 150 communities in Canada depend on mining. Canada is one of the largest mining nations in the world, producing more than 70 minerals and metals. Exports of minerals and mineral-based products are close to $50 billion a year, averaging 13% of Canada's total domestic exports.(These figures include all minerals and mineral products excluding oil and natural gas.) The production of fabricated metals is one of Canada's leading industries, with about 50 nonferrous smelters, refineries, and steel mills in operation.

Of the total manufacturing output, about half is concentrated in Ontario, which not only is the center of Canadian industry but also has the greatest industrial diversification. Some important industries operate there exclusively. Québec ranks second in manufacturing production, accounting for some 25% of the value of Canadian manufactured goods. British Columbia ranks third. Manufacturing is also the leading industry in Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

In 2000, Canada had 3,487 researchers and 1,105 technicians per million people actively engaged in scientific research and development (R&D). In 2004, Canadian R&D expenditures were provisionally set at c$24.487 billion. Of that amount, 46.2% came from business, with 35.4% from government sources. Higher education accounted for 17.8%, with foreign sources and private nonprofit organizations accounting for 7.9% and 3.2%, respectively, in that same year. In 2002, high technology exports totaled $22.662 billion, or 14% of manufactured exports.

The Ministry of State for Science and Technology, established in 1971, is the chief federal policymaking body. In 1986, the National Advisory Board for Science and Technology, chaired by the prime minister, was created, and merged with the ministry. In the following year, a National Science and Technology Policy (NSTP) was approved by ministers of the federal, provincial, and territorial governments. The NSTP has emphasized a strong push linking national research to national needs.

The Royal Society of Canada, founded in 1882 and headquartered in Ottawa, is the most prestigious learned society; there are 53 specialized societies in the fields of agriculture, medicine, science, and technology. The National Research Council of Canada, founded in 1916 and headquartered in Ottawa, coordinates research and development in the country; one of its major facilities is the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, established in 1918 at Victoria, British Columbia. The Geological Survey of Canada (founded in 1842) is headquartered in Ottawa.

The National Museum of Science and Technology in Ottawa, founded in 1967, shows Canada's role in science and technology. The Ontario Science Centre, established in North York in 1965, has over 800 exhibits. In 1996, Canada had 49 universities offering courses in basic and applied science. In 198797, science and engineering students accounted for 16% of college and university enrollments. In 2000, of all bachelor's degrees awarded, 20% were in science (natural sciences, mathematics and computers, and engineering).

DOMESTIC TRADE

Wholesalers' and manufacturers' sales branches are the most prominent wholesale and distribution agencies. Wholesaling is particularly prominent in foodstuffs, lumber and building supplies, hardware, coal, clothing, dry goods, automotive equipment, and machinery. In producer goods, however, direct relations are often maintained by resident or traveling agents.

Large-volume outlets, including department stores, large mail-order houses, and chain stores, often buy direct from the manufacturer. A wide variety of local and imported goods is available in all major towns and cities. Vast indoor shopping complexes have been developed in the larger cities, including Eaton Centre in Toronto with over 300 stores and the West Edmonton Mall in Alberta. A 7% goods and service tax (GST) applies to most consumer products and services.

Due to Canada's size and its regional economic differences, distribution is essentially regional. Toronto and Montréal dominate merchandising, are the headquarters of much of Canada's trade and financial apparatus, and do by far the greatest share of import business. Winnipeg is the business center for grain and agricultural implements. Vancouver is the center of the growing British Columbia market. As of 2006, about three-quarters of the labor force was employed in the service industry, which accounted for some 70% of the GDP.

There is considerable advertising overflow from the United States. Business hours are 9 am to 5 pm, Monday through Friday. Shopping hours are 9:30 am to 6 pm, Monday through Saturday; many stores stay open to 9 pm on Thursday and Friday nights and have Sunday hours. Normal banking hours are from 10 am to 4:30 pm,

Country Exports Imports Balance
World 272,044.7 239,698.9 32,345.8
United States 233,425.4 145,403.3 88,022.1
Japan 5,823.1 9,891.0 -4,067.9
United Kingdom 4,345.2 6,481.6 -2,136.4
China 3,402.1 13,278.3 -9,876.2
Germany 2,052.0 6,176.2 -4,124.2
Mexico 1,584.1 8,710.5 -7,126.4
France-Monaco 1,561.0 3,567.6 -2,006.6
Korea, Republic of 1,383.3 3,651.7 -2,268.4
Belgium 1,314.5 831.3 483.2
Italy-San Marino-Holy See 1,234.9 3,299.8 -2,064.9
() data not available or not significant.

Monday through Thursday, and from 10 am to 5 or 6 pm on Fridays. Some banks are open on Saturday mornings.

FOREIGN TRADE

Canada's exports are highly diversified; the principal export groups are industrial goods, forestry products, mineral resources (with crude petroleum and natural gas highly important), and agricultural commodities. Imports are heavily concentrated in the industrial sector, including machinery, transport equipment, basic manufactures, and consumer goods. Trade balances are almost invariably favorable.

In 1989, the United States and Canada signed a free trade agreement; and in 1994 the United States, Canada, and Mexico signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Currently, trade between the United States and Canada is essentially unhindered. In fact, the USCanada trade relationship is the largest such economic association in history.

Cars, trucks, and automobile parts were the second-largest exports of Canada in 2004 (totaling 21.1%), behind machinery and equipment (21.3%). Wood, paper, and paper products follow Canada's vehicle exports closely. Canada's leading markets in 2004 were the United States (88.4% of all exports), Japan (2.1%), the United Kingdom (1.7%), and China (1.7%). Canada's leading suppliers in 2004 were the United States (64.5% of all imports), China (7.5%), Mexico (4.2%), and Japan (4.1%).

BALANCE OF PAYMENTS

Canada's merchandise balances, although fluctuating, showed consistent surpluses between 1961 and 2005, except for 1975. These, however, were offset by persistent deficits from other transactions. Sources of these deficits include Canada's indebtedness to other countries, travel of Canadians abroad, payments for freight and shipping, personal remittances, migrants' transfers, official contributions, and other Canadian government expenditures abroad.

In 2000, Canada recorded a current account surplus of us$12.8 billion, the first such surplus since 1996. Merchandise trade was responsible for most of the improvement, in part due to the then-thriving US economy, which received 86% of Canada's total merchandise exports. Canada at that time received 22% of total US

Current Account 17,268.0
   Balance on goods 41,513.0
     Imports -244,281.0
     Exports 285,794.0
   Balance on services -7,727.0
   Balance on income -16,738.0
   Current transfers 221.0
Capital Account 2,386.0
Financial Account -21,592.0
   Direct investment abroad -22,240.0
   Direct investment in Canada 6,273.0
   Portfolio investment assets 9,139.0
   Portfolio investment liabilities 13,160.0
   Financial derivatives
   Other investment assets -20,555.0
   Other investment liabilities 10,910.0
Net Errors and Omissions -1,767.0
Reserves and Related Items 3,255.0
() data not available or not significant.

merchandise exports, making it the largest single-country export market for the United States.

Merchandise exports on a balance-of-payments basis rose by 7.2% to c$429 billion in 2004 as growth in the US economy remained strong and bilateral trade with China increased exponentially. Merchandise imports rose by 6% to c$363 billion. The merchandise trade surplus rose to c$66.1 billion in 2004 from c$57.6 billion in 2003. In 2004, the current-account balance amounted to us$28.2 billion. From 200105, the current-account balance averaged 1.9% of GDP.

BANKING AND SECURITIES

The Bank of Canada, which was established in 1934, is a government-owned institution that regulates the total volume of currency and credit through changes in the cash reserves of eight domestic chartered banks and 45 foreign bank subsidiaries. The Bank of Canada also acts as the government's fiscal agent, manages the public debt, and has the sole right to issue paper money for circulation in Canada. It is empowered to buy and sell securities on the open market, to fix minimum rates at which it will make advances, and to buy and sell bullion and foreign exchange.

The Federal Business Development Bank, established as the Industrial Development Bank in 1944 as a subsidiary of the Bank of Canada, has operated as a separate entity since 1974. It does not engage in the business of deposit banking but supplements the activities of the chartered banks and other agencies by supplying medium- and long-range capital for small enterprises.

The eight domestic chartered banks are commercial and savings banks combined, and they offer a complete range of banking services. Canada's banks were reorganized in 1992 under the Banking Act. Every 10 years the banks' charters are subject to renewal and the Banking Act is revised to keep abreast of changing trends, a practice unique to Canada. The banks were reorganized into Schedule I and II banks. The Schedule I banks are banks whose ownership is public. No one shareholder in Schedule I banks controlled more than 10% of the shares until the law was revised in 2000. Schedule II banks are subsidiaries of foreign or domestic banks that are held privately or semiprivately. In 1999, foreign banks were given the right to operate branches in the full-service and lending sectors. Schedule I banks include the Bank of Montréal, Bank of Nova Scotia, Canadian Imperail Bank of Commerce, Canadian Western Bank, Laurentian Bank of Canada, National Bank of Canada, Royal Bank of Canada, and the Toronto-Dominion Bank of Canada.

Canada's four biggest banksRoyal Bank of Canada (RBC), Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC), Bank of Montréal, and Bank of Nova Scotiawere all among the top 10 in North America in the 1980s. In 1997, only RBC and CIBC qualified. The Canadian banks began in mid-1996 to speak out in favor of liberalized ownership rules if they were to maintain their competitive edge. In October 1996, the Bank of Montréal chairman, Matthew Barrett, said domestic banks should have the freedom to merge, and that serious thought should be given to dropping the 10% ownership limit. In 1999, banks with equity of over c$5 billion were allowed to merge, and the ownership limit was raised to 20% on vote-taking shares, and 30% on nonvote taking shares. The International Monetary Fund reports that in 2001, currency and demand depositsan aggregate commonly known as M1were equal to us$163.9 billion. In that same year, M2an aggregate equal to M1 plus savings deposits, small time deposits, and money market mutual fundswas us$463.9 billion. The money market rate, the rate at which financial institutions lend to one another in the short term, was 4.11%. The discount rate, the interest rate at which the central bank lends to financial institutions in the short term, was 2.5%.

The Toronto Stock Exchange (TSE) was founded in 1852 and incorporated in 1878. The Standard Stock and Mining Exchange, incorporated in 1908, merged with it in 1934. Its members have branch offices in principal Canadian cities and in some US financial centers.

The Montréal Stock Exchange was incorporated in 1874. In 1974, it merged with the Canadian Stock Exchange, which was organized in 1926 as the Montréal Curb Market. Other securities exchanges were: the Winnipeg Stock Exchange, founded in 1903; the Vancouver Stock Exchange, founded in 1907; and the Alberta Stock Exchange (formerly Calgary Stock Exchange), founded in 1913.

In 1999, the TSE took over all senior equity exchanges from the Montréal market. Also in that year, the TSE and the Canadian Venture Exchange combined to create the TSX Group. The Vancouver and Alberta stock exchanges also merged to form the Canadian Equities Exchange, handling only junior exchanges. As of 2004, there were 3,597 companies listed by the TSX Group. Total market capitalization as of December 2004 stood at $1,177.518 billion. The TSX in 2004 was up 12.5% from the previous year at 9,246.7.

INSURANCE

Of the billions of dollars worth of coverage that Canadians buy every year, most is either life and health insurance or property and casualty insurance. Canadians buy more life and health insurance on a per capita basis than any other group except the Japanese (the United States is third). Compulsory insurance for Canadians includes automobile insurance and workers' compensation, on which the government holds a monopoly. Manitoba, British Columbia, Québec, and Saskatchewan also operate a monopoly on primary automobile policies.

Since 1978, the Canadian property and insurance market has continued to experience underwriting losses. The return on equity fell to 13.1% in 1997, to 6.8% in 1998, and to 5.4% in 1999. Since the industry continues to pay more in claims and expenses than it earns in premium revenue, overall profitability is ultimately determined by revenues generated from investment earnings. A high rate of natural disasters coupled with a low rate of crime in 1999 influenced industry intake. In 2000, government restructuring of the financial sector refused to allow bank branches to distribute insurance policies, supporting the insurance industry. In 2003, direct premiums written in Canada totaled us$59.144 billion, of which us$36.303 billion was nonlife insurance and us$22.841 billion life insurance. In that same year, ING Canada was the country's top nonlife insurer, with gross written nonlife premiums of us$2,119.0 million, while Sun Life of Canada was the nations top life insurer, with gross written life insurance premiums (excluding segregated funds) of us$2,495.8 million.

PUBLIC FINANCE

By far the largest item of expenditure of the federal government is for social services, including universal pension plans, old age security, veterans benefits, unemployment insurance, family and youth allowances, and assistance to disabled, handicapped, unemployed, and other needy persons. Through the early 1970s, federal budgets remained relatively in balance, fluctuating between small surpluses and small deficits. Since then, however, the budget has been in continuous and growing deficit. The federal debt rose from 18% of GDP in 1974 to 70% of GDP in 1993, and about 65% in 1999. Government options to reduce the deficit are constrained by the high level of nondiscretionary spending in the federal budget. Sources

Revenue and Grants 240.98 100.0%
   Tax revenue 168.71 70.0%
   Social contributions 57.98 24.1%
   Grants 0.62 0.3%
   Other revenue 13.67 5.7%
Expenditures 224.4 100.0%
   General public services 67.91 30.3%
   Defense 13.11 5.8%
   Public order and safety 6.84 3.0%
   Economic affairs 13.48 6.0%
   Environmental protection 1.44 0.6%
   Housing and community amenities 2.86 1.3%
   Health 6.04 2.7%
   Recreational, culture, and religion 3.44 1.5%
   Education 4.77 2.1%
   Social protection 104.5 46.6%
() data not available or not significant.

of provincial revenue include various licenses, permits, fines, penalties, sales taxes, and royalties, augmented by federal subsidies, health grants, and other payments. Federal grants and surpluses and federal payments to the provinces under the federal-provincial tax-sharing arrangements constitute a major revenue source of the provinces. Corporation and personal income taxes provide a considerable portion of the revenue of Québec. The largest provincial expenditures are for highways, health and social welfare, education, natural resources, and primary industries. Real property taxes account for more than two-thirds of revenue for municipalities and other local authorities. Almost one-third of their expenditures go to supporting local schools.

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) estimated that in 2004 Canada's central government took in revenues of approximately us$159.6 billion and had expenditures of us$152.6 billion. Revenues minus expenditures totaled approximately us$7 billion. Public debt in 2005 amounted to 68.2% of GDP. Total external debt was us$600.7 billion.

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) reported that in 2003, the most recent year for which it had data, central government revenues in billions of Canadian dollars were 240.98 and expenditures were 224.4. The value of revenues in millions of US dollars was $172 and expenditures $159, based on a market exchange rate for 2003 of 1.4011 as reported by the IMF. Government outlays by function were as follows: general public services, 30.3%; defense, 5.8%; public order and safety, 3.0%; economic affairs, 6.0%; environmental protection, 0.6%; housing and community amenities, 1.3%; health, 2.7%; recreation, culture, and religion, 1.5%; education, 2.1%; and social protection, 46.6%.

TAXATION

As with most industrialized democracies, Canada's tax system is complex, reflecting the impact of numerous social and economic policy goals. There are both federal and provincial taxes on corporate and individual income. Ontario, Québec, and Alberta administer their own corporate tax systems, but in the other provinces, the federal government levies both. As of 2005, Canada's federal corporate income tax rate is 21%, with a surtax adding another 1.12%. However, additional taxes by Canadian provinces/territories, can add 11.5% to 17%. Québec has a rate of 8.9% for active income. Canada is also slated to further reduce the corporate rate. Effective January 1, 2008, the corporate rate will be lowered to 20.5%, while the surtax (as of that date) will be abolished. As of January 1, 2009, the corporate rate will be cut further to 20%, and will be reduced on January 1, 2010 to 19%. Nonresidents of Canada are also subject to a 15% withholding tax for services performed in Canada. Individual income taxes are based on a progressive system, for which the top federal rate is 29%. Individual income tax rates imposed by the provinces/territories vary from 424%.

CUSTOMS AND DUTIES

Customs duties, once the chief source of revenue, have declined in importance as a revenue source as Canada's economy has grown and developed. The tariff, however, still is an important instrument of economic policy. There is a wide range of duties, progressing from free rates on raw materials to higher duties as goods become more highly processed. Producer goods, including machinery of a kind not made in Canada, are subject to lower rates or are admitted free. Imports from the United Kingdom, most Commonwealth countries, and some crown colonies receive a tariff preference on a basis of reciprocity. Imports from nonmembers of the World Trade Organization (WTO) that have not negotiated a trade agreement with Canada are subject to the general or highest duty category. A federal goods and services tax, excise tax, and provincial retail sales taxes add to the cost of importation.

In October 1987, Canada and the United States reached agreement to establish a free trade area between the two countries, which came into force in 1989 with all tariffs being eliminated within 10 years. Today, there are essentially no tariffs on US goods, although there remain a few nontariff barriers to trade. Canadian commercial policy is generally opposed to the use of quantitative restrictions except as permitted by the WTO, or for sanitary reasons, in emergencies, to allocate scarce supplies, or to meet balance-of-payments problems. Canada does not adhere to a general system of import licensing but does require permits for a limited number of products, such as electric power, petroleum, and natural gas and by-products. There are no free ports, but bonded facilities are operated at many ports. Except in grain, for which storage facilities are extremely large, customs warehousing is not extensive.

The United States, Canada, and Mexico signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in December 1992. Approved by the legislatures of all three countries in 1993, NAFTA replaced the existing free trade agreement between Canada and the United States in 1994 but retained many of its major provisions and obligations. Canada and Chile signed a free trade agreement in 1997. NAFTA members are working towards a Free Trade Area of the Americas to incorporate Central and South America.

FOREIGN INVESTMENT

With few exceptions, Canada offers foreign investors full national treatment within the context of a developed open market economy operating with democratic principles and institutions. However, Canada is one of the few OECD countries that still have a formal investment review process, and foreign investment is prohibited or restricted in certain sectors of the economy.

The federal corporate tax is 21%. The federal capital tax will be eliminated for all businesses by 2008. Provincial governments charge corporate taxes at rates from 10% upwards; the federal government allows a tax credit of 10% against these provincial levies.

By the beginning of 2003, foreign direct investment (FDI) in Canada, which has increased steadily since the early 1950s, amounted to us$349.4 billion. This was only 4.7% above the level in 2001, the lowest rate of increase since 1993. FDI inflow in 2002 was us$33.6 billion, about 20% lower than 2001. The US share in annual FDI inflow declined from 91% in 2001 to 74.7% in 2002. The second-largest source of inward FDI was the European Union. Canada's relative share of global inward FDI remained unchanged in 2001 and 2002, at about 4% of the world total. The inflow of foreign portfolio investment (foreign purchases of Canadian stocks and bonds) declined from us$30.1 billion to us$17.9 billion.

Outward FDI by Canadians has grown at an even faster average rate than inward FDI over the last 1015 years. FDI assets held by Canadians reached us$432 billion in 2002. Outward FDI flow was us$43.8 billion down about 20% from 2001. Direct investments in the United States accounted for 47% of outward FDI, down from 60% in 2001. As in 2001, Canada accounted for about 6% of the world total outward FDI in 2002. Outward portfolio investment in 2002 was us$24.7 billion, down from us$37.7 billion in 2001 in 2002, up 10.8% from 2001.

By 2006, the soaring price of oil and other commodities had prompted a surge in investment. Some us$39 billion of new investment was announced early in 2005 in Alberta's oil sector alone. Railway lines are being built, ports expanded, and oil and gas pipelines laid. From 200105, FDI inflows averaged 2% of GDP.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Basically, Canada has a free-enterprise economy. However, the government has intervened in times of economic crisis and to accomplish specific social or economic goals. For example, in October 1963, the Canadian government announced a plan, involving tariff rebates, designed to induce US automobile companies to increase the export of vehicles and parts from their plants in Canada; subsequently, US companies markedly increased the scale of their Canadian operations. To dampen speculative buying of the Canadian dollar, the government permitted the dollar to float in the foreign exchange markets as of 31 May 1970; the government's intent was also to make imports cheaper in terms of Canadian dollars, and thereby to dampen domestic inflation. Another attempt at economic intervention, the Canada Anti-Inflation Act, became effective on 16 December 1975. This legislation established an Anti-Inflation Board and an Anti-Inflation Appeal Tribunal to monitor wage and price guidelines, which are mandatory for key sectors of the economy. The act was part of a government program to limit the growth of public expenditures and public service employment, to allow the money supply to increase at a rate consistent with moderate real growth, and to establish new agencies and policies to deal with energy, food, and housing.

A recurrent problem for Canada has been the dominant position of US corporations and investors. Attempts to limit US influence have included tightened tax policies, the Foreign Investment Review Act, and, in 1980, the National Energy Program (NEP), which aimed at reducing foreign ownership of Canada's oil and gas industry, principally through assisting Canadian companies to take over foreign holdings. One beneficiary of the NEP was the government-owned Petro-Canada, created in the mid-1970s; by the end of 1985, Petro-Canada had become the country's second-largest oil company, ranked by assets. However, much of the NEP was eliminated in the mid-1980s by the Conservative government, which sought to encourage foreign investment and to privatize government-owned enterprises. Between 1984 and 1991, the government sold or dissolved over 20 federal corporations, deregulated much of the energy, transportation, and financial sectors, and removed many controls on foreign investment.

In 2000, after more than 10 years of the bilateral trade agreement with the United States, and six years under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Canada's economy was growing at a comfortable pace, unemployment was falling, and inflation was low; but nationals were still dissatisfied with the size of the Canadian economy as compared to US affluence. The economic downturn that began in the United States in 2001 negatively impacted the Canadian economy. In addition, the 2003 outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) worldwide harmed tourism and exports in Canada, as Toronto was struck by the worst outbreak of the disease outside Asia. In addition, a cow in Alberta was diagnosed with mad-cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalophathy) in May 2003, and the United States and four other countries placed a ban on the import of Canadian beef. (Canada is the world's third-largest exporter of beef, after Australia and the United States.) However, shipments of most Canadian beef to the United States were resumed in late 2003, and trade in live cattle under 30 months resumed in July 2005.

By 2006, federal finances were holding up well and federal debt as a share of GDP was forecast to continue on a downward trend. In the medium term, the government planned to cut taxes and increase expenditures. Immigration and internal security remain key policy issues. Canada's close bilateral relationship with the United States had been soured by a number of security and trade disputes, such as the United States' imposition of tariffs on shipments of Canadian softwood lumber and over the Unites States' approach to climate change.

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Federal programs include family allowances, old age security, and earning-related disability and survivors' pensions. There is a universal pension for all residents, and an earnings related pension for most employed persons. The universal pension is funded by the government, while the employment based program is financed with employer and employee contributions. There is a family allowance for low-income families for each child under the age of eighteen. The amount of these child allowances declines as family net income increases. Benefits are provided for the disabled, and the benefit is adjusted for changes in the consumer price index.

Sickness and maternity benefits are available for all wage earners and salaried workers. Virtually the total population is covered for physician and hospital services. Workers' medical benefits include general medical and maternity care, as well as specialty and laboratory services. There are additional benefits available to residents of some provinces. There is a funeral grant that varies according to province.

The first work injury laws were enacted in 1908. Employees in industry and commerce are covered, and the employer funds the program. Unemployment is funded by both the employer and employee contributions. All wage earners and salaried workers are covered by the program. The government funds a social assistance system for all residents based on total family income.

Women participate fully in the Canadian labor force, including business and the professions, although government reports show that their average earnings are still less than those of men. There is equality in marriage and property rights. The law prohibits sexual harassment and criminal harassment. The government spends considerable funds to prevent domestic violence and to provide services to victims. Incidences of violence against women declined in 2004.

The government protects human rights, and the law and judiciary are effective in addressing incidence of abuse. There has been an increase in anti-Semitic harassment in recent years, as well as a rise in trafficking in women.

HEALTH

Canada adopted a national health insurance scheme in 1971. It is administered regionally; each province runs a public insurance plan with the government contributing about 40% of the cost (mostly from taxes). Government regulations ensure that private insurers can only offer particular types of health care provision. Drug prices are low. Most hospitals and doctors operate privately. Hospitals are paid by allocated budgets and doctors receive fees per treatment. The system offers considerable choice, but there is little competition and the government has used rationing measures to limit health care expenditures. Access to health care and cost containment are good, but there are strains on the budget, increased by an aging population. In 1997, the National Forum on Health, created by the government three years earlier, released a report on ways to improve Canada's health system. It recommended several initiatives, including formation of a Health Transition Fund to support provincial and territorial health programs.

Major health planning is carried on by provincial governments, most of which offer substantial free care for patients suffering from tuberculosis (7 cases reported per 100,000 people in 1999), poliomyelitis, venereal diseases, and certain types of cancer. They also assume responsibility for mental health treatment. Municipalities are responsible for sanitation; communicable disease control; child, maternal, and school health care; public health nursing; health education; and vital statistics. In some cases, they supply hospital care and medical service to the poor. The federal government provides consultant and specialist services to the provinces, assists in the financing of provincial programs, provides services to veterans and Indians, exercises control over the standard and distribution of food and drugs, maintains quarantine measures, and is responsible for carrying out certain international health obligations. The federal Department of National Health and Welfare provides financial assistance for provincial health and hospital services through the National Health Program and for provincial hospital insurance programs through the Hospital Insurance and Diagnostic Services Act of 1957, under which the federal government shares the provinces' costs (since 1977, by means of tax transfers and cash payments). By 1973, this program had been established in all provinces and territories, covering more than 99% of the total population of Canada. Federal and provincial governments contribute toward construction costs of new hospitals. Total health care expenditures for 1995 were us$1,899 per capita. Public insurance pays about 80% of the Canadian population's health bills. The total expenditure on health is second only to the United States, with an estimated 9.3% of GDP going toward health as of 1999. As of 2004, there were an estimated 209 physicians, 1,010 nurses, 80 pharmacists, and 56 dentists per 100,000 people.

The Canadian death rate of 7.5 per 1,000 people in 1999, the maternal death rate (1998) of 6 per 100,000 live births, and the infant mortality rate (2005) of 5 per 1,000 live births are among the lowest in the world. In 1999, 6% of all births were low birth weight. Diseases of the heart and arteries account for nearly 40% of all deaths and cancer accounts for about 28%; the proportion of deaths from causes related to old age is rising. Tobacco consumption, which was 2.8 kg (6.2 lbs) a year per adult in 198486, was 2.3 kg (5.1 lbs) in 1995. Accidents are the leading cause of death in childhood and among young adult males and rank high for other population groups. In 2005, life expectancy at birth was estimated at 80 years. Canada had a birth rate of 11.9 per 1,000. Approximately 73% of married women (ages 15 to 49) were using contraception. Children up to one year of age were immunized as follows: diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, 93%; polio, 89%; and measles, 98%.

The HIV/AIDS prevalence was 0.30 per 100 adults in 2003. As of 2004, there were approximately 56,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in the country. There were an estimated 1,500 deaths from AIDS in 2003.

HOUSING

According to the 2001 census, there were about 11,562,975 occupied private dwellings in Canada and 25,755 collective dwellings. The average number of persons per household is about 2.6. The most active period of housing construction of private homes was during the period 197180, when about 21% of the existing housing stock was built. In the period 19962001, there were 819,865 private dwellings built. The average value of a private home was about $162,709 in 2001. In 2003, about 57% of all households were in single, detached homes, about 30% were in apartments, and 10% were in single, attached housing. About 65% of all dwellings are owner occupied.

EDUCATION

The age limits of compulsory school attendance are roughly from age 6 to age 16. Primary schools lasts for six to eight years and secondary or high school another six years. Each province is responsible for its own system of education. While the systems differ in some details, the general plan is the same for all provinces except Québec, which has two parallel systems: one mainly for Roman Catholics and speakers of French, the other primarily for non-Catholics and speakers of English. Québec, Newfoundland, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and, to a lesser extent, Ontario provide for public support of church-affiliated schools. Primary and secondary education is generally free, although nominal fees are charged for secondary education in some schools or provinces. Public elementary and secondary schools are administered by the provinces and Yukon Territory. As of 2003, public expenditure on education was estimated at 5.2% of GDP, or 12.5% of total government expenditures.

In 2001, about 64.7% of all children between the ages of four and five were enrolled in some type of preschool program. Primary school enrollment in 2000 was estimated at about 99.6% of age-eligible students. The same year, secondary school enrollment was about 94% of age-eligible students. The student-to-teacher ratio for primary school was at about 17:1 in 2003. The ratio for secondary school was about 17:1.

Canadian higher education began with the founding of the Collège des Jésuites in Québec City in 1635. The Séminaire de Québec, another Jesuit institution, established in 1663, became Laval University in 1852. Other early institutions on the French collegiate model were the Collège St. Boniface in Manitoba (1827), the University of Ottawa (1848), and St. Joseph's University in New Brunswick (1864). Although many French institutions survivemost notably the University of Montréal, which separated itself from Laval in 1920most university-level instruction is conducted in English on the Scottish, British, or US model. The first English-language college in Canada was King's College in Halifax, Nova Scotia (1789). Two private universities on the Scottish model are Dalhousie University in Halifax (1818) and McGill University in Montréal (1821). The first state-supported institution, founded in 1827 on the principles of Anglicanism and loyalty to the British crown, was King's College at York in Upper Canada, which became the University of Toronto, the largest and one of the most distinguished of Canadian institutions. Universities in each of the four western provincesManitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbiafounded in the late 19th century, represent a Canadian adaptation of the US state land-grant universities.

Canada also has numerous community colleges, teachers' colleges, technical institutes, nursing schools, and art schools. Adult education is sponsored by universities, colleges, school boards, government departments, and voluntary associations, each of which has some other primary function. The Canadian Broadcasting Corp., the National Film Board, and many museums, art galleries, and libraries engage in adult education as part of their work. Instructors are represented by the Canadian Association of University Teachers, and students by the Canadian Federation of Students. In 2001, about 59% of the tertiary age population were enrolled in some type of higher education program. The adult literacy rate has been estimated at about 97%.

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

Municipal public libraries serve the large cities and many small towns and rural areas; regional units supply library service to scattered population areas. Traveling libraries, operated by provincial governments or university extension departments, also provide mail services for more isolated individuals and communities. Although public libraries are organized and financed by municipalities, in most provinces the provincial government supervises library services and makes grants to the municipal units. Special libraries of various kinds and at various levels serve limited groups.

In 2004, Library and Archives Canada (LAC) was established through a government act which essentially merged the services of the National Library of Canada with the National Archives of Canada. The massive collection of the new LAC includes over 300,000 hours of film archives; over 2.5 million architectural drawings, plans, and maps; 21.3 million photographic images; 343,000 works of arts; 200,000 music recordings; the Canadian Postal Archives; and millions of books, among other materials.

Canada also has a number of major academic libraries, most notably at the University of Toronto, which itself has over 14 million volumes. In 2002, Canada had a total of 3,932 libraries, including 1,673 public libraries, 484 academic libraries, 380 government libraries, and a variety of special libraries.

There are about 2,000 museums, art galleries, and related institutions in Canada. Major museums located in Ottawa include the National Arts Center, the National Gallery of Canada (including the Canadian Museum of Contemporary Photography), the Canadian Museum of Nature, and the National Museum of Science and Technology (including the National Aviation Museum and the Agriculture Museum). Other notable Canadian museums include the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto and the Fine Arts Museum in Montréal. The major museums and art galleries, located in the principal cities, provide valuable educational services to adults and children; many supply traveling exhibitions for their surrounding areas or regions. The National Gallery conducts extension work throughout the country and sends many exhibitions on tour.

MEDIA

The 10 public and private companies in Telecom Canada provide a major share of the nation's telecommunications services, including all long-distance service, and link regional networks across Canada. In 2003, there were an estimated 629 mainline telephones for every 1,000 people. The same year, there were approximately 417 mobile phones in use for every 1,000 people. Telegraph services are operated by the two transcontinental railroads and by the federal government to outlying districts. All external telecommunication services are operated by the Canadian Overseas Telecommunication Corp., a crown agency. The Post Office became a crown corporation in 1981.

The Broadcasting Act of 1968 entrusted the Canadian Radio-Television Commission with the regulation and supervision of all aspects of the broadcasting system. The publicly owned Canadian Broadcasting Corp. (CBC) provides the national broadcasting service in Canada. Its radio and television facilities extend from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific and north to the Arctic Circle. The CBC has broadcasting stations in the principal cities and operates both English- and French-language national networks. Privately owned local stations form part of the networks and provide alternative programs. In 2005, there were nearly 2,000 licensed radio stations in the country. There are at least 80 television stations. Radio Canada International, the CBC's shortwave service, broadcasts in seven languages to Europe, Africa, Latin America, Asia, the Middle East, the South Pacific, and the United States.

The Canadian communication satellites play an increasingly significant role in efforts to bring radio and television services to the more remote parts of the country, particularly in the north. Beginning in late 1980, a new television network began broadcasting programs in the Inuit language via satellite, offering viewers the opportunity to "talk back" through their television sets to people in other communities. In 2003, there were an estimated 1,047 radios and 691 television sets for every 1,000 people. The same year, there were 487 personal computers for every 1,000 people and 513 of every 1,000 people had access to the Internet. There were over 15,000 secure Internet servers in the country in 2004.

In 2004 there were over 100 major daily newspapers across the country. Although some newspapers in Montréal, Québec, Toronto, Winnipeg, and Vancouver have more than local influence, most circulate only on a regional basis and have a limited number of readers. Rural areas are served by over 2,000 monthly and weekly publications. There are many consumer magazines, but only Maclean's is truly national. Three large news-gathering organizations are the Canadian Press, a cooperatively owned and operated venture, the British United Press, and United Press International of Canada.

Canada's leading English-language newspapers (with their 2004 daily circulations) include Toronto Star (464,838), Globe and Mail (317,954), National Post (243,966), Toronto Sun (194,011), Vancouver Sun (172,486), The Province (in Vancouver, 154,590), The Gazette (in Montréal, 135,471), Ottawa Citizen (129,175), Edmonton Journal (125,848), Winnipeg Free Press (117,608), Calgary Herald (114,213), The Chronicle-Herald (in Halifax, 110,033), The Hamilton Spectator (102,574), and The London Free Press (90,043). The leading French-language dailies (with their 2002 daily circulations) include Le Journal de Montréal (265,168), La Presse (in Montréal, 188,216), Le Journal de Québec (97,805), and Le Soleil (in Québec, 76,307). The Mail Star of Halifax merged with the Chronicle-Herald on 2004. The Times Colonist in Victoria is a fairly substantial regional paper with a daily circulation of about 69,855.

In 2004, there about 765 community weekly newspapers in the country. A few of the largest include the Brampton Guardian (circulation 113,032 in 2004), The Scarborough Mirror (110,000), Etobicoke Guardian (69,500), and The Cambridge Reporter (52,000). Le Soleil du St. Laurent is a French weekly based out of Chateauguay, Québec with a circulation of 51,560. Some prominent alternative newspapers in Canada include Le Journal Voir (Montréal, 107,161 weekly in 2004), Now (Toronto, 106,296 weekly), Mirror (Montréal, 66,494 weekly), and Monday Magazine (Victoria, 40,000 weekly). Prominent ethnic weeklies with their language, city, and average circulation in 2004 were Il Cittadino Canadese (Italian, Montréal, 40,000), Corriere Italiano (Italian, Montréal, 40,000), Deutsche Press (German, Toronto, 27,500), El Expreso (Spanish, Toronto, 20,000), and Kanada Kurier (German, Winnipeg, 19,500). The Canadian Daily News of Don Mills, Ontario, has a weekly circulation of 48,700.

The law provides for freedom of expression, including speech and press, and the government supports these rights. The banning of journalists from reporting on some court cases until after a trial in concluded enjoys widespread public support, in favor of a defendant's right to a fair trial.

ORGANIZATIONS

Cooperatives are very important in Canadian agriculture and fishing, and also provide housing, medical insurance, transportation, and other services. Trade unions and professional organizations exist for a wide array of professions. The Confederation of National Trade Unions and the Canadian National Federation of Independent Unions serve as umbrella organizations for some unions. Almost every city has a chamber of commerce, affiliated with the national Canadian Chamber of Commerce. The Canadian Council of Better Business Bureaus and the Consumers' Association of Canada are based in Ottawa.

Among organizations active in general education are the Canadian Association for Adult Education, the Canadian Association of University Teachers, Project READ Literacy Network, and the Industrial Foundation on Education, a research organization aiming to promote aid to education by business. There are numerous associations for educators in various fields. The Canada Council is the official national agency for promotion of the arts, humanities, and the social sciences. The Royal Canadian Academy of Arts is the oldest arts organization with national prestige. The Canada Arts Council, a federation of professional cultural organizations, includes the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, the Canadian Authors' Association, the Canadian Music Council, the Sculptors' Society of Canada, and similar societies. The Royal Canadian Geographical Society promotes the study of Canadian history and culture. There are also numerous associations for hobbyists.

Such organizations as the Canadian Medical Association, the Canadian Dental Association, the Canadian Nurses Association, and the Canadian Mental Health Association serve as both as networks for medical professionals and a resource for education and public action and awareness on health issues. There are hundreds of health and medical associations dedicated to education and research in specialized fields of medicine, such as the Canadian Lung Association and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. Many voluntary societies are active in the field of health.

There are numerous national, regional, and local organizations dedicated to concerns of social welfare and public affairs. These include the National Council of Women of Canada, National Action Committee on the Status of Women, Canadian Human Rights Foundation, and the Canadian Civil Liberties Association is based in Toronto. The Canadian Red Cross Society, affiliated with the International Red Cross Society, has branches in all 10 provinces. The country has chapters of UNICEF, Habitat for Humanity, CARE, Amnesty International, and Greenpeace.

Youth organizations exist for a variety of interests. The Canadian Federation of Students (CFS), founded in 1981, has over 400 000 individual members and 65 student association voting members. The Canadian Council on Children and Youth (CCCY), established in 1958, works to defend the rights of youth. Other youth organizations include Big Brothers/Big Sisters of Canada, the Boys and Girls Clubs of Canada, Canada World Youth, Canadian 4-H Council, YMCA/YWCA, Canadian Hostelling Association, Girl Guides of Canada, National Canadian Girls in Training Association, and the Progressive Conservative Youth Federation of Canada. Sports organizations exist for nearly every sport and leisure-time activity.

TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

One of Canada's principal attractions for tourists is its extraordinary geographic variety: from the polar ice cap to the mountains, fjords, and rain forests of the west coast, from the lakes, forests, and ranchlands of the interior to the rugged shores and fine beaches of the east, Canada offers a remarkable range of scenic wonders. The excavation of L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland, with its Norse artifacts and reconstructed dwellings, has been designated a world heritage site by UNESCO, as have Nahanni National Park in the Northwest Territories and Dinosaur Park in Alberta's Red Deer Badlands. Among the most spectacular parks are the Kluane National Park in the Yukon and the Banff (with Lake Louise) and Jasper national parks in the mountains of Alberta. Other attractions include the Cabot Trail in Nova Scotia; the Bay of Fundy, between New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; and the Laurentians and the Gaspé Peninsula in Québec.

The arts and crafts of the Dene Indians and the Inuit may be seen in cooperative workshops in Inuvik in the Northwest Territories; and of the North West Coast Indians, at the reconstructed Indian village Ksan in British Columbia. Québec City is the only walled city in North America; picturesque old fishing villages are to be found in the Atlantic provinces. Fishing and hunting attract many sportsmen to Canada, and ice hockey attracts many sports fans, particularly to the Forum in Montréal. In 1992, the Toronto major league baseball team, the Blue Jays, became the first non-American team to both play in and win the World Series. In 2004, the Montréal Expos played their final major league baseball season in Canada; the team relocated to Washington, D.C., where they opened the 2005 baseball season as the Washington Nationals.

One of the world's foremost summer theatrical events is the Shakespeare Festival at Stratford, Ontario. Toronto is known for its many theaters, the CN Tower, and a fine zoo; Montréal, the second-largest French-speaking city in the world (after Paris), is famous for its fine French cuisine, night life, vast underground shopping and entertainment network, and its excellent subway system.

Montréal in 1967 hosted a major world trade exhibition, EXPO 67; the Summer Olympics took place in that same city in 1976. A world's fair, EXPO 86, was held in Vancouver in 1986, and Calgary was the site of the 1988 Winter Olympics. The Winter Olympics were scheduled to be held in Vancouver in 2010.

In 2003, Canada was the third most popular tourist destination in the Americas after the United States and Mexico. In that year, 17,534,298 tourists arrived from abroad, 14,232,370 of them from the United States. In 2003, tourist receipts totaled us$12.2 billion.

Citizens of the United States do not need passports but should carry documents attesting to their citizenship, such as birth certificates or voter registration cards. Alien residents should carry their green cards. Nationals of other countries must have valid passports and may require visitor visas; they should check with the nearest Canadian embassy, consulate, or high commission. In 1991, a 7% Goods and Services Tax went into effect; however, it is refundable to foreign tourists.

In 2005, the US Department of State estimated the daily cost of staying in Vancouver at us$207 from the months of May through October. That same year, the daily cost of a visit to Toronto was estimated at us$295.

FAMOUS CANADIANS

Political Figures

Because of their exploits in establishing and developing early Canada, then known as New France, a number of eminent Frenchmen are prominent in Canadian history, among them the explorers Jacques Cartier (14911557), Samuel de Champlain (1567?1635), Étienne Brulé (1592?1633), Jacques Marquette (163775), Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle (164387), and Louis Jolliet (16451700); François Xavier de Laval de Montigny (16231708), first and greatest bishop of Québec; Jean Baptiste Talon (1625?94), first and greatest intendant, who re-created the colony on a sound economic basis; and Louis de Buade, Comte de Palluau et de Frontenac (c.162298), greatest of the French royal governors. Great explorers of a later period include Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de la Vérendrye (16951749), Sir Alexander Mackenzie (17641820), David Thompson (17701857), Simon Fraser (17761871), Joseph E. Bernier (18521934), and Joseph Burr Tyrrell (18581957). Louis Riel (184485), of Indian and French-Irish ancestry, led the métis in rebellion in 186970 and 1885, when he was captured and hanged for treason.

Fathers of confederation and other important 19th-century political figures include Louis Joseph Papineau (17861871) and William Lyon Mackenzie (17951861); Sir John Alexander Macdonald (181591), first prime minister of the confederation; George Brown (181880), Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley (181896), and Sir Charles Tupper (18211915). The greatest political leader at the turn of the century was Sir Wilfrid Laurier (18411919), prime minister from 1896 to 1911. The outstanding national leader of the first half of the 20th century was William Lyon Mackenzie King (18741950), Liberal prime minister for over 21 years (192126, 192630, 193548), who retired with a record of the longest service as prime minister in Commonwealth history. Charles Vincent Massey (18871967), governor-general from 1952 to 1959, was the first Canadian to represent the British crown in Canada. Lester Bowles Pearson (18971972), prime minister and Canada's longtime UN representative, won the Nobel Prize for peace in 1957. Pierre Elliott Trudeau (19192000) served as prime minister from 1968 to 1979 and again from 1980 to 1984, when he was succeeded by Brian Mulroney (b.1939). The best-known French-Canadian separatist was René Lévesque (192287), leader of the Parti Québécois, who became premier of Québec in 1976.

Artists

Highly regarded Canadian painters include James Edward Hervey MacDonald (18731932), Thomas John ("Tom") Thomson (18771917), Frederick Horsman Varley (18811969), and Lawren Stewart Harris (18851970) of the Group of Seven; James Wilson Morrice (18641924); and Emily Carr (18711945). Paul-Emile Borduas (190560) and Jean-Paul Riopelle (19232002) both were part of the Montréal School; however, after settling abroad, they probably became better known in France and the United States than in their native country. Two other artists of distinction are James W. G. MacDonald (18971960) and Harold Barling Town (192490). The portrait photographer Yousuf Karsh (b.Armenia-in-Turkey, 19082002) was a longtime Canadian resident.

Musicians

Well-known Canadian musicians include the composer Healey Willan (18801968); the conductor Sir Ernest Campbell MacMillan (18931973); the pianist Glenn Gould (193282); the singers Edward Johnson (18781959), Jon Vickers (b.1926), and Maureen Forrester (b.1931); the bandleader Guy Lombardo (190277); and, among recent popular singers and songwriters, Gordon Lightfoot (b.1938), Paul Anka (b.1941), Joni Mitchell (b.1943), Neil Young (b.1945), Celine Dion (b.1968), and Shania Twain (b.1965).

Actors

Canadian-born actors who are known for their association with Hollywood include Marie Dressler (Leila Koerber, 18691934), Walter Huston (Houghston, 18841950), Mary Pickford (Gladys Mary Smith, 18931979), Raymond Hart Massey (18961983), Walter Pidgeon (18971984), Norma Shearer (190483), Lorne Greene (191587), Raymond Burr (191793), William Shatner (b.1931), and Donald Sutherland (b.1935). Stage personalities include Beatrice Lillie (18941989), Hume Cronyn (191196), and Christopher Plummer (b.1929). Atom Egoyan (b.1960 in Egypt) is a filmmaker of Armenian descent, known for his film The Sweet Hereafter (1997).

Sports

Notable in the world of sports are ice-hockey stars Maurice ("Rocket") Richard (19212000), Gordon ("Gordie") Howe (b.1928), Robert Marvin ("Bobby") Hull, Jr. (b.1939), Robert ("Bobby") Orr (b.1948), and Wayne Gretzky (b.1961).

Authors

Thomas Chandler Haliburton (17961865), author of Sam Slick, was the first Canadian writer to attain more than a local reputation. Sir Charles George Douglas Roberts (18601943) and Bliss Carman (18611929) were widely read poets and short-story writers. Archibald Lampman (186199) wrote sensitive poems about nature. Narrative poems about the northwest frontier by Robert William Service (18741958) achieved mass popularity, as did the backwoods novels of Ralph Connor (Charles William Gordon, 18601937). The animal stories and bird drawings of Ernest Evan Thompson Seton (b.UK, 18601946) are still highly regarded. Stephen Butler Leacock (18691944), economist and essayist, is regarded as Canada's leading humorist. The Anne of Green Gables novels of Lucy Maud Montgomery (18741942) have been popular with girls of several generations. Mazo de la Roche (18851961) achieved fame for her romantic Jalna novels about an Ontario family. Well-known contemporary novelists include Morley Edward Callaghan (190390), Hugh MacLennan (190790), Farley McGill Mowat (b.1921), Alice Munro (b.1931), Margaret Lawrence (192687), Mordecai Richler (19312001), and Marian Passmore Engel (19331985). The novels and plays of Robertson Davies (191395), newspaper editor, actor, music critic, and university administrator, crackle with wit. Lorne Albert Pierce (18901961) was a prominent editor and literary critic. Herbert Marshall McLuhan (191180) was a communications theorist and cultural critic. Herman Northrop Frye (191291) was a well-known literary critic, and Margaret Atwood (b.1939) is a noted novelist and poet. Jewish-American novelist Saul Bellow (19152005), was born in what is now Montréal; he won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1976. The British newspaper publisher William Maxwell Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook (18791964), was born in Canada.

The Histoire du Canada (1845) of François Xavier Garneau (180966) stimulated a great interest in French Canada's heritage. Joseph Octave Crémazie (182779) was the first notable French Canadian poet. The poems of Louis Honoré Fréchette (18391908) were crowned by the French Academy. Louis Hémon (18801913), a French journalist who came to Canada in 1910 and spent only 18 months there, wrote the classic French Canadian novel Maria Chapdelaine (1914). Authors of realistic novels dealing with social and economic problems of French Canada include Claude-Henri Grignon (18941976), author of Un Homme et son péché (1933); Jean-Charles Harvey (18921967), author of Les Démi-civilisées (1934); Ringuet (Dr. Philippe Panneton, 18951960), author of Trente Arpentes (1938); Germaine Grignon Guevremont (19001968); Roger Lemelin (191992), author of Au pied de la pente douce (1944); and Gabrielle Roy (Carbotte, 190993). Gratien Gélinas (19091999) is an actor, director, and dramatic satirist. Abbé Félix Antoine Savard (18961982) wrote a poetic novel of pioneer life, Menaud, maître-drayeur.

Scientists and Inventors

Among the famous Canadian scientists and inventors are Sir Sanford Fleming (18271915), inventor of standard time; Sir William Osler (18491919), the father of psychosomatic medicine; and Sir Charles Saunders (18671937), who developed the Marquis wheat strain, which revolutionized wheat growing in northern latitudes. The codiscoverers of insulin, Sir Frederick Grant Banting (18911941) and John James Richard Macleod (18761935), were awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1923. George Brock Chisholm (18961971) was an eminent psychiatrist and former head of WHO. Gerhard Herzberg (b.Germany, 19041999) won the 1971 Nobel Prize for chemistry for his work on molecular spectroscopy. Marius Barbeau (18831969), anthropologist and folklorist, was an authority on totem poles and Canadian folk music. David Hubel (b.1926 in Windsor, Ontario) shared the Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine in 1981 for discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system. Henry Taube (19152005) was born in Saskatton; he won the 1983 Nobel Prize in chemistry. Canadian John C. Polanyi (b.1929) shared the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1986. Sidney Altman (b.1939), shared the 1989 Nobel Prize in chemistry. Richard E. Taylor (b.1929), shared the 1990 Nobel Prize in physics for discoveries regarding the development of the quark model in particle physics. Rudolph A. Marcus (b.1923), born in Montréal, won the 1992 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems. Michael Smith (19322000) shared the 1993 Nobel Prize in chemistry for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry. Bertram N. Brockhouse (19182003) shared the 1994 Nobel Prize in physics for contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques. William Vickrey (191496) was born in Victoria, British Columbia; he shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in economics. Myron S. Scholes (b.1941) shared the 1997 Nobel Prize in economics. Robert Mundell (b.1932) won the 1999 Nobel Prize in economics for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes.

DEPENDENCIES

Northwest Territories

Prior to its division with Nunavut in 1999, the Northwest Territories constituted all of Canada north of 60°n except the Yukon and the northernmost parts of Québec and Newfoundland. Total land area was 3,293,020 sq km (1,271,438 sq mi). After the 1999 division, the territory encompassed 1.17 million sq km. The division ran along the Saskatchewan-Manitoba border through the Arctic Archipelago to the North Pole. Most of the people who live in the territories are aboriginal. The population of the new Northwest Territories in 2000 was 42,083. Over half the population is spread out among 33 communities, and the other half is located in the capital of Yellowknife.

The Mackenzie River and its tributaries, the Athabasca and Slave, provide an inland transportation route of about 2,700 km (1,700 mi). There is some traffic on Lakes Athabasca, Great Bear, and Great Slave. Most of the settlements in Mackenzie are linked by scheduled air service.

The new territory is governed by a commissioner and by a 19-member elected territorial assembly. Six ministers and a premier are elected to serve as an executive council. Following the approval by voters in April 1982 of a proposal to divide the territory, the federal government scheduled the division in 1999. The Inuit of the east called their eastern jurisdiction Nunavut; Indians of the westwhere opinion on the proposal was sharply splitcalled their proposed division Deneden. Land claims of Dene Indians and the Inuit overlapped. Nunavut was created in 1999, and the name "Northwest Territories" for the other half of the area was to be used until such time as residents would be asked to vote on a new constitution, or the territorial assembly would be asked to vote on a new name.

Northwest Territories' mineral resources include rich deposits of gold, silver, lead, tungsten, and zinc. The Northwest Territories contain some of Canada's total mineral resources. It was the Yukon gold rush in 1897 that triggered a large migration of people northward. In one year 30,000 people from the lower parts of Canada were in the Northwest and Yukon Territories looking for gold.

Today, Canada leads in the production of oil, natural gas and coal. Canada's mining industry contributes US$20 billion annually to the economy and employs 145,000 people. In 1989 Canada's oil and gas industry was valued at US$19 billion with 55% of the revenue coming from oil production. Whitefish and trout are caught in Great Slave Lake; the 100,000 or more lakes of the territories provide an "angler's last frontier" in North America for sport fishermen. Fur production is a sizable industry in the Northwest Territories.

Nunavut

The territory of Nunavut, meaning "Our Land" in Inuktitut, was created on 1 April 1999, when the Northwest Territories divided in two. Nunavut encompasses 1,994,000 sq km in the eastern Arctic region of Canada. The islands in the Hudson and James Bays are included. The population in 1999 was approximately 27,500, of whom 20,500 were Inuit. Languages spoken are Inuktitut (many dialects), Inuinnaqtun, English, and French. Iqaluit is the capital and the largest community in Nunavut, with more than 4,200 residents in 1996. The territory is divided into three regions (Qikiqtaaluk, Kivalliq, and Kitikmeot) and 28 communities. Government departments and agencies are located in the various communities in a decentralized fashion. There are an elected legislative assembly, a cabinet, and a territorial court. As of 2003, the government of Nunavut was assuming the responsibilities formerly controlled by the government of the Northwest Territories for programs in culture, public housing, and health care to be completed by 2009. The territory has 21 km of roadways, none of them paved. A handicrafts industry supplies Inuit-made sculpture and prints to the Canadian Handicrafts Guild. Most of the richest and well-developed parts of the Northwest Territories were not included in Nunavut, which now relies largely on developing its mineral resources. Hunting, fishing, fur trapping, and sealing also contribute to the economy.

Yukon Territory

The Yukon Territory, located north of British Columbia and east of Alaska, has a land area of 478,970 sq km (184,931 sq mi) and had an estimated population in the mid-1990s of more than 30,000, of whom some one-fifth were of Indian origin. The principal town is Whitehorse, the capital. An all-weather roadway connects the territory with Alaska and British Columbia, and a railroad connects Whitehorse with ocean shipping at Skagway, Alaska. Air service is available to and from Edmonton, Vancouver, and Fairbanks, Alaska. There are local telephone services in the three chief towns. The territory was separately constituted in June 1898. Since 1978, the Yukon has had a legislative assembly, consisting of 16 elected members. In late 1982, the federal government gave its consent for the Yukon cabinet to call itself the Executive Council and officially to take over some powers hitherto reserved by the federally appointed commissioner, as representative of the governor-general-in-council, or by the minister of Indian affairs and northern development. The Yukon government has recently pressed for provincial status.

Mineral resources include rich deposits of gold, silver, lead, tungsten, and zinc. Mining and tourism are Yukon's principal industries.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Clement, Wallace (ed.). Understanding Canada: Building on the New Canadian Political Economy. Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1997.

Cooper, Andrew Fenton. Tests of Global Governance: Canadian Diplomacy and United Nations World Conferences. New York: United Nations University Press, 2004.

The Community in Canada: Rural and Urban. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1996.

Cooper, Andrew Fenton. Tests of Global Governance: Canadian Diplomacy and United Nations World Conferences. New York: United Nations University Press, 2004.

Driedger, Leo. Multi-Ethnic Canada: Identities and Inequalities. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Fenwick, Rudy. Canadian Society. Washington, D.C.: Association for Canadian Studies in the United States, 1996.

Fry, Earl H. The Canadian Political System. Washington, D.C.: Association for Canadian Studies in the United States, 1996.

Gagnon, Alain-G. and James Tully, (eds.). Multinational Democracies. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Howells, Coral Ann. Margaret Atwood. 2nd ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

International Smoking Statistics: A Collection of Historical Data from 30 Economically Developed Countries. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Kirtz, Mary K., et al. (eds.). The Elections of 2000: Politics, Culture, and Economics in North America. Akron, Ohio: University of Akron Press, 2006.

Konrad, Victor A. Geography of Canada. Washington, D.C.: Association for Canadian Studies in the United States, 1996.

Marsh, James H. (ed.). The Canadian Encyclopedia. Toronto, Ont.: McClelland and Stewart, 2000.

Summers, Randal W., and Allan M. Hoffman (ed.). Domestic Violence: A Global View. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.

Thompson, Wayne C. Canada, 2005. 21st ed. Harpers Ferry, WV: Stryker-Post, 2005.

Vaillancourt, Yves and Louise Tremblay (eds.) Social Economy: Health and Welfare in Four Canadian Provinces. Halifax, N.S.: Fernwood, 2002.

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Canada

Canada

Basic Data

Official Country Name: Canada
Region (Map name): North & Central America
Population: 31,592,805
Language(s): English, French
Literacy rate: 97.0%
Area: 9,976,140 sq km
GDP: 687,882 (US$ millions)
Number of Daily Newspapers: 104
Total Circulation: 5,167,000
Circulation per 1,000: 206
Total Newspaper Ad Receipts: 2,995 (Canadian millions)$
As % of All Ad Expenditures: 38.70
Number of Television Stations: 80
Number of Television Sets: 21,500,000
Television Sets per 1,000: 680.5
Number of Cable Subscribers: 7,989,520
Cable Subscribers per 1,000: 259.4
Number of Satellite Subscribers: 968,000
Satellite Subscribers per 1,000: 30.6
Number of Radio Stations: 594
Number of Radio Receivers: 32,300,000
Radio Receivers per 1,000: 1,022.4
Number of Individuals with Computers: 12,000,000
Computers per 1,000: 379.8
Number of Individuals with Internet Access: 12,700,000
Internet Access per 1,000: 402.0

Background & General Characteristics

Canada is a very large country, at least in terms of landmass. It extends over nine million square kilometers. The largest single administrative entity is Nunavut, an Arctic territory that constitutes 21 percent of the nation's landmass while having its smallest population, 28,200. In contrast, Canada's largest central provinces of Ontario and Québec have a combined population of 19,281,900. These two provinces are the nation's largest media market, and constitute 26.2 percent of the country's land-mass. Canada borders on three oceans: the Atlantic, the Pacific and the Arctic. Its most immediate neighbor is the United States, which it touches on two borders, one to its south and the other to the north. Nine out of 10 Canadians live within ninety miles of the United States. In terms of density, in the majority of the country there is less than one person per 49 square kilometers of land space. Sharing to a significant degree a common heritage and a common language with the United States, issues focusing on national cultural survival dominate much of the political debate in Canada. Media issues and press policies are critical players in this debate. The arguments have become more acute since Canada joined the United States in a free trade agreement in 1984 and agreed to extend the arrangement to include Mexico in 1988.

Europeans came to what is now Canada in the early 16th century as agricultural and industrial revolutions on the continent left hundreds of thousands of displaced persons searching for new lives and new endeavors. In 1534 the French master pilot Jacques Cartier left the port of Le Havre in command of two ships and 61 sailors, anxious to inquire about economic and settlement prospects in a new and unfamiliar world which had been seen some 40 years previously by explorer John Cabot. Cabot's discoveries led to the establishment of the Newfoundland and Atlantic fisheries, but anything beyond sporadic settlement had yet to take place. Cartier was determined to explore all opportunities, so he sailed beyond where the Atlantic fishery was located, having become a mainstay in the economic life of continental Europe. That year, Cartier explored the many islands, bays, and inlets which dotted the shoreline of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, but he would have to wait until his second voyage to the New World in 1535 before sailing down the river which drained into the Gulf.

Cartier hoped to find a civilization that could trade with or perhaps rival that of Europe. What he discovered instead were two very poor native settlements, one on the current site of the city of Montréal and the other at the contemporary city of Québec. He came to the conclusion that this was a land for the taking and between 1541 and 1543 worked diligently to encourage settlements in the frontier. The hostile climate and lack of interest would prove to be fatal for Cartier. It would remain for others to complete the work that Cartier had begun.

The Atlantic fishery moved closer to shore when drying part of the catch became a necessity for preservation, and contact with the native communities along the St. Lawrence shores became more frequent. The aboriginal settlements possessed furs, a commodity valued by the Europeans. Realizing the value of fur in the European market place, many fishers gave up the ocean to explore the economic potential of the vast beaver population. Canada had launched its first and most important economic enterprise, one that would last well into the early years of the 19th century. As the Canadian economic historian Harold Innis noted in his study of the fur trade, the wholesale exploitation of raw products, which began with the beaver, set Canada on an economic path which focused on the extraction of the raw materials that Innis referred to as staples. With the fur trade came an increased need for settlements and established economic ties to Europe. Trapping required alliances with the native populations who, like the French, prospered until overkill forced the trade westward to the rivers of the great plains provinces of contemporary Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, eventually reaching the North West Territories, where the cost put the price of furs beyond the reach of traditional consumers in Europe.

Despite France's loss of Canada to Britain in 1759, the presence of the French in Canada has had a lasting impact. French remains the official language in the province of Québec and enjoys significant legal and practical status in New Brunswick, Ontario, Manitoba and parts of Western Canada. It has equal status with English in all federal jurisdictions such as Parliament and the judiciary system. Québec still retains the core aspects of the Napoleonic civil code. The linguistic arrangement that was forged between the British and the French following the conquest of 1759 remains reflected in the media in contemporary times.

There is no evidence to suggest that the French colonies at Québec had any interest in journalism or the press. In fact, there is no evidence to suggest that printing existed in the colony prior to the British conquest in 1759 although there is some suggestion in historical texts that religious tracts were published for the literate minority. The majority of colonists were farmers and skilled crafts people who labored under a form of continentally inspired feudalism that faded with the British invasion. The lack of journalistic development in the French colonies put Canada nearly a century behind the soon to be independent United States in the link between the press, government, democracy and an educated citizenry.

The emergence of journalistic practice took place in the British possessions before the conquest of Québec and the successful rebellion of the thirteen colonies. The first newspaper of record was Benjamin Harris' Publick Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestick which appeared in Boston after Harris left a British debtors prison and immigrated to America. Harris, a well-known agitator, incurred the wrath of the colonial authorities and his newspaper did not survive beyond one issue. In 1735, a civil jury dismissed a charge of criminal libel against Peter Zenger, a German immigrant who had founded and published the New York Weekly Journal. Zenger was brought to court for an inflammatory article he had written about the Governor of New York. With the dismissal of the case, the concept of free speech, democracy, and a free press became incorporated in the political culture of western society. The simple equation that a democracy cannot exist or function properly without a free press was born out of the Zenger decision. The case would not mark the end of attempts by both business and industrial elite to control the distribution and content of the daily press, a problem which continues to exist on both sides of the border today.

Journalism came to what was to become Canada just a few years before Britain lost her thirteen colonies to the new republic of the United States. A Bostonian, Bartholomew Green, moved up the coast to Nova Scotia where he opened a printing concern and announced that he would soon begin publishing a newspaper. Green died before he could launch his new journal, but his work was soon assumed by an old Boston compatriot, John Bushell, who published the first edition of the Halifax Gazette in 1752. As Canadian historian Douglas Fetherling has noted, Canadian journalism was born with the launch of this newspaper.

Printing and newspaper publication got a boost after 1776 when Loyalist printers flooded Canada. Twenty newspapers were founded by the end of the War of 1812 with a combined circulation of 2,000 copies. Of these, five were published in what is now Québec, one in what is now Ontario and the remainder in the Atlantic provinces and other territories. Douglas Fetherling notes that these papers were primarily "journals of ecumenical rationalism, full of scientific and literary materials picked up from foreign publications and used to fill the columns between the official proclamations and what in some cases amounted to plentiful advertising, much of it related to land sales, shipping schedules and the like."

By 1836, mechanical printing presses were being manufactured in Upper Canada. There were now 50 newspapers operating in Ontario and Québec with Ontario leading the way with 60 percent of the journals located in that colony. Journalism was becoming seriously involved in the political life of the citizenry. The population had split between Tories, rooted mainly in the Loyalist communities who had come to Canada to preserve their monarchial connections and Reformers unwilling to separate church and state. The colony's newly founded newspapers found themselves dividing along political lines.

William Lyon Mackenzie changed the course of Canadian journalism, specifically its relationship to the ruling classes. Mackenzie was a political and economic liberal who had great difficulty abiding the colonial government, which he labeled "The Family Compact." Very few of the ruling elite could claim blood ties to the British monarchy, Mackenzie claimed that they behaved as royalty, and thus the name. Mackenzie was an admirer of William Cobbett, the English journalist and reformer who published parliamentary debates. Cobbett's name regularly appeared when one spoke of the impact of the 1832 Reform bill and the Chartist movement. He was also connected to the American president Andrew Jackson, who was no lover of the currency and banking system. Cobbett published the Colonial Advocate for ten years between 1824-34. In 1836 Mackenzie began publishing the Constitution which he devoted to the coverage of serious news. He was also plotting to carry out a violent rebellion in league with French speaking rebels led by Louis-Joseph Papineau. Their joint efforts led to the outbreak of armed confrontation in December 1837. Within hours of the beginning of the uprising, the rebels were routed and Mackenzie had to flee to New York to save himself from the gallows.

The Mackenzie-Papineau rebellion was not without positive results. In May of 1838, John George Lambton, Earl of Durham, arrived in Québec City with a mission to investigate and report on the problems that led to the ill-fated rebellion. In the winter of 1839 Durham issued one of the most important documents in Canadian history, the Report on The Affairs of British North America. It would have a serious impact on developing Canadian press policy, in particular the relationship between a citizenry and its government and the role that journalists assume as the information intermediaries of this relationship. Although Durham commented on a number of Canadian problems, in particular the thorny relationship of the English and French speaking communities, the majority of his report was devoted to dismantling the semi-feudal rule of the Family Compact and its allies and the installation of a representative democracy.

In 1867 the British Parliament united Ontario, Québec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia with the British North America Act. The legislation made no mention of the role of the press, and, unlike the American Constitution, it did not contain a bill of rights. Canada would not have its own constitution until 1982. Between the passage of the British North America Act and the arrival of radio in the early twentieth century, the press in Canada enjoyed one of its most productive periods.

Following Confederation, the federal government adopted a policy to extend the nation from Atlantic to Pacific. British Columbia joined the union in 1870 when the federal government promised to build a railway from Montréal to Vancouver. Eventually, the territories located between Ontario and British Columbia and owned by the Hudson's Bay Company were turned over to Canada, from which three new provinces and three new territories were carved. The 10 year old Victoria Gazette and theAnglo American and the French language Le Courier de Nouvelle Caledonie (Nova Scotia Courier) and the British Colonist existed on the west coast to serve the growing population. Newfoundland and Labrador followed in 1949.

The 1857 A. McKim Directory of Newspapers listed 291 publications available in Canada. By 1900 this number had increased to 1,226, of which 121 were daily newspapers. Along with this growth the characteristics of the press changed considerably in the second half of the nineteenth century. In many respects, newspapers abandoned the pointed and sometimes vitriolic partisanship that was symbolic of the newspapers of the first half of the century. The political position of the paper was more likely to be found on a page dedicated to editorial opinion. There was no mistaking that the Toronto Globe supported the Liberal Party and the Toronto Telegram supported the Conservative Party. The most significant change to come out of the nineteenth-century Canadian media was the evolution of the press from primarily weeklies to dailies and the entrenchment of newspapers in the rapidly developing technological and market economy. The country also took its first steps to becoming a new, urbanized society. From 1900 until 1911, Canada was the fastest growing nation in the world. Newspaper circulation in 1900 stood at 650,000 and it doubled by 1911. The Canadian growth was only truncated by the First World War.

Once the First World War ended the country entered a crippling depression that lasted until 1921. Relative prosperity followed and new technical innovations made Canadian newspapers more efficient. The cost of wire services such as Canadian Press and the Associated Press in the United States decreased significantly when the teletype was introduced. In many ways, more efficient technologies only benefited a few relatively solvent publishers and owners. While there were 121 dailies in the country in 1900, by 1951 this had dropped to 94. In 1900, 18 Canadian urban areas published two or more dailies. By 1951, only 11 Canadian cities would have competing newspapers. Since 1960, several major Canadian newspapers have closed their doors including the Toronto Telegram, the Montreal Star, Ottawa Journal and the Winnipeg Tribune. This decline was partially offset by a new series of tabloids published under the Sun masthead in Toronto, Winnipeg, Ottawa, Calgary and Edmonton. Other new ventures began in Halifax, Montréal and Québec City. In 1998, the Hollinger corporation converted its business newspaper The Financial Post into a daily operating under the masthead of the National Post. It is now a member of the Can West Global communications corporation.

In the early 1970s the use of computers in the news-room not only sped up the production and editing process, it succeeded in destroying the power of one of the country's oldest unions, the International Typographers Union (ITU), an organization that fiercely resisted the introduction of digital technology into the newsroom. As early as 1964 the ITU struck all three Toronto dailies, The Globe, The Star and The Telegram to fight the introduction of computers in the newsroom. By 1987, the Toronto Star which had at one time employed more than 150 unionized typographers, had reduced the staff to 30. The arrival of digital technology has changed the concept of reporting and newspapers themselves.

Canada's federal government is a constitutionally structured bilingual parliamentary monarchy, both English and French are equals in any federal jurisdiction. Each province can decide whether to be officially bilingual or not which can result in an odd combination of polices. Québec is the only officially unilingual Canadian province with French as its official language. Although French is not among the official languages of Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia its use is widespread. New Brunswick is the country's only official bilingual province. Ontario government documents are usually issued in both languages. The Ontario province government-owned television system offers full time English language service on TVOntario and full time French language service on TFO, Télévision Français d'Ontario. On the national level the government owned and operated Canadian Broadcasting CorporationLa Société RadioCanada operates two radio and two television networks. Canada also has an official multicultural policy so that the political and judicial structures address the needs of those outside the French and English communities and the aboriginal populations.

Canada has a population of more than 31 million, 68.6 percent of which are between the ages of 15 and 64. Like many other western industrial nations, Canada faces an aging society in the coming decades of the twenty-first century. There are now 3,917,875 persons over the age of 65, constituting 12.6 percent of the population. Although it constitutes the smallest demographic range, it is not far off the 18.8 percent of the population between the ages of 0 and 14. The majority of Canadians live within a narrow corridor bordering on the United States of America.

Although Canada has a vast land area, the highest concentration of the population, or around 35 percent, lives in the central Canadian provinces of Ontario and Québec. The western provinces, especially Alberta and British Columbia, with their staple products of gas, oil, and forestry products, have proven attractive to those wishing to move. Combined, Alberta and British Columbia constitute about 12 percent of the Canadian population. The remainder live either on the prairies, in Atlantic Canada, in the Northwest Territories or in Nunavut.

The 1996 Canadian Census recorded the immigrant population in the country. There were 4,971,070 persons who reported that they had been born outside the country. Of these 1,054,930 arrived before 1961. A further 788,580 came between 1961 and 1970. The number of immigrants began to climb again in 1971. In the subsequent decade 996,160 persons arrived. This number increased to 1,092,400 in the ten years following 1981. In the final decade of the twentieth century, 1,038,990 persons immigrated to Canada.

The most significant increase in the immigrant population was comprised of those who identified Eastern Asia as their home area. Only 20,555 of these people reported coming before 1961. But in contrast, 252,340 arrived at Canadian ports between 1991 and 1996. A further 140,055 reported coming from Southern Asia and 118,265 reported that they came from Southeast Asia. The main ports of attraction were in Vancouver and other points on the Pacific coast and the central Canadian city of Toronto. African, Caribbean and Middle Eastern immigrants also significantly increased in number during the same years. Canada during the past four decades is decreasingly a white, Anglo-Saxon, and predominantly Christian state.

Despite immigration from areas of the world where English is primarily a second language, it is still claimed by 16,890,615 Canadians as their mother tongue. A further 6,636,660 Canadians reported French as their mother tongue. A total of 4,598,290 persons reported speaking a third tongue, which was not classified as official. These included persons who came from China, Italy, Germany, Poland, Spain, Portugal, India and Pakistan, the Ukraine, Saudi Arabia, Holland, the Philippines, Greece, and Vietnam. Inside Canada, both Cree and Inuktitut were recognized as third, nonofficial languages. There were 1,198,870 more who reported speaking languages other than English, French, or those listed in the nonofficial columns of the census reports.

There are a number of media outlets directed to populations whose primary language is neither English nor French. As one of Canada's oldest multilingual broadcasts, Toronto radio stations CHIN-AM and CHIN-FM have continued since the mid-1960s. Multilingual television station CFMT-TV serves not only Toronto, but also communities in southwestern Ontario through a system of satellite transmitters and cable companies, most of which are owned by Rogers Communications. Canada's large Asian population can subscribe to the cable pay service Fairchild TV in most parts of the country. Toronto's large and well established Italian community is served by the daily Corriere Canadese. There is an established practice that broadcasting stations operating primarily in one of the country's two official languages offer programming in a third language. Toronto's local CITY-TV still follows this practice.

The Canadian newspaper industry has found a niche in the complex, multicultural, and multilingual Canadian media market. Ranging from punchy, colorful tabloids such as the Sun newspaper, to the more intense and serious National Post, Le Soleil, and the Globe and Mail. Fifty-seven percent of all Canadians read a newspaper daily in 2001, according to the Canadian Newspaper Association. This represents 11.8 million readers which is an increase of 3 percent over the 11.3 million readers who had reported reading a newspaper daily in the year 2000. This reversed a downward trend of the previous two decades.

The statistics become more revealing when broken down into separate demographic categories. In the major markets of the country, there are 4.8 million adults between the ages of 18 and 49, 85 percent of which reported reading a newspaper at least once a week. Younger readers between the ages of 18 and 24 have the highest five-day readership, at 80 percent. The most difficult demographic for the Canadian newspaper industry to reach were the 25 to 34 year olds, with just half reporting reading a newspaper the previous day. Sixty-eight percent of people with an income of $100,000 CDN per year read a daily newspaper. In 2001, 71 percent of university educated persons read a newspaper at least once a week. Eight out of 10 senior managers reported reading a newspaper in the past week and 74 percent read one each day.

Of cities with a population over 150,000, the Manitoba capital of Winnipeg reported the highest weekly newspaper readership with 89.9 percent of its citizens over the age of 18 having read one in the past week. Calgary, Alberta and Windsor, Ontario were tied for second place at 89.5 percent each. The Alberta provincial capital of Edmonton was 87.7 percent. Hamilton, Ontario reported reading at 87.2 percent and Halifax, Nova Scotia was at 85.5 percent. St. Catharines, Ontario, Regina, Saskatchewan, Québec City, Québec, and Victoria, British Columbia were all over 84 percent. In larger cities, readership has remained fairly constant. In many ways, the Ontario provincial capital of Toronto reflected the trends. Of adults over the age of 18, 56 percent reported that they had read a newspaper the previous day. A further 77 percent reported reading a newspaper at least once per week and 84 percent reported having done the same by the end of the week. Figures were similar for Montréal. In the category of having read a newspaper the previous day, the figure stood at 48 percent of all adults. In the category of having read a newspaper at least once per week, the number was 68 percent and finally, those reporting having read a newspaper by the end of the week, the figure stood at 79 percent. In British Columbia's largest city, Vancouver, the numbers stood at 56 percent, 77 percent and 79 percent respectively. The national capital city of Ottawa reported 57 percent, 79 percent and 84 percent respectively, in figures released by the Canadian Newspaper Association.

The largest owner of Canadian newspapers is Southam Publications (Can West Global) with 27; next is Osprey Media Group Inc. with 18; Sun Media (Quebecor, Inc.) owns 15 papers. Hollinger Canadian Newspaper Limited Partnership owns 10 and Power Corporation of Canada owns seven. The next largest all own five papers each: Independents, Horizon Operations BC Limited, and Torstar Corporation. Annex Publishing and Printing own two. Bell Globe Media and Black Press each own one newspaper.

Canadians claim that they have the oldest surviving newspaper in North America. The Québec Gazette, once the voice of the provincial capital's then extensive English speaking population, began publishing on June 21, 1764. It was eventually folded into the present-day weekly publication, the Québec Chronicle-Telegraph. The next oldest publication is the Southam-owned Montréal Gazette, which began publication on June 3, 1778. It is the longest continuing daily in the country.

Newspapers in Canada continue to hold their own in attracting advertising dollars. In 1996, they secured 32 percent of the overall market in contrast to television's 32.3 percent. In 1997, the figure increased slightly to 34.1 percent in comparison to television's 31.1 percent, but it began to decline again as the turn of the century approached, with 32.4 percent of the market in comparison to television's 31.5 percent. However, the volume of dollars attracted, expressed in millions, did continue to increase, from $1,960 (Canadian funds) in 1996 to $2,303 in 1997 and finally $2,379 in 1998.

Economic Framework

In the spring of 2002, 66.6 percent of all Canadians over the age of 15 were participating in the labor market. Viewing the statistics on a province to province basis shows some disparity. Participation rates are highest at 72.2 percent in Alberta, a province wealthy from extensive gas and oil royalties. The participation rate is the lowest in Newfoundland and Labrador, where the economy for years was built on fishing in the Atlantic. It is only in recent years that economic diversification has been attempted, with oil and gas exploration on the Hibernia grounds at sea and through hydro electric development at Churchill Falls in Labrador.

Since 1997, the country's unemployment rate, seasonally adjusted, has dropped significantly. That year it stood at 9.5 percent across the nation and in 2002 it stood at 7.2 percent. Again, the statistics must be seen in their relationship to the country's provinces. The rate for Newfoundland and Labrador in the spring of 2002, stood at 16.6 percent. In contrast, the rate in Alberta was 5 percent, Manitoba 5 percent, and Saskatchewan 5.8 percent. Ontario, with the most diversified economy of Canada's provinces, had a rate of 7 percent and British Columbia 9 percent.

In March of 2002, Canada's Consumer Price Index stood at 117.7, based on the index start date of 1992 of 100. Between March 2001 and March 2002, the overall index increased only 1.8 percent. However, that figure is somewhat distorted because tobacco and alcohol products increased by 14.8 percent. Food was also higher, increasing by 3.3 percent over the same period. Only two categories showed a decline, one of which was clothing and footwear (although the decline was insignificant at 0.7 percent). The cost of energy actually declined by 3.3 percent. Shelter and recreation, education and reading all increased 1.1 percent. Household furnishings and operations increased by 2.2 percent, transportation by 0.3 percent, and health and personal care by 0.9 percent. Compared with incomes in 1992, the relative purchasing power of the dollar in March 2002 was 85 percent.

While personal disposable income in Canada increased by 3.3 percent from the fourth quarter 2000 to the fourth quarter 2001, corporate profits declined by 29.9 percent. The gross domestic product at market prices seasonally adjusted at annual rates (SAAR) declined by 0.1 percent. Business investment in machinery and equipment declined by 5.6 percent. Personal expenditure on consumer goods increased by 2.3 percent. Overall, personal savings rates declined by 0.3 percent.

All Canadian media outlets experienced growth in advertising revenue in the years between 1996 and 1998, the last year figures are available. The numbers below are expressed in millions of dollars in Canadian funds. Spending on advertising in all major media increased from $6.1 to $7.3. Newspapers increased their share from $1.9 to $2.3. Television jumped from $1.9 to $2.3. Radio thought to be on its way out as a major medium in Canada in the early 1990s actually attracted $.9, an increase from $.7 two years earlier. General magazines increased from $.31 to $.38. Trade magazines increased from $.233 to $.277. Outdoor advertising increased from $.200 to $.250.

Press Laws

In 1982, the Government of Canada repatriated the British North America Act from the parliament at Westminster. Although many of the clauses of the new Canadian constitution did not vary significantly from those of its predecessor, it did include a Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Under those matters deemed to be fundamental freedoms the role of the press was defined for the first time. The four basic freedoms that emerged did not exist in the British North America Act. These were defined as: freedom of conscience and religion; freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communication; freedom of peaceful assembly; and freedom of association.

Freedom of expression and freedom of the press, although similar and related concepts, are not one-and-the-same in Canadian law. In fact, serious limitations exist which clearly differentiates freedom of the press in Canada from that of its southern neighbor. The Charter of Rights and Freedoms only defines those rights of the individual in his or her relationship to the state. As law scholar Robert Martin has pointed out, the law does not address freedom of expression issues that arise involving media owners and managers.

As noted earlier, Canada is a constitutional monarchy consisting of ten provinces and three territories. The federal parliament consists of a lower chamber, the House of Commons, whose members are chosen by the electorate in a cycle that must not exceed five years. The federal electoral districts called ridings are loosely defined on the basis of population. At the turn of the most recent century, five parties sat in the House. The Liberal Party had the largest number of members and thus formed the government with its leader assuming the role of Prime Minister. The largest opposition party is the Canadian Alliance. Minor parties include the New Democratic Party, the Progressive Conservatives and Le Bloc Québeçois. Although rare, there are occasions when members sit without party affiliation. The upper chamber is the Canadian Senate, which represents the interests of the provinces. Members are appointed on the recommendation of the Prime Minister with the consequence that a long sitting government may have a majority of members in both houses. Senators must retire by the age of 75. The head of state is the Governor-General who acts as the representative of the Queen in Canada. Although constitutionally endowed with extensive powers, the actual role of the Governor-General is largely ceremonial, although no piece of legislation in Canada becomes law without his/her signature.

The 10 Canadian provinces hold considerable powers such as control of health, welfare and education, which make them virtually independent states inside the confederation. Their powers are defined in Sections 92, 92A and 93 of the constitution. Federal powers, which tend to be national in scope, can be found in Section 91. Section 95 defines those areas in which both levels of government may make law, in particular in areas such as agriculture and immigration. Some of the most important clauses in the constitution are contained in Section 33 known as the "not withstanding clauses" which allow any constitutionally enabled government to override court decisions for a five year period after which the enacting government must give adequate justification for continuing to use the clauses. One such case was when Québec language laws, which gave preference to the French language, were declared unconstitutional.

Because the British North America Act was written in 1867, some technologies were not addressed, such as broadcasting. In 1929 the French-language province of Québec passed legislation to regulate broadcasting within its borders. The federal government retaliated by taking the matter to court. In 1932 the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council decided that broadcasting was a matter of national interest and therefore under the jurisdiction of the federal government. Also at this time, Canada had entered into treaties with both the United States and Mexico regarding allocation of broadcast channels. Section 132 upheld the right of Canada to make such treaties, thus confirming federal jurisdiction in this media field.

As in most modern democracies, Canada has a series of laws pertaining to defamation. Virtually all of them have something to do with press coverage of certain events. The most common set of statutes is referred to as "civil libel laws," although the definition for criminal libel still exists on the books. In some jurisdictions, the definition distinguishes between slander and libel that is written or portrayed. In other jurisdictions, the word defamation is used to define all kinds of libel. In Canada, anything presented by a media outlet is subject to potential action under the law. This includes news, classified ads, advertisements, comic strips, and even the publication of materials from outside sources.

Criminal libel is divided into three categories: seditious libel, defamatory libel, and blasphemous libel. The clauses have traditionally been used to clamp down on political speeches. The last case involving seditious libel took place in the 1940s when the Jehovah's Witnesses delivered a tract accusing the Premier of the province as being a God-hating demagogue. When the case finally arrived at the Supreme Court, the judges divided five to four in throwing out the case against the sect. As a consequence of that decision, it is now virtually impossible to get a conviction on the charge.

The definition of defamatory libel is similar to civil libel, but can result only when two persons decide to exchange inflammatory words leading to a confrontation. As Robert Martin points out, the law was first passed by the British Star Chamber in the seventeenth century to discourage debates from descending into duels. In Canada the most famous case took place in the 1930s when a man in Edmonton distributed a pamphlet with the names of nine prominent persons on one side of the sheet listed under the title "Bankers' Toadies." On the other side, he wrote the words "God Made Bankers' Toadies just as He made snakes, slugs, snails and other creepy crawly, treacherous and poisonous things. Never therefore abuse themjust exterminate them." He was arrested, tried, and convicted of defamatory libel.

Blasphemous libel has much to do with religious practice. The statute allows for serious religious debate but not for the defamation of religious belief or those who hold views that may be controversial. There has never been a case under this law in Canada, but in Britain a decision ruled that only the Christian religion need be defined under this law.

Censorship

Libel action in the minds of some observers can be used as a censoring device in the hands of those with the ways and means to hire expensive lawyers. In the mid-1980s it was rumored that two wealthy business families in Toronto had sent letters threatening legal action to authors who were writing about their respective family histories. However, this does not appear to be a large or significant problem in Canada. Surveys by the Canadian Daily Newspaper Association throughout the 1980s clearly demonstrated that few had serious concerns about large lawsuits. In Canadian law, an apology will officially end any libel action. In many cases, the defendant can ask the court to impose expensive bonds on a plaintiff that that person runs the risk of losing. Favorable court decisions result in low awards that won't cover the expenses incurred.

There are two levels at which censorship operates, in the boardrooms of media outlets and in the judicial system. The first is easy to define since it has historical precedents. The first media in Canada were established with clear, political objectives in mind, namely the support of the patron who paid the way. When newspapers evolved into independent entities supported by advertising in the late Victorian period, they gave the illusion of being politically independent. Yet many of these journals were operated by strong willed individuals who used the media to promote personal causes, some of them beyond politics. Joseph "Holy Joe" Atkinson of the Toronto Daily Star was an adamant temperance man who forbid liquor advertising forbidden in that newspaper. A policy that lasted for a number of decades after his death. Opposing views on the question did not appear with any regularity in Atkinson's newspaper. In another example, there was little doubt that the mission of the French language journal Le Devoir during the First World War was to prevent Canada from being involved in what its founder Henri Bourassa viewed as Britain's war in Europe.

In more recent times, the relationship between the press and the judiciary has become a flashpoint of controversy. Courts regularly prohibit the publication of evidence. In a notorious murder case that took place in St. Catharines, Ontario, a young couple kidnapped, tortured and murdered two young schoolgirls. The proceedings against the female defendant were closed to the media. She had arranged for a plea bargain to two counts of manslaughter in return for her testimony against her husband. The trial judge ruled that public exposure of the conditions of her plea bargain could possibly contaminate the proceedings against her husband. A series of videotapes of the kidnapped girls were also suppressed. In other cases, such as the need to protect witnesses, Canadian courts regularly forbid the publication of certain types of information.

One of the more interesting cases in Canadian history surrounds the revision of the statutes governing the behavior of juvenile defenders and the consequent introduction of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms in 1982. The Juvenile Delinquents Act states that trials of juveniles must take place without publicity. In 1981, a Supreme Court decision declared that all persons involved in any specific case against a juvenile had to remain anonymous. Trials were to be held in camera, defying the public nature of the judicial system. When the Charter of Rights and Freedoms became law, the Ottawa Citizen sent a reporter to cover a juvenile case. She was turned away. In the end, the Supreme Court upheld the right of public access to judicial proceedings but it also upheld the right of a juvenile accused of a crime to anonymity.

The most restrictive piece of legislation for the Canadian media was passed in 1914 under the title of the War Measures Act. It was to be used in only the direst of circumstances because its key initiative was to remove the law making right of Parliament and to transfer it to the federal cabinet. Citizens' participation in government was therefore suspended and censorship legalized. It was first enacted in 1914 when Canada joined Britain in the First World War. Although the war officially ended in 1918, the law remained in effect until 1920.

The government used the law to ban publications during the war years. Among these were a number of German language publications, but socialist and social democratic magazines and newspapers were also banned, as well as a few Irish nationalist publications. Any publication that questioned the direction of the war could potentially be banned. Publications advocating temperance were also banned on the premise that such journals would weaken the morale of men overseas. The Act resurfaced in 1939 when Canada went to war against Germany. As in the First World War, the provisions of the act continued on for two years after the hostilities ceased.

The most controversial application of the law came in October 1970. Québec had been the scene of disturbances over the right of the province to secede from the Canadian Confederation. The debate began in the mid-1950s and escalated in the early 1960s. Terrorists using the name FLQ (Front de Liberation Québeçois ) placed bombs in a mailbox in the English speaking district of Westmount and threatened other English language institutions. In 1970 they kidnapped the British trade minister, James Cross, and the provincial minister of labor, Pierre LaPorte. Cross was eventually released but LaPorte was murdered by his captors, which led Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau to invoke the Act. No significant armed insurrection appeared and the Act was eventually revoked. When the City of Vancouver used the Act to clean up the downtown from various types of undesirables, the government amended the legislation to allow for regional imposition and changed its name to The Emergencies Act. However, provisions for media censorship are still in the law.

A few Canadian journalists have also run afoul of the Official Secrets Act. In 1979 a Toronto journalist, Peter Worthington, became convinced that there was an extensive Soviet spy network in Canada and that the government was ignoring it. He had come into possession of documents that supported his case and he published one of these in the Toronto Sun. As a result, he was charged under the Official Secrets Act. However, he was acquitted of violating the Act when the judge decided that although the material Worthington published qualified under the provisions of the law, the document was no longer secret. The prosecution in the case decided to let the matter drop.

State-Press Relations

In Canada, the state and the media have never been completely separated, even during the short period between 1919 and 1932 when the emergence of radio broadcasting was primarily a private affair. The tradition of state and press integration can be traced to the evolution of a strictly partisan press in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. As noted earlier, even when the press freed itself from direct party control, most newspapers and many magazines remained outlets for, if not totally partisan political views, at least polarized moral issues such as temperance and women's rights. When broadcasting entered onto the scene in the 1920s, the only state involvement was the issuing of radio licenses through the Department of Marine and Fisheries. However, in 1929 the relationship was to undergo radical change.

As the twenties came to a close, Canadian political elite became increasingly concerned that the commercial messages and entertainment-driven values from American radio stations that freely drifted across the border were eroding Canadian culture. The most popular radio show in Canada was the American produced situation comedy Amos n' Andy. In 1929 the Liberal government of Mackenzie King commissioned three men to study and report on the state of broadcasting in the country, beginning a relationship between the state and the media that has not weakened since. The three were Sir John Aird, a banker, Charles Bowman, a journalist with the Ottawa Citizen, and Augustin Frigon, an engineer at L'Ecole Polytechnique in Montréal. The commissioners studied virtually every form of radio broadcasting in existence during the year of the investigation.

By the time Aird delivered his report, the Liberals were out of office and a new Conservative Prime Minister, R. B. Bennett was in control. It was up to Bennett to decide which form broadcasting would take in Canada. Like King, Bennett was deeply concerned that American influence, especially its views on liberalism and republicanism, would soon dominate Canadian thinking. But in spite of his own concerns, he did not opt for a pure system of public broadcasting. Instead, his government founded the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission (CRBC) with a mandate to both build and operate stations and to produce programming for its own outlets, as well as the private sector. The concept proved unworkable.

Badly injured politically by the Great Depression, Bennett was out of office in 1935 and King returned with a vision for a stronger and more Canadian oriented public broadcasting system. The King government essentially threw out Bennett's legislation and created the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) in 1936. The CBC was to own and operate stations, produce programming for both itself and the private sector, but, above all, it was to act as a regulator for the private sector which remained subservient, but intact.

Although the CBC was designed to act as an outlet for Canadian ideas and Canadian programming, radio dials remained tuned to stations south of the border. In fact, the CBC itself carried a significant amount of U.S. programming to help pay its bills. American influence also extended to the stage, film, dance, and music worlds, as well as to publications on a myriad of themes. As the Second World War came to a close, government officials began to realize that the CBC alone could not encourage or preserve what "produced in Canada" culture existed. As a consequence, the government called upon Vincent Massey, brother of the actor Raymond Massey, to conduct an inquiry into the state of the arts in Canada. In 1951 the Massey commission concluded with the now familiar "the Americans are taking us over" theme. The commission concentrated its investigation on the state of the arts, but did note that newspapers were critical actors in the dissemination of knowledge in any given country. In reference to radio, Massey concluded that the medium had three critical functions: to inform, to educate, and to entertain.

In spite of Massey's warnings, American influence in Canada continued unabated. This was assisted in part by the 1948 arrival of television in the United States, four years prior to the opening of the first Canadian station in Montréal. Following a pattern established in radio some three decades previously, television dials in Canadian cities began to lock on to U.S. channels. It was hardly a rebellion against nationalism. In fact, when the dust began to settle over the question as to whether loyal Canadians would reject American broadcasting, the issue had really became one of variety. It remained to be seen whether or not the CBC should remain the dominant provider of broadcasting product in Canada. The answer was a firm no.

Yet another commission had been looking into the business of broadcasting in Canada. Robert Fowler delivered his report to the government on March 15, 1957. It was here that the principle of a single broadcasting system consisting of both public and private participants first saw the light of day. Although Fowler felt that private broadcasters in general had to be forced to deliver a good product or lose their respective licenses, he also conceded that the private sector, in spite of having existed in a subordinate position for twenty years, had refused to go away. To this end, Fowler added one more condition to the purpose of broadcasting, essentially creating a vehicle for advertising. His most dramatic recommendation was the removal of the regulatory powers of the CBC, which he felt should be seated in a neutral body. In 1958, the federal government acted on his proposal and created the first independent regulatory agency, the Board of Broadcast Governors. Within months, the new agency opened the way for private, independent television stations to take to the air. It was the beginning of the alternate development in Canadian television which would see the emergence of CTV (Canadian Television) as the country's first privately owned and operated system.

Broadcasting was not the only thing on the govern-ment's mind during this time period. It was also concerned about the state of magazine publishing in the country. Yet another Royal Commission was charged with investigating the situation chaired by one of the government's most solid supporters, Senator Grattan O'Leary, an Ottawa-based newspaper publisher. O'Leary targeted what he felt was unfair competition in the magazine industry, in particular two journals, Time and Reader's Digest. Both magazines were owned and operated by American interests although they published a Canadian edition. Usually these editions were only a small part of the overall magazine. As a consequence, advertising rates for Canadian businesses were far lower than those of purely domestically produced. O'Leary wanted the government to remove the tax credits that Canadian advertisers received for expenses involved in placing ads in these journals. The outcry from Washington was predictable, but in 1976 the Liberal government enacted O'Leary's recommendations and eventually extended it to advertisers who used border television. Just before the turn of the century, Sports Illustrated successfully fought a government regulation to extend government support for the industry although the tax legislation remains intact, exempt for the time being under the cultural provisions of NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement). In 1998 the government passed Bill C55, which eliminated the discrimination against U.S. magazines publishing in Canada.

Although Canada has had a magazine industry since the Nova Scotia Magazine and Comprehensive Review of Literature and News first appeared in 1789, they have never played a significant financial role in the history of Canadian media. Most attempts to establish a magazine industry in the country during the period when newspapers were enjoying significant prosperity were inconsistent to say the least. Some such as J.S. Cunnabell's Acadian Magazine and Halifax Monthly Magazine did enjoy brief prosperity. By the mid point of the nineteenth century, Toronto had become the major magazine publication center in the country, but as in previous instances, most magazines, such as The Canadian Journal and theBritish Colonial, did not last very long.

The French language press did enjoy more success following Confederation. A Montréal publisher, Georges Edouard Desbarats launched his Canadian Illustrated News in December 1869, which he followed with a French language edition, L'Opinion Publique in 1870. In Toronto, a young artist with a political wit launched Grip magazine, a collection of cartoons and political satire which published for two decades. Both Queen's University and McGill launched successful academic journals during the second half of the nineteenth century. In 1887 Saturday Night, a collection of consumer news and pointed political coverage, first hit the newsstands of Toronto. The longest lasting and most stable of all Canadian periodicals, the Busy Man's Magazine, which eventually took the name of its founder, Maclean'sLe Magazine Ma-clean, was first published in 1896. Maclean's remains one of the country's largest publishers of trade periodicals in concert with its weekly newsmagazine. However, without government support, it is doubtful that Canada could support a magazine industry.

Government once more wielded its power in 1968. Dissatisfied with the performance of the Board of Broadcast Governors and recognizing that a new broadcasting environment was taking shape, the government again amended the Broadcasting Act. Faced with rising nationalism in Québec, it wanted the broadcasters to play a larger and more influential role in defining Canadian unity. One of the changes to the act was to charge the CBC primarily with this task. As well, the new act brought both cable casting and educational broadcasting under the jurisdiction of the new federal regulatory body, the Canadian Radio and Television Commission (CRTC).

One of the driving forces in the 1960s was the behavior of the private sector in the media. Like private entrepreneurs everywhere, the desire to expand and control lucrative markets became a cause in itself. Watching as one after another independent operator came under the umbrella of a major corporation, the government once again resorted to a commission of inquiry to investigate the potential problem. As always, it chose one of its own to head the investigation, Senator Keith Davey, known in Liberal Party circles as the Rainmaker. The 1970 report revealed much of what had been suspected about media economics and patterns of ownership. But the Davey inquiry did not stop at that point. It looked at the role of journalism in media, how journalists behaved, and how they were educated. Much to the chagrin of the owners, there were extensive comments on the workplace morale of many media workers.

One of the consequences of the Davey commission was the establishment of press councils across the country. Initially they emerged in Ontario, Québec and Alberta but soon thereafter spread across the country. Now they are almost an institutional way of life for most Canadian dailies and weeklies. Of these, the Ontario Press Council is the largest, with 226 members as of July 2001.

The councils attempt to mediate complaints about coverage when these are received. However, should a complaint go to a formal hearing, and should the newspaper lose the case, it must publish the results in a prominent place as soon as possible after a decision has been rendered to retain its membership.

In spite of what appears on the surface to be a relatively healthy newspaper market in Canada, serious concerns have been raised, as they have been elsewhere, about the diminishing number of corporations who now own the vast majority of the largest and most influential Canadian dailies. The situation has received the attention of the Federal Government on two occasions, once in 1970 when Liberal Senator Keith Davey was charged with investigating various aspects of the media situation in the country and again in the early 1980s when Thomas Kent chaired a commission investigating concentration of ownership in Canada's newspaper industries.

In 1980 two corporate giants, Thomson of Toronto and Southam of Hamilton, decided to reduce competition in their respective markets. Thomson closed the Ottawa Journal and Southam closed the Winnipeg Tribune. It was not lost on the government that these two owners actively competed with each other in both cities and that the closures were destined to ensure that no competition existed. As a consequence, the government chartered another Royal Commission, this one under former civil servant Tom Kent, to investigate the state of affairs in the industry. Overall, the Kent Commission felt that concentration of ownership was dangerous for the Canadian democracy and should be curbed. The industry did not agree and the Kent recommendations were denounced on virtually every editorial page in the country. The government retreated and did not implement any of the recommendations. Realizing the vulnerability of their respective positions, the industry now actively embraced the work of the press councils which they argued would provide meaningful checks on their more outrageous activities.

The issue emerged once again in 2002 when the Asper family of Winnipeg, owners of Can West Global Communications, announced that they would be centralizing editorial writing three days per week at the company's head office. The company had just finished the purchase of the Southam properties previously owned by Hollinger. The journalists rebelled by removing bylines, but the company stood fast to its premise that it had a right, if not an obligation, to promote its views in its newspapers. The senior executives at Southam reminded the journalists that it was they, and not the journalists, who owned the newspapers and thus had the power to make and enforce the decisions. As with the Can West Global situation, the newspaper industry in 2002 was in what could be described as its third consolidation phase.

In keeping with tradition practiced by previous governments, when the Conservatives, under the leadership of Brian Mulroney, came to power in 1984, yet one more Royal Commission was chartered to investigate broadcasting policy in Canada. It received its charge on April 9, 1985. The commission was jointly chaired by Gerald Caplan, a former national secretary of the New Democratic Party which sat in opposition to the ruling Conservatives and by Florian Sauveageau, a communications professor at Laval University in Québec City. They were given a wide mandate to investigate and make recommendations on the future of the Canadian broadcasting system. Suspicion ran high in public broadcasting circles that the Conservatives were about to use the investigation to either downgrade or destroy the CBC.

Once again, the investigation did not downplay the much-desired Canadian nationalist ideal. In fact, it reinforced the concept, although it dismissed the belief that the CBC should take the lead in promoting national unity. Instead, it argued that the CBC should focus on developing what it termed "a national consciousness." The commissioners also wanted to extend the concept of broadcasting to include other forms of media, namely provincial agencies, native groups, community groups, and those in minority languages and cultural communities. It saw these and other smaller groups as part of a larger public community. Although many of the recommendations were not formally acted on, the country now enjoys the presence of a national cable network operated by aboriginal peoples, multilingual radio and television services in most of the major cities and community programming aired through designated channels on cable television. The Broadcasting Act was finally amended, which removed the CBC from the business of promoting national unity. The Act did not, however, relieve the public broadcaster from the responsibility of generating part of its own operating revenue through the solicitation of advertising.

Attitude toward Foreign Media

As noted above, Canadian broadcasting policy has been driven since the arrival of radio by the concept that foreign intervention threatens the national identity, and that it is the responsibility of Canadian-owned and operated media to give access to Canadian creators and performers in order to offset the overwhelming influence of the American media in Canada. This is less of a problem in Québec, where the predominant language is French, though broadcasters there carry dubbed versions of the Ally McBeal and West Wing television shows. The Caplan Sauvageau Commission found that of the 52,000 yearly hours of broadcasting they investigated, only 370 were produced in Canada. Since 1986, the situation has changed significantly, with the CBC now boasting an all-Canadian prime time broadcast day. The recent inclusion of foreign specialty channels has once again brought the nationalist question to a head. Fundamentally, one thing has not changed since Caplan Sauvageau: the majority of major hits such as The West Wing dominate the top ten television shows in Canada on a weekly basis.

Although Canadian private broadcasters regularly espouse the virtues of a free market and a lack of regulation, they often turn to government for assistance in protecting their private spheres. Foreigners cannot own or control through proxy any Canadian broadcast media. On numerous occasions, the federal government has attempted to protect the Canadian magazine industry through tax protection or outright subsidy. Foreign booksellers are not allowed to set up competing shops in Canada. The Borders Books and Music chain was forbidden entry into the country to compete with a similar Canadian chain called Chapters. Eventually the person who attempted to bring Borders to Canada opted to begin her own chain, called Indigo. When Chapters fell on hard times, she merged the Indigo operation with Chapters. When Canadian press baron Conrad Black attempted to accept a seat in the British House of Lords, the Canadian government reminded him that he would have to relinquish his Canadian citizenship and consequently his newspaper chain. Black did for the most part cut ties to Canada, selling his principle holdings to broadcaster Can West Global.

Other than ownership requirements, the Canadian media industries are supported by government actions determined to either curb the influence of foreign media or to keep it out altogether. As noted earlier, the amendments to the Income Tax Act which removed the ability of Canadian advertisers to claim deductions for expenses made outside Canada is just one model. Another is the simultaneous substitution rule in cable that has caused friction between the Canadian and American governments since its implementation in the early 1970s. The policy was inspired to a significant degree by the first of a series of spectacular failures initiated by the CRTC, albeit unwittingly. In July 1972, it awarded a license to Global Communications for a regional television network to operate in southern Ontario. Global was to be an agency that purchased programming from independent producers in Canada, as opposed to producing the material themselves. The network came on the air in early 1974, but by the end of the spring, it was apparent that it was in serious difficulty and that its very survival was at stake. The CRTC, rather than let its prize project go down the drain, intervened.

Part of the bailout followed up on an experiment that had been tried earlier in Western Canada. It involved the removal of commercial messages from programs imported from the United States when they were being transmitted on cable. American broadcasters were not happy with this arrangement and did their best to make it difficult. Viewers soon caught on to something being wrong when they missed touchdowns on NFL games or returned to a program part way through an American commercial message. The Commission decided on the simultaneous substitution rule, aimed directly at U.S. broadcasters.

It works this way: when a Canadian broadcaster is carrying a U.S. program at the same time as the American network, Canadian cable operators can only carry the Canadian signal. As an example, when NBC broadcasts The West Wing, CTV broadcasts the program at the same time. Both Canadian and American audiences see the same show, but the Canadian audiences see commercial content produced and funded in Canada. And, since the U.S. signal is blocked on Canadian cable systems, any multinational advertiser must buy space on the Canadian program to reach a Canadian audience. In effect, artificially inflated ratings for these programs exist because there is no choice, and, as a consequence, advertisers pay higher prices for the advertising space. Canadian television programmers worked to ensure that any American product they purchased was shown at the same time as any one of the commercial networks in the United States.

News Agencies

Canada instituted telegraph service not long after Samuel Morse first demonstrated the viability of his invention. In the beginning, most of the telegraphs transmitted commercial messages, but to keep the operators occupied between messages, it was decided that they could use the service to send information to local newspapers. Eventually, telegraph companies bought rights of way along major railway lines. Noting the success of the business, the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) decided to get into the news business. In 1894 it obtained a monopoly franchise to distribute Associated Press material in Canada. When the CPR attempted to double its price in 1907, a group of newspapermen in Winnipeg decided to set up the Western Associated Press in competition with the CPR. They challenged the railway's rate structure, won the battle and, in 1910, the railway got out of the news business entirely, selling its assets to the Western Associated Press. In cooperation with regional news sharing cooperatives in Central Canada and the Maritimes, a company called Canadian Press was born.

It was not until 1916 that a group of Canadian publishers reached agreement on how to fund and operate a national service. Part of the income for the new venture came from a $50,000 annual subsidy from the federal government. On September 1, 1917, Canadian Press opened an office in Toronto under general manager Charles Knowles, with a staff of 15 (Canadian Press employed a total of 72 staff across the country). For quite some time, Canadian Press was a non-profit cooperative news gathering agency designed to service only the newspaper industry. By the mid-1930s, the newly emerging radio industry began to discover the advantage of newscasting. In 1933, Canadian Press and the CBC signed a contract that bound the agency to write and air a 1,200-word newscast nightly on the network. It was the first step into broadcast for Canadian Press.

Canadian Press (CP) showed no interest in expanding its horizons in broadcast beyond the CBC. As a result, an American organization devoted to servicing only broadcasters signed up 25 Canadian stations when Associated Press refused to serve them. The agency, Transradio, operated out of a Toronto office. Another American agency, the United Press set up a Canadian broadcast subsidiary that is called British United Press in an aim to attract clients in Canada. In retaliation, Canadian press expanded its broadcast service to three, 1,000-word reports daily. In 1939 Canadian Press signed a deal with the CBC that gave it access to all of CP's content. In 1940 Transradio withdrew from Canada, and in 1941, the CBC founded its first, in-house broadcast news operation. Other than the CBC Radio and now television service, the only remaining broadcast news service in Canada is Broadcast News, an arm of Canadian Press. Although CP has been close to demise on a number of occasions due to battles among its members, it continues as the only major domestic agency to provide national and international news to Canadian media. Reuters also operates a small Canadian bureau, as does the French language service L'Agence France Presse, along with small and dedicated services such as the business service Canada News Wire.

Broadcast Media

As in most industrialized nations, the broadcast media are significant players. In Canada, there is a mixed private and public system. Until 1958, as noted above, the public Canadian Broadcasting Corporation dominated the system, owning stations, producing programs, and regulating the private sector. Private stations were allowed to exist, but in areas without CBC service, they were expected to broadcast a significant proportion of CBC programming. In many cases, this led to a great amount of duplication in the marketplace. Before CHCHTV in Hamilton, Ontario, became an independent in the early 1960s, it broadcast a full schedule of CBC programming, although it was only about 30 minutes away from the CBC production headquarters in Toronto. With the granting of licenses to private operators in 1960 and the subsequent birth of CTV, the Canadian Television Network, the pendulum swung toward the private sector. In the first years of the twenty-first century, Canada remained a nation with a mixed public and private system, although some levels of government have indicated that they wish to divest themselves of broadcasting responsibilities.

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation operates four major television networks, two in English and two in French, in addition to a limited service covering the nation's Arctic regions. Two networks are targeted to mass audiences in both English and French Canada. Although the content is primarily produced in Canada by Canadians, these two networks differ little from any American commercial network in tone and appearance. To a significant degree, they are supported by advertising. Since the CBC receives an annual subsidy from the federal Parliament of $795 million out of a total budget of $1.32 billion, private broadcasters have often complained that the corporation is involved in unfair competition. The corporation's other two networks, News World in English and RDI in French, are cable channels. They are information channels with some similarities to CNN and they are supported by advertising to a significant degree.

Radio service in Canada reflects that of television. The CBC operates four radio networks, two in English and two in French. The primary networks are dedicated to extensive news, information, and current affairs coverage. Both stereo services are primarily in the business of programming music, with a classical music base and many live concerts. In the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, the CBC has abandoned a number of AM licenses to the private sector with the aim of converting most of its broadcasting service to FM. Together with the private sector, the CBC operates four specialty channels: Galaxie, a 30-channel continuous music broadcaster; ARTV, which focuses on arts; the Canadian Documentary Channel; and Country Canada. All of these are offered as subscriber operations. The CBC continues to sign affiliation agreements with private owners to broadcast CBC produced programming, especially on television. The CBC also operates Radio-Canada International, a short-wave service operated out of New Brunswick. It broadcasts in English, French, Spanish, Chinese, Arabic, Russian and Ukrainian. The service has faced closure on several occasions as CBC public funding fell.

The second most important segment of the public sector is provincial operations. There are six such operations, and one, ACCESS Alberta, is a hybrid: privately owned and operated with the bulk of its programming contracted to the provincial government. It operates both radio and television stations. The largest and most dominant of the educational networks operates in Ontario. It has both an English language service, TVOntario, and a French language service, Télévision Français d'Ontario (TFO). In some ways, programming resembles that of the American public television system (PBS), but there is a stronger reliance on locally produced programming. TVO and TFO are one of the largest producers of children's programming in both the English-and French-speaking worlds. For the most part, the system is funded by the government of Ontario. However, the system does have frequent membership fundraising drives. Along with TVO-TFO, educational television systems exist in Québec (Télé-Québec ), in British Columbia (The Knowledge Network), the Maritime provinces (MITV), Alberta (ACCESS), and Saskatchewan (the Saskatchewan Community Network). As well as public television and radio, and educational channels, the Canadian legislatures operate channels to broadcast parliamentary proceedings and the Canadian version of C-Span, called C-PAC, can be found on cable systems across the country.

Much of the remainder of the radio and television system across the country can be found in corporate and private hands. The largest is BellGlobeMedia, owners of both the CTV Television Network and Canada's national newspaper the Globe and Mail. Until recently, the CTV network was owned by a cooperative operated by the CTV affiliates, each of whom owned the same amount of shares. As new stations began to join the system, individual share percentages dropped. As a consequence, an offer was made by Toronto's Baton Broadcasting, then owners of CFTO-TV, to purchase the majority shares. The CRTC approved the deal, and the cooperative ceased to exist. CTV is now free to make affiliation agreements with other privately held stations without surrendering share value. The other private, national network is operated by Can West Global Communications, which also is a major newspaper owner. Global began life as a regional, private network in 1972. After a bankruptcy scare, it changed hands several times until it was purchased by the Asper family of Winnipeg, the current owners.

The remainder of the Canadian media market is divided among several smaller players. The most significant player in this field is CHUM Limited of Toronto, which owns a number of radio and television stations across the country. Their most visible television presence is Much Music, the Canadian counterpart to MTV. Much Music operates three channels, one for everyday hits, one for older tunes and a new digital channel called Music Music Loud, created for heavy metal listeners. The owners of A-Channel, a western-based media family, were expanding into Ontario at the turn of the twenty-first century. They were granted a license to serve Toronto, with a new outlet planned for 2003. The emphasis of Corus Entertainment, an offshoot of the Shaw cable interests from Calgary, remains mainly in radio. Other players include Rogers Communications, the country's largest cable operator, who also owns television and radio stations as well as the Québec based Telemedia Corporation.

In Québec, the privately owned and operated counterpart to the English-language CTV is TVA, headquartered in Montréal. It has a smaller competitor, Télévision Quatre Saisons (Four Seasons Television), which has teetered on the brink of insolvency in the past.

At the turn of the twenty-first century, Canadian television had access to 82 specialty channels. Some, such as CBC News World and RDI, were part of the cable packages that both cable operators and satellite systems offered as part of their extended basic services. They were packaged with regular, off-air channels at a monthly fee. Others were packaged with U.S. superstations such as WGN Chicago or WSBK Boston as pay-TV channels. Recently, a new cast of digital channels became available, all of which are sold through separate subscription systems. Canadians wishing to access the most television channels can either subscribe to a cable service or opt for connection to a satellite system such as Direct TV or Star Choice.

The operating revenue for Canada's commercial television stations in 2000 was $1,887,221. Operating expenses amounted to $1,708,607, leaving an operating profit of $178,614. After corporate taxes were applied, this amount dropped to $105,225. The results do not include cable television operations, pay television, or any non-commercial endeavors.

Cable television has existed in Canada for a long time. It was begun in London, Ontario by Edward Jarmain when he decided a large receiving antenna on an elevated piece of land would vastly improve signals arrived in that city from the United States. London was geographically close to major U.S. cities, but not close enough to get reliable reception from the network stations that broadcast from those localities. In its early years, cable was promoted as a reliable way to receive interference free and reliable signals from distant stations. In Toronto in the mid-1960s, cable companies carried Buffalo's PBS station, WNED, in order to attract upper-income Ontarians to the systems. For some time, WNED could not be received off air in Toronto. Other cable companies in other communities also used similar techniques resulting in rapid cable growth. By 1975, six out of ten Canadians subscribed to a cable system. Provincial governments in Québec and the Prairies challenged federal jurisdiction over cable citing the fact that cable systems did not cross provincial boundaries and therefore should be provincially regulated. In 1977 the Supreme Court of Canada disagreed, and cable remained under federal jurisdiction.

Since the technology existed to import more and more distant channels, mainly from the United States, pressure was put on the CRTC to open more channels for this purpose. The commission was concerned that importing channels to areas where those channels were not licensed to serve would fragment the audience of Canadian-based stations and negatively impact their incomes. As a result, when cable companies asked the regulator to include some of these channels, they were often refused. For years, the Fox outlet in Buffalo, WUTV, was not allowed on Canadian cable systems in Ontario. This kind of scenario repeated itself many times across the country. Not only were cable companies subject to this kind of regulatory practice, they were also forced to set aside a channel for community programming which was intended to be advertiser free. There are now over two hundred of these operating in Canada with a variety of local programming, ranging from live sports, church services, bingo games, political talk shows, and interview programming to local documentary features. The cable industry also finances and operates the aforementioned CPAC, the Public Affairs Access Channel.

Cable came into its own in the early 1980s when the CRTC decided to license a number of channels with the express purpose of operating as cable-only channels. Initially, these channels were offered on a subscriber basis only, but eventually, most of the original cable-only services became part of cable's basic package. Throughout the remaining years of the twentieth century, cable operators added a number of new services, including movie channels, digital channels, and home shopping channels. Analog systems in Canada now regularly feature up to 78 channels consisting of everything from locally produced community shows, regular CBC, CTV and Global service and any one of a number of channels from outside Canada. Near the end of the 1990s, Rogers Cable in Toronto introduced a high-speed Internet service through its cable system. Other major players such as Shaw, Groupe Videotron, and Cogeco have followed. To accommodate the new services and in anticipation of local and long distance telephone licenses, cable companies in Canada launched an extensive capital investment into converting their service to wide band fiber optics cable.

At the turn of the century, the cable industry was faced with choosing a massive expansion strategy or merging with companies devoted to doing so. Revenues remained high for cable operators, coming in at $2,055,956. However, expenditures outstripped revenues, with a resultant overall loss of $192,666. The largest single expenditure was on technical services at $724,893. In all, Canadian systems operated 219,000 kilometers of line in the country.

Electronic News Media

By the late 1990s, virtually every major news medium in the country operated a web site. Only the smaller ones, such as Saskatchewan Community Television, did not. BellGlobeMedia designed an instant update news site and the CBC site is also operated on a frequent update system. Others change information daily and some weekly. However, very few sites were used to originate news. Most copy came either from a newspaper's city room or from radio and television newsrooms. Internet usage in Canada during the 1990s and onwards continued to grow. In 2000, 51 percent of all Canadian households measured by Statistics Canada had at least one family member who was an Internet user. That represented an increase from 42 percent in 1999. The study covered 34,000 households. The majority of users reported that home was the best place for them to access the Internet. The most significant growth was the rise of cable as a major access provider. In the year 2000, an estimated 1.6 million Canadian households were connecting to the Internet through their cable companies. This represents an increase of 155 percent over those who reported in 1999. However, 3.7 million households connected by telephone lines, representing a growth rate of 29 percent in the same period. Close to 50 percent of all users connected read the news. This falls well behind interest in general browsing, seeking information about health and travel, and the use of e-mail. However, it did exceed other Internet factors such as e-banking and e-commerce. Higher income families tended to use the Internet more often.

Education & TRAINING

Until recently, communications and media studies have been in short supply in Canadian universities. For years, Canadian post-secondary education closely followed the British model, in which the arts, sciences, humanities and social sciences formed the core of the institution and were complemented by prestige professional faculties in law, teaching, engineering, and medicine. Journalism was treated largely as a technical skill, and, as a result, the largest number of journalism programs was offered by junior colleges of applied arts and technology across the country. This practice stands in contrast to the American experience where journalistic and press training often reside side by side with academically driven communications studies programs in major universities.

In Canada, the newest member of the journalistic community came to the University of British Columbia in the late 1990s as the result of a large grant by the Sing Tao newspaper chain. The program offers a two-year Master of Arts degree to a small number of students wishing to study newspaper journalism. The University of Western Ontario has Canada's oldest journalism program, which opened in 1947. It currently operates the program under the umbrella of the Faculty of Information and Media Studies and has a significant academic program combined with professional training. Carleton University in Ottawa also opened a journalism program in 1947 only a few short days after the Western program opened. It offers a four-year Bachelor of Arts degree in journalism as well as a Masters in Journalism (M.J.). Carleton also offers extensive educational opportunities at the graduate level in mass communications studies. The University of Regina, King's College University in Halifax, the University of Québec at Montréal, Concordia University in Montréal, and Ryerson Polytechnical University in Toronto also offer undergraduate degrees in journalism. Ryerson also offers a separate degree in Radio and Television Arts as well as a two-year post-degree program for those holding a Bachelor's degree from another institution. In the late 1990s, there was massive growth in universities who began to offer interdisciplinary programs in media and communications studies. These programs are mostly oriented toward academic, not professional, study.

Summary

In most respects, Canada remains a healthy media market, although concerns about concentration of ownership continue to be voiced. In spite of several government commissions that have investigated this situation, little has changed since the introduction of television in the early 1950s. Most of the nation's media, including newspapers and magazines, broadcasting stations, and Internet sites, are now owned and operated by large, profit-driven corporations. Unlike other states in the western world, in particular the United States, public broadcasting continues to exist and in most cases thrive in spite of tightening budgets and calls for privatization. With the exception of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's television networks, the significant majority of public broadcasters are also educational broadcasters. As a consequence, the daytime schedules of these stations are primarily focused to attract younger viewers, especially those in school. In the evening, most of these stations turn their attention to culturally enriched programming such as documentaries, other forms of current affairs programming combined with high quality dramatic series, many of which are imported either from Britain or France. Some operations, such as TVOntario, use membership lists in order to raise funds.

Although the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation calls itself a public broadcaster, in most respects it behaves more like a commercial broadcaster. With very few exceptions, notably those in news and current affairs programming, the corporation attempts to attract advertisers. Although its programming content is primarily produced in Canada and reflects Canadian issues and themes, its on-air presence has a very commercial look to it. Each spring, as the hockey playoffs begin, the CBC regularly reschedules its evening programming content to cover the competition for the Stanley Cup, even if this means shifting its popular 10 PM newscast to a different time. Non-hockey fans have long voiced their objection to the predominance of hockey games, which can occupy Canadian Broadcasting Corporation screens from late March to early June on a nightly basis. The CBC has long argued that it needs the revenue that these events generate.

American media and some broadcasting from Europe are available on Canadian cable systems and through direct home satellite services. The American networks NBC, CBS, ABC, WB and UPN are not unfamiliar to Canadians. In fact, the most viewed programs in Canada often originate from outside the country. In that respect, Canada is becoming more international in its production perspective. Due to the relative decline in value of the Canadian dollar, many American production companies find it to their advantage to shoot both television series and films in Canadian locations. The popular X-Files program was, for most of its life, shot in Vancouver, British Columbia. One of the country's largest production firms, Alliance-Atlantis, is involved in both film and television production and regularly sells its products to both Canadian and American television outlets.

Canadian publications are directed to audiences in Canada for the most part. With the exception of Toronto and Montréal, and to some degree Vancouver, Canadians can receive only one daily local newspaper. However both the Globe and Mail and the National Post have attempted to convince Canadian readers that they are national in scope in spite of the fact that both are published in Toronto. Due to satellite hookups and contracts with localized printing firms, both newspapers can arrive at homes and businesses across the country on a same day publication and delivery system. As with television, the country's most popular periodicals are, for the most part, imported from the United States. Canada does have a small, but volatile magazine industry. The largest and most popular publication is Maclean'sLe Magazine Maclean which is a weekly public affairs journal. Most other stable magazines in the country are tightly targeted journals aimed at specific, but often small constituencies such as hunters, homemakers, brides, or car aficionados.

Electronic, digitally based communications systems have been readily adapted by Canadian consumers. Cable television penetration has always been very high in Canada, due in the most part because signals from the United States could not be received with any technical stability, except in those regions where American transmitters existed in relatively close proximity to Canadians. When direct-to-home satellite service came to Canada, rural communities not wired for cable soon joined the international viewing community. Both services laid the groundwork for the rapidly growing Internet connections, as noted above. Canada is a world leader in the manufacture and use of fiber optics technology. Canada continues to wire its remaining communities at a rapid pace.

If there is any genuine fear about the future of the media in Canada, it is the potential take-over of Canadian media by American interests. Canadians have not forgotten the 1920s, when RCA's David Sarnoff declared that North America, in his mind, was one giant media market. Canada has continued to implement protective measures such as those noted above. Although NAFTA supporters continue to argue that the agreement exempts Canadian cultural industries from the free trade provisions of the treaty, NAFTA opponents continue to argue that the clauses are weak. Only time will tell who is correct.

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David R. Spencer

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Canada

CANADA

COUNTRY OVERVIEW

LOCATION AND SIZE.

Canada is located in the northern-most region of North America. Its southern territories run along the northern border of the continental United States. Canada is one of the largest countries in the world, second only to Russia in territorial size. It has a total area of 9.9 million square kilometers (3.8 million square miles). This includes 755,170 square kilometers (291,571 square miles) of water. The country touches 3 oceansthe Atlantic, the Arctic, and the Pacificand its coastline is 243,791 kilometers (151,473 miles) long. Canada's border with the United States is 8,893 kilometers (5,526 miles) in length and includes a 2,477-kilometer (1,539-mile) border with Alaska. Toronto is the largest city in Canada with a population of 4.3 million. Other major cities include Montreal (3.3 million people), Vancouver (1.8 million people), and Ottawa (1 million people). Located in the southeast corner of the nation, Ottawa is the nation's capital. The climate and geography of Canada vary greatly from temperate in the south to arctic in the north and from islands and plains in the east to mountains in the west.

POPULATION.

For its size, Canada has a small population. Although physically it is the second-largest country in the world, its population was only 31,281,092, according to a July 2000 estimate, or just under one-tenth the size of that of the United States. The nation has a low birth rate of 1.64 children born to each woman, or 11.41 births per 1,000 people. The mortality rate is 7.39 deaths per 1,000. However, the infant mortality rate is low with 5.08 deaths per 1,000 live births. Average life expectancy for males is 76.02 years and 83 for females. The population growth rate is moderate at 1.02 percent, although the positive growth rate is chiefly due to immigration . Each year there is an average of 6.2 immigrants for every 1,000 people. Canada has a liberal immigration policy and it goes to great lengths to accept refugees and asylum seekers from around the world. In 2000, Canada allowed 41,800 asylum seekers to settle in the country.

Despite the vastness of the nation, 90 percent of the Canadian population is located within 160 kilometers (100 miles) of the U.S. border. With the exception of some notable groups, most of the nation's people live in urban areas. By 2000, 75 percent of Canadians lived in cities or towns. The nation is ethnically diverse. People of British ancestry make up 28 percent of the population, while the French comprise 23 percent. Other Europeans, mainly Eastern Europeans, make up 15 percent. There is a small but visible Native American population (2 percent). About 6 percent of the population is divided between people of Asian, Arab, African, and Hispanic descent, while the remaining 26 percent of Canadians are of mixed ancestry. Canada is almost evenly divided between Protestants and Roman Catholics. There are deep divisions between the English-speaking Canadians and the French-speakers who are concentrated in the province of Quebec. The people of Quebec have a distinct culture and the government accepts and even encourages efforts to maintain Quebec's identity. Because of these divisions, the nation has 2 main official languages, English and French. The government also recognizes several Native American languages. However, tensions between the English and French have led to repeated efforts by nationalists in Quebec to break away and form their own nation. The debate over independence for Quebec is Canada's most serious political issue and there is yet to be a permanent settlement of the question.

There are other regional differences in Canada that are similar to the differences in the United States. People in the maritime provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island have a similar culture to those in the New England region of the United States, while the western regions of both nations are also closely related with numerous ranches and farms. Also like the United States, the population of Canada is aging. The fastest growing segment of the population is over age 65, which now makes up 13 percent of the population. Meanwhile, 19 percent of the population is under the age of 15.

OVERVIEW OF ECONOMY

Canada has the seventh-largest economy in the world. Most of the businesses are privately-owned, although the government does play a major role in the health-care system and operates many services including transportation and utility companies. The Canadian economy is diverse and highly developed. It is very similar to the American economy, although smaller in size. In the aftermath of World War II, the nation was transformed from a rural economy, based on agriculture, to one based on industry and mining. The nation's economy has been further transformed since the 1970s and services now provide the main economic output.

The foundation of the Canadian economy is foreign trade and the United States is by far the nation's largest trade partner. Foreign trade is responsible for about 45 percent of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP). Free trade agreements between the 2 nations have increased trade by eliminating tariffs . Each day approximately US$1 billion worth of goods crosses the U.S.-Canadian border. To understand the scale of U.S.-Canadian trade, it is important to point out that the United States sends more products to Canada than it does to all of Latin America.

Despite the small size of its population, the Canadian economy is one of the most prosperous in the world. For instance, its GDP per capita was US$23,300 in 1999, reflecting Canadian workers' high wages compared to many other countries. Prospects for continued positive economic performance are good. Canada has a highly skilled and productive workforce. In 1999, there were 15.9 million people in Canada's workforce, and the nation had an unemployment rate of 7.6 percent, which was almost twice the American rate.

Like Americans, Canadians tend to have high levels of disposable income . This disposable income drives the Canadian economy as consumers spend their excess wages on a variety of products and services. This creates demand for increased production and the development of new products, which also means more and better-paying jobs. Also like the United States, advertising has a major impact on Canadian consumer spending. Television is the number-one form of advertising in Canada.

The nation's infrastructure is excellent and most of its factories and manufacturing plants are modern. In fact, Canada's transportation network is ranked as the best in the world by the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report. Canada has a variety of natural resources, including petroleum and natural gas, and a variety of metals and minerals. Over the past decade, Canada has also emerged as one of the leading nations in the high-tech and computer industry. Most of this growth has occurred in central Canada, mainly Ontario and Quebec, and is responsible for the increased migration of people to these areas. Much of the economic growth in Canada today is fueled by small-to mediumsized companies. Because Canada has abundant energy resources, the global oil crisis which began in 1999 has helped its energy companies increase their outputs and profits. The nation has abundant natural resources that include iron ore, nickel, copper, zinc, gold, lead, silver, timber, fish, coal, petroleum, natural gas, and hydropower.

Regionally, the Canadian economy varies greatly. In the Eastern provinces, marine industriesincluding fishing, telecommunications, and energy productionare the main components of the economy. In the French-speaking region of Quebec, the city of Montreal has become one of the nation's centers for high-technology firms. This includes a large number of computer software companies. There is also a large industrial base which includes companies that produce pharmaceuticals, aerospace products, and telecommunications equipment. Ontario is the nation's main industrial center. About half of all Canadian manufactured goods are produced in Ontario. The province is second only to Michigan as the largest producer of automobiles and car parts in North America. Ottawa, the nation's capital, is located in Ontario. Other industries include chemicals, aerospace, steel, and food processing. The plains (or prairie) provinces of Alberta, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan are the home to four-fifths of Canada's agricultural lands. They are also the home to the majority of mining and fuel production. Alberta itself provides 90 percent of the nation's energy exports and is the home of Canada's oil and natural gas industry. British Columbia is in the Pacific Northwest. Forestry and tourism were traditionally the main elements of the region's economy, but financial services, including banking and insurance, have grown dramatically over the past decade. There is also a growing high-tech sector that is bolstered by the province's proximity to American firms such as Microsoft in the state of Washington. The Northern territories of the nation comprise one-third of its total size, but are home to only 100,000 people. These areas are home to Canada's Native American population, many of whom continue to follow traditional lifestyles based on hunting and fishing. Mining is the principal industry and there has been steady growth in diamond mining and finishing. Tourism also provides a substantial part of the region's economy.

Each of the nation's main economic sectors is highly developed. Although the agricultural sector is small, it takes advantage of the nation's generous natural resources. Increasingly, agriculture and fishing are concentrated in certain geographic regions of the country, mainly the west and southeast. The United States is the main market for all Canadian agricultural exports. In addition, the United States is the main destination for most of Canada's timber exports. Canada is also a major supplier of energy resources, including electricity and petroleum, to the United States. While industry has declined since the 1970s, it remains an important component of the country's economy. Automobile products provide one of Canada's principal exports, but the nation also produces a variety of consumer products and machinery. Nonetheless, large companies such as Ford and General Motors provide a significant percentage of the nation's industrial output. Services have seen the most dramatic growth in the Canadian economy over the past 2 decades. In addition to consumer-based businesses such as retail and tourism, financial services and telecommunications firms have grown dramatically. The government has offered significant support to these new technologies. For instance, the government has supported the development and installation of the only fiber-optic network in the world which carries only Internet traffic. The system, CA*Net3, will have 16 times the capacity of the largest U.S. system.

Budget surpluses over the past 3 years have allowed the government to begin paying down Canada's national debt . The debt has been reduced by Can$19 billion, and in 2000 it stood at Can$565 billion. The surpluses have also allowed the government to spend more on federal programs and to reduce some taxes. The nation is a net donor of foreign aid. In 1997, it provided US$2.1 billion in international aid.

There are several potential problems facing the Canadian economy. The most significant is the continuing question over the status of Quebec. Should Quebec become independent, it would significantly disrupt the Canadian economy, and the nation would lose a sizable proportion of its GDP. The second most pressing problem for Canada has been the migration of some of its best educated and trained workers to the United States. This "brain drain" is the result of lower taxes and higher wages in the United States. Finally, Canada's dependence on trade makes it vulnerable to slow downs in the economies of its major trade partners. This is especially true of the United States. In the 20th century, when the United States experienced economic recessions or depressions, Canada soon after suffered similar economic problems.

POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND TAXATION

Canada was formerly a British colony that gained independence in 1867. The nation is a parliamentary democracy and a confederation (a system in which the regional governments have a high degree of power). Canada is divided into 10 provinces and 3 territories. Each of the provinces has a substantial degree of political independence and power, more so than an American state.

The head of state is the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. She is represented in Canada by a governor-general whom she appoints on the advice of the prime minister for a 5-year term. The actual head of the government is the prime minister, who is the leader of the majority party in Parliament. Parliament itself is bicameral (2-chamber). The upper house is the Senate, whose 104 members are appointed for life by the governor-general upon the advice of the prime minister. Most of the real political power in Canada is in the lower chamber, the House of Commons. It consists of 301 members who are directly elected by the people to serve 5-year terms. Each province has an elected premier and a unicameral (single chamber) assembly. There is also a lieutenant-governor who is appointed by the governor-general.

Unlike the United States, which has only 2 main political parties, Canada has a number of different parties. The Bloc Québécois represents those who wish independence for Quebec. The Liberal Party is moderate and similar to the American Democratic Party, while the Progressive Conservative Party and the Canadian Alliance are similar to the American Republican Party. There are also a number of other minor parties, including the New Democratic Party. All of the major political parties support private enterprise to varying degrees, although the New Democratic Party favors more government oversight of the economy. There are also disagreements among the parties over free trade.

While the majority of businesses in Canada are privately owned, the government does play a major role in the economy. This is true of both the national and provincial governments. When the 2 levels of government are combined, they account for 21 percent of the nation's GDP. At times the provincial and national governments have disputes over economic policy. For instance, there is an ongoing disagreement between the national government and the maritime provinces over control of fishing rights and mineral resources in the Atlantic. Western provinces want more control over their own mineral and energy deposits while the central region of the nation seeks increased government spending to support economic development.

Often economic differences focus on environmental issues and worker concerns. The national government tends to favor more environmental regulation, even if it is economically disadvantageous. The same is true of issues such as worker safety and pay. However, since 1984 the national government has been engaged in a broad effort to return control over social and economic policies to the provinces. The main reason for devolution is economic; the national government has not had the financial resources to enforce many of its programs and regulations, so it has divested itself of them. In 1999, the national and provincial governments reached a sweeping agreement that called for combined authority over new social spending. Furthermore, the national government has given control of job training and worker retraining back to the provinces, but it has strengthened its role in regulating trade between the provinces and attempted to develop national regulations on stock trading and other financial services.

In 1998, the Canadian national government had revenues of US$121.8 billion and expenditures of US$115.1 billion. Compared with the United States, Canada's taxes are high, about 30 percent higher for the average person. In Canada, people with low incomes pay 16 percent of their income in taxes; the tax rates rise to 22 percent, then to 26 percent for those with incomes between Can$61,000 and Can$100,000, and finally to 29 percent for those with incomes over Can$100,000 per year. In 1998, taxes accounted for 38 percent of the nation's GDP. Significantly, taxes accounted for 60 percent of the growth in the Canadian economy from 1990-96. The country has a national 7 percent sales tax known as the Goods and Services Tax (GST). The GST is particularly unpopular among the Canadian people. Because of these high taxes, it is estimated that the underground economy is responsible for as much as 20 percent of economic activity. In 1999, the Canadian government estimated that it lost US$9 billion in tax revenues because of the underground economy.

On the other hand, these high taxes allow all Canadians to have full access to health care. The Canadian system is known as "Medicare" and it allows people to go to private doctors and a network of 950 hospitals and have their costs paid for by the government. The individual provinces and territories direct health-care planning and financing. The nation's taxes help keep the cost of prescription drugs low for individuals. However, limits on care and lengthy delays in care have led more and more people to pay for private care out of their own pockets. Some 30 percent of all new health-care spending is made in the private sector . In addition, education costs are low. Canada spends more per person on education than any of the other industrialized countries and the cost of college is very low compared with the United States. Nonetheless, the high tax rate has contributed to the brain drain from Canada and has caused some foreign companies to invest in the United States rather than Canada.

Although Canada is dependent on foreign investment to fuel its continuing economic expansion, it restricts investment in several key areas of its service sector. There is only 1 special trade zone in Canada and no free trade zones . Instead, Canada pursues free trade through multinational forums such as the World Trade Organization (WTO). It also works to deepen trade with partner countries such as the United States.

The United States and Canada cooperate on environmental issues and border disputes. The main mechanism to facilitate this cooperation is the International Joint Commission (ICJ). The 2 major environmental accords are the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1972, which controls water pollution in the Great Lakes, and the Air Quality Agreement of 1991, which helps coordinate policies on problems such as acid rain.

Canada spends only a small percentage of its GDP on defense. In 1998, it spent 1.2 percent of GDP or US$7.4 billion, compared with an average of around 2.5 percent of GDP for most developed nations. The long border with the United States does not need to be militarily defended, but Canada is a frequent contributor of troops for United Nations peacekeeping forces. It is also a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, a military alliance consisting of Canada, the United States, and many European countries). As a NATO member, Canadian military forces have participated in the peacekeeping mission to Bosnia and in the military action against Serbia as a result of the atrocities in Kosovo in 1999.

INFRASTRUCTURE, POWER, AND COMMUNICATIONS

Canada has one of the best-developed infrastructures in the world. It meets the requirements for high-tech business and international trade. The telephone system is state-of-the-art and supported by a satellite system and 300 earth-based relay centers. There are also 5 international underwater cables (4 across the Atlantic and one across the Pacific). In addition, there are 750 Internet providers. All major cities have high-speed Internet capabilities. The nation's new CA*Net3 Internet system is scheduled to be completed in 2001. Canada has the lowest Internet access costs of the developed world. In 1997, there were an estimated 7-8 million Internet users, or about 1 in 4 Canadians.

Canada is an energy exporter. Its main exports are natural gas and oil. However, in 1998 the majority of electricity in Canada was produced by hydroelectric plants (59.77 percent). Fossil fuels provided the second-largest share of electricity with 27.18 percent of the total. Atomic power provided 12.25 percent. Total electric power production was 550.85 billion kilowatt hours (kWh). The nation consumed 484.51 billion kWh of electricity. It exported 39.5 billion kWh of power and imported 11.72 billion kWh of power.

Communications
Country Newspapers Radios TV Sets a Cable subscribers a Mobile Phones a Fax Machines a Personal Computers a Internet Hosts b Internet Users b
1996 1997 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1999 1999
Canada 159 1,077 715 263.8 176 33.3 330.0 422.97 11,000
United States 215 2,146 847 244.3 256 78.4 458.6 1,508.77 74,100
Mexico 97 325 261 15.7 35 3.0 47.0 23.02 1,822
Brazil 40 444 316 16.3 47 3.1 30.1 18.45 3,500
aData are from International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report 1999 and are per 1,000 people.
bData are from the Internet Software Consortium (http://www.isc.org) and are per 10,000 people.
SOURCE: World Bank. World Development Indicators 2000.

The transport system is a blend of private and government-owned firms. Canada has 36,114 kilometers (22,441 miles) of railways, including 2 transcontinental systems. In 1995, the government privatized the freight carrier Canadian National. Passenger service is provided by the government-owned company VIA. There are 901,902 kilometers (560,442 miles) of roadways in the country, of which 318,371 kilometers (197,390 miles) are paved, including 16,571 kilometers (10,298 miles) of expressways. The nation's main east-west route is the 4,500-kilometer (2,796-mile) Trans-Canada Highway. All major cities have well-developed and inexpensive public transportation systems that are subsidized by provincial and local governments. The nation's trucking and rail systems are well-integrated with American distribution networks and vice versa. Each year some 400 million tons of goods are transported across Canadian highways. Trucks carry 70 percent of the goods that Canada annually exports to the United States. Canada has 1,411 airports, but only 515 have paved runways. Of these, 10 are international airports. There are also 15 heliports. U.S. and Canadian air carriers have unrestricted access to each other's airspace. Air Canada is the nation's major airline, but there are 25 U.S. and 47 other international airlines that fly into Canada. Air Canada controls 80 percent of the domestic market and this has led to higher than average air fares.

There are 3,000 kilometers (1,864 miles) of navigable waterways, including the massive Saint Lawrence Seaway which allows ocean-going vessels to sail from the Atlantic to ports such as Chicago and Thunder Bay, Ontario. There are 20 major ports, including Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Saint John, Thunder Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, and Windsor. The busiest port is Vancouver, on the west coast. The nation's merchant marine consists of 114 ships, not including smaller vessels that travel only on the Great Lakes. Canada has an extensive network of pipelines to support its large energy industry. There are 23,564 kilometers (14,642 miles) of crude or refined oil pipelines and 74,980 kilometers (46,593 miles) of natural gas pipelines. Many of these pipelines deliver energy across the U.S.-Canada border.

ECONOMIC SECTORS

Since the 1970s the Canadian economy has been transformed from one based on industry and mining to one dominated by the service sector. Concurrently, the nation's agricultural sector has declined significantly. All sectors of the economy have incorporated increasing levels of technology. As a result, the economy has become less labor-intensive and more high-tech. In the past, as much as 60 percent of the nation's exports were based on minerals or other resources. However, by 2000, resource-based exports only accounted for 35 percent of Canada's exports. The world oil shortage continues to fuel Canada's energy exports and Canada remains the world's fifth-largest energy producer when oil, natural gas, hydropower, and atomic power are combined. Major energy companies include Shell Canada, Petro-Canada, BP-Amoco, and Burlington Resources.

The majority of exports are now based on sophisticated technologies. These types of exports include telecommunications equipment, computer software, various environmental technologies, and aerospace products. Canada's Nortel Networks is one of the largest and most respected telecommunications and networking companies in the world. But like many companies, Nortel was hit hard by the downturn in this market niche in 2001, when it announced it was laying off thousands of employees and would take a loss of over US$19 billion in the second quarter of that year. Automobiles and car parts remain the leading cash export, followed by machinery and equipment. Exports of service-based items increased by 11.3 percent in 1999. Since 1992, the Canadian economy has experienced continued growth. Much of this is the result of trade with the United States, which enjoyed a sustained period of economic progress through the end of the 20th century. The strength of the nation's economy has led to increased levels of foreign investment. In 1999, foreign investment in Canada increased by 10 percent to reach a total of $240 billion. This accounted for 25 percent of the nation's GDP. Financial services, including insurance, accounted for the largest percentage of foreign investment.

The agricultural sector in Canada is undergoing increasing consolidation. Smaller family farms are being consolidated by large agricultural businesses. Since 1991, the number of farms whose output exceeded US$100,000 per year has increased by 10 percent. These large farms were concentrated in Quebec and Ontario, but there was substantial growth in the west. For instance, the province of Saskatchewan has experienced a 30 percent growth in large farms since 1991. There is also an overall decline in the total area of land being used for agriculture. Nonetheless, agriculture remains highly diverse. Crops range from wheat and barley to tobacco and vegetables. There is also significant timber production. Livestock production includes beef and veal, swine, poultry, duck, turkey, and goose. Furthermore, the nation is one of the world's largest fish harvesters. Agriculture accounts for 3 percent of the nation's GDP and 3 percent of its work-force. In 1999, 12 percent of the rural population lived on farms.

Canadian industry has become more efficient and productive by adopting ever-increasing levels of technology in manufacturing. Industrial productivity has increased by an average of 3 percent per year over the past decade. The principal industrial growth sectors include the automotive industry, electronics, computers and computer equipment, aircraft parts and equipment, and building supplies. The automotive sector is Canada's largest industrial employer and is dominated by companies such as Ford and General Motors. The implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), a trade agreement between the United States, Mexico, and Canada which eliminates taxes on goods traded between the 3 nations, has expanded industrial opportunities by opening new markets for Canadian exports in the United States and Mexico. However, NAFTA is a double-edged sword in that inefficient industries face increased competition from companies in Canada's NAFTA partners.As a percentage of the overall economy, industry continues to decline although there is sustained growth in specific areas. In 1999, industry accounted for 31 percent of the nation's GDP and 16 percent of employment.

The service sector is the fastest growing segment of the Canadian economy. The nation's highly developed infrastructure has helped support the expansion of services by providing state-of-the-art telecommunications, transportation, and utilities. Services account for 66 percent of the nation's economy and employ 74 percent of the country's workforce. Of Canada's skilled workers, 80 percent are employed by the service sector. The strength of the service sector varies from region to region. Tourism and retail dominate areas of the southeast and west, while financial services are key components of the economy of central Canada. The banking sector is strong and composed of both domestic and foreign banking firms. In an effort to protect domestic businesses, Canada has a number of restrictions in place that limit foreign ownership of companies in the service sector that do business in the country.

AGRICULTURE

Agriculture in Canada is among the most sophisticated and technologically advanced in the world. Farmers use scientific crop and soil analysis as well as state-of-the-art equipment. By 1996, more than one-quarter of all Canadian farmers used a computer in the management of their crops and livestock. In 2000, there were 7,100 square kilometers (2,741 square miles) of irrigated land. While it produces substantial quantities of food for domestic consumers and for export, Canada also imports a significant amount of agricultural products. Total agricultural imports in 1999 amounted to US$10.8 billion. The United States supplies Canada with roughly two-thirds of its total agricultural imports. Conversely, the United States is Canada's main market for agricultural goods. In 1999, the United States was the destination for one-third of Canada's exports of crops, livestock, and fish.

While the overall number of Canadian farms continues to decline, the decline has slowed in recent years and several provinces are in fact adding or gaining new farms. The decline in farms has slowed to under 1 percent per year, the lowest level of decline since 1941. Since 1991, British Columbia has increased its number of farms by 12.6 percent, Alberta by 3 percent, Nova Scotia by 1 percent, and Newfoundland by 0.8 percent. Ontario continues to have the largest overall number of farmsover 68,000followed by Alberta with 58,000, and Saskatchewan with 56,000. The total number of farms in Canada is approximately 275,000. The average size of a Canadian farm is 608 acres. Contrary to the trends in the rest of the country, British Columbia has experienced dramatic growth in the number of its small farms. About half of all new farms in the province have gross profits of US$10,000 or less. The number of new small farms in British Columbia has increased by 14.7 percent since 1991.

The nation's main crops are wheat, barley, corn, potatoes, soybeans, rice, and sugar beets. The dominant crop is wheat. In 1998 Canada produced 24,076,300 tons of wheat. However, there is less wheat under cultivation in Canada than at any time in the 20th century. This is the result of increased diversification and low worldwide wheat prices. The number-two crop was barley and the country harvested some 12,708,700 tons of it. Total crop output in 1998 was 53,701,500 tons. The primary livestock products are beef, chicken, duck, turkey, goose, and pork. Beef production is concentrated in the western areas of the nation while poultry production is concentrated in the east. About two-thirds of all poultry farms were in eastern Canada. Most livestock is consumed domestically. For instance, in 2000 beef production was valued at US$1.5 billion. Of this, US$70 million worth of beef was exported while the rest was consumed in Canada. The country also imported US$140 million of beef, almost all of it supplied by the United States. One out of every 4 farms in Canada raised beef.

One of the fastest growing segments of Canadian agriculture is organic products (food grown naturally and without pesticides, and sold without preservatives or additives). The organic food industry has been growing at a rate of 20 percent per year. There are now about 1,500 registered organic food producers in Canada. Organic production is strongest in the western areas of the country. There are also a growing number of specialty farms. For instance, there are now 1,593 farms whose main output is Christmas trees. In addition, the number of bison raised on farms for buffalo meat has tripled since the early 1990s, and the total number of head are around 45,000. There are also a number of exotic species, including llama and elk, being raised for sale in specialty markets. For instance, elk and deer antlers are sold to Asian nations for use in food products and tea. Specialized crop products include various herbs and spices such as garlic, ginseng, and coriander, cut flowers such as roses or lilies, and tobacco.

While fishing remains a prominent part of the economy of some provinces, depletion of fish stocks caused by over-fishing have led to significant declines in fish production. Fishing now accounts for only about 0.1 percent of the nation's GDP or US$3.2 billion per year. Since the early 1990s, fishing's share of the nation's GDP has declined at an average of 2 percent per year.

Environmental problems have created concerns for Canadian agriculture. One of the major problems is that of animal waste and fertilizer runoff contaminating waterways. In 1996, there were 61 million acres that were treated with some form of chemical fertilizer and 57 million acres treated with herbicides. This represents a 15 percent increase in fertilizer use since 1991, and a 7 percent increase in herbicide use. A second major problem is that of soil erosion caused by overproduction.

INDUSTRY

Although the automotive industry is the dominant industrial force in Canada, the nation's industrial base is highly diversified. In addition to the manufacture of cars and car parts, major Canadian industries include electronics, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, chemicals, and petroleum and natural gas. Manufacturing accounts for about 18 percent of total industrial output. The most significant growth areas in industry are electronics, which grew by 15 percent in 2000, communications with 7.5 percent growth, furniture and fixtures with 7.4 percent growth, and crude oil and natural gas, which grew by 4.5 percent. Meanwhile transportation equipment declined by 5 percent while textiles were off by 3 percent.

MINERALS AND RESOURCES.

Mining and fuel extraction and production accounted for 4.5 percent of Canada's GDP or some US$36.1 billion. Fuel exploration and production dominate this sector, but the processing of other types of mineral resources has grown significantly. In 1996, the top non-fuel minerals were gold with production of US$2.05 billion, copper US$1.47 billion, nickel US$1.45 billion, and zinc US$1.25 billion. There was also significant production of lead and iron. There are about 50 major gold mines in Canada and the country leads the world in technologies which extract gold from rock and soil. The nation is the world's largest producer of zinc and the fifth largest producer of lead. Among the provinces, Ontario is the top producer of non-fuel mineral resources, followed by Quebec, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, and Newfoundland. Each year Canadian companies spend over US$600 million to find or develop new mines and fuel supplies. However, environmental concerns and increased regulation have led many Canadian mining companies to shift exploration elsewhere. Latin America is becoming a favorite choice for Canadian mining companies.

While overall mineral production is dispersed throughout Canada, fuel production is concentrated in the west, with a few major exceptions. Canada is a major exporter of energy and fuels. In 1998, natural gas was the main export with 34.2 percent of total, petroleum was next at 28.6 percent, hydroelectricity at 20.7 percent, coal at 11.4 percent, and atomic energy at 5.1 percent. The United States has traditionally been Canada's largest market for energy exports, purchasing 90 percent of the nation's fuel and energy exports. Energy production accounts for 8 percent of the nation's economy. Approximately 65 percent of energy production is in Alberta, which is also the home of the nation's oil industry. The number-two producer was British Columbia at 13 percent, followed by Saskatchewan at 8 percent, and Quebec at 5 percent. The atomic industry is centered in Quebec.

MANUFACTURING.

The manufacturing sector is dominated by the auto industry. Including imports, Canadians purchased 1.4 million new vehicles in 1999. That same year, there were 2.8 million new cars and light trucks produced in Canada, or 4.5 percent of the world's total output. About 90 percent of Canadian-built cars are exported to the United States. In 1999, exports to the United States alone equaled US$64.7 billion. Exports to the EU ranked second and amounted to US$299 million. Canada is the world's ninth-largest market for the purchase of new automobiles. In 1999, the auto parts market in Canada was worth US$33.8 billion. Of this total, US$22.7 billion worth of parts were produced in Canada. Canadian companies exported US$18 billion of the parts produced. The United States is both the main market for Canadian auto exports and the main supplier of the nation's imports. The strength of the auto sector is founded on the U.S.-Canada Auto Pact of 1965 which provided for free trade in cars and car parts. The pact also served as the model for later trade agreements between the 2 countries.

Electronics and electronic components constitute the main growth industry in Canada. These products include telecommunications equipment, computer software, home electronics equipment, and industrial and automotive electronics. Most electronics producers are located in Ontario and Quebec, although a growing number of firms are building plants in the south of British Columbia. Total production of electronics exceeded US$5.2 billion in 2000 and Canada had US$3.3 billion in exports. This does not include computers and computer hardware equipment, which accounted for an additional US$6.7 billion in production and US$6.4 billion in exports. One of the fastest growing electronics markets in Canada is that of personal communications, including mobile phones and pagers. Since 1995, this market has expanded 150 percent. In 1999, there were 3 million mobile phones in use.

There is a variety of other manufacturers in Canada. Aircraft and aircraft parts provide US$7.9 billion to the nation's GDP and some US$7.3 billion in exports. This makes Canada the world's fifth-largest producer of aerospace products and estimates are that the nation will take over the number-three spot by 2004 as the industry continues to expand. The main products are airframes, which form the main body of jet aircraft, and engines. Some of the major Canadian aerospace firms include Lockheed Martin Canada, Canadian Marconi Company (CMC), and Sextant. Canada's Bombardier company, with over US$10 billion in revenues in 2001, is a major producer of business jets, and is the world's third-largest civil aircraft producer, behind Boeing and Airbus. Canada also has a major building products industry which in 2000 produced goods worth US$29 billion. It produces goods such as lumber, plywood, and shingles. About three-quarters of these materials are used in the domestic construction market. The other quarter is exported. Canada also imports a large amount of construction and building materials. The majority of these imports come from the United States (75 percent) and the remainder from Asian nations. Furniture and furniture accessories account for US$6 billion worth of products annually, including US$3.4 billion in exports. A staggering 97 percent of Canada's furniture exports go to the United States. The plastics industry manufactured some US$4.8 billion in products in 2000 while environmental concerns have created a thriving pollution control industry with goods worth US$4.3 billion that same year. Other major industrial sectors include medical equipment and pharmaceuticals, pulp and paper products, and sporting goods and recreational equipment. Canadian sporting goods manufacturers have strong brand identification for a number of products, including ice hockey equipment, snowboards, and swim goggles.

SERVICES

Services employ the greatest number of Canadians and account for the largest share of the nation's GDP. Some 10.4 million Canadians are employed in the sector, which also accounts for two-thirds of small businesses and the self-employed. Since 1976, employment in services has increased by 46.5 percent. With 1.7 million employees, retail is the number-one employer in the service sector. Retail is followed by business services at 1.3 million, personal services at 1 million, transportation and communications at 980,000, and financial services with 789,000. Financial services is the highest paying employment category in the sector. Workers in this field earn an average of Can$700 per week while retail workers only average Can$350 per week. The average overall wage in the services sector is Can$580 per week.

The wholesale, retail, and food service sectors are very similar to their counterparts in the American economy. In fact, American retail stores and restaurants are common throughout most of Canada. The banking and financial services sector is also very comparable to that of the United States. Finally, Canada is the number-one foreign destination for American tourists. These close ties between the service sectors of the 2 nations mean that Canadian companies watch the development of new services, products, and techniques in the United States very closely.

BANKING AND FINANCIAL SERVICES.

The banking sector in Canada is highly developed and, following reforms in the 1990s, it is open to foreign investment and the establishment of foreign-based banks in the country. However, it was not until 1999 that foreign banks were allowed to open branches in Canada without first establishing a subsidiary company (a local or domestic branch of a foreign firm that is incorporated in the country in which it operates, not in the country of the parent company). In January of 2000, Canada had about 8,200 bank branches and close to 15,500 automated teller machines (ATMs). This includes 11 domestic and 42 foreign-owned banks. However, Canada's banking system is dominated by 6 domestic banks which together control about 90 percent of the nation's total assets. Even though foreign banks are now allowed to enter Canada's banking market, most choose to concentrate on peripheral services, including credit cards or commercial lending, because of the domination of the 6 banks which prevent any real market openings in retail banking.

Banking and financial services represent 5 percent of the country's GDP, and provide over Can$22 billion a year in payroll. Each year they also provide Can$50 billion in exports. Access to foreign markets has become a critical component in the success of this sector. For instance, 5 of the country's largest banks each have approximately 30 percent of their assets overseas. In addition, the 2 largest Canadian insurance companies make more profits abroad than they do in Canada. The nation's 4 largest insurance companies are Mutual Life Assurance of Canada, Manufacturers Life Insurance Company, Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada, and the Canadian Life Assurance Company.

RETAIL.

Retail sales in Canada in 1999 were Can$260 billion (including automotive sales). Excluding car sales, food was the number-one product sold in retail outlets (mainly supermarkets). Food sales totaled Can$59 billion in 1999 with Can$55 billion of that sold in supermarkets and grocery stores. Clothing was number-two with Can$14.3 billion in sales, followed closely by drug and medicine sales with Can$13.3 billion. Supermarkets had the highest sales volume, followed by general merchandise stores and department stores.

Unlike the United States, Canada's retail sector is not dominated by large chain stores. Independent stores make up 61 percent of the market, chain stores comprise 32 percent, and department stores 7 percent. Stores with 1-4 employees make up 53 percent of the sector, shops with 5-9 employees comprise 23 percent, and those with more than 50 employees only account for 3 percent. There are regional differences in the retail trade. Ontario leads the nation in retail sales with Can$7.9 billion in sales. Quebec is number-two with sales of Can$3.3 billion. In Newfoundland, there are 2 grocery stores per every 1,000 people, but in Ontario there are only 0.5 per 1,000. One potential problem for retail is the increasing number of part-time workers employed in the sector. In 1999, 32 percent of retail workers were part-time. Because they work part-time, these workers usually do not have benefits and therefore must rely on government social services for health care and retirement.

TOURISM.

Canada ranks number-nine in the world in terms of tourist revenues, and has 2.2 percent of the world's total tourism market. In 1998, there were 93.3 million tourists who had overnight stays in Canada. This included 18.8 million foreign visitors and 74.4 million domestic tourists. The majority of domestic tourists traveled to overnight destinations within their home province (70.8 million) while only a small number of Canadians stayed overnight in a different province (3.4 million). In 2000, tourism employed 524,300 people. In 1999, tourism receipts amounted to Can$50.1 billion or 6.2 percent of GDP.

INTERNATIONAL TRADE

Canada's economy is dependent on international trade. Roughly 59 percent of its economy is based on trade. In 1999 Canada exported US$277 billion worth of goods and services and imported US$259.3 billion. While the overwhelming majority of the country's trade is with the United States, the Canadian government supports the expansion of foreign trade through international treaties and agreements. In 1989, Canada and the United States signed the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) which eliminated many tariffs and taxes on goods that were traded between the 2 nations. As a result, trade increased by 50 percent before NAFTA superceded the FTA in 1994. In 1999, trade between the 2 nations equaled US$365 billion. When investments and services are included, the total rises to US$450 billion. Canada now has a trade surplus with the United States that in 1999 was US$32.1 billion. With NAFTA, trade between Canada and Mexico

Trade (expressed in billions of US$): Canada
Exports Imports
1975 34.074 36.106
1980 67.734 62.544
1985 90.950 80.640
1990 127.629 123.244
1995 192.197 168.426
1998 214.327 206.233
SOURCE: International Monetary Fund. International Financial Statistics Yearbook 1999.

also increased substantially. Canada's major export partners are the United States, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, South Korea, the Netherlands, and China. The majority of the country's imports come from the United States, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Mexico, Taiwan, and South Korea.

Because of the success of the FTA and NAFTA, Canada has sought to enter into similar agreements with other nations. It has started negotiations with nations including Costa Rica, Israel, and Singapore. In 1997, it initiated a version of the FTA with Chile. This agreement is designed to prepare Chile for entry into NAFTA. Canada is a member of a number of international economic organizations including the WTO, the Free Trade Area of the Americas, and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum.

While the United States and Canada generally cooperate on trade issues, there are a number of areas where the 2 countries have disagreements. When disputes arise between the 2 nations, they are usually submitted to international bodies for resolution. The WTO and NAFTA are the most common forums to arbitrate controversies. The main areas of dispute most commonly involve agriculture and cultural industries. A major fisheries dispute that centered around the Gulf of Maine was settled by the International Court of Justice in 1984. In 1990 the United States and Canada signed the Fisheries Enforcement Agreement that was designed to discourage illegal fishing. This was followed by the 1999 Pacific Salmon Agreement that settled disagreements over salmon fishing.

One of the main areas of contention between the United States and Canada is over trade with Cuba. Since the 1960s, the United States has maintained a trade embargo on Cuba. However, Canada conducts trade with Cuba. In fact, Americans who want to travel to Cuba often go to Canada and then depart from there, since direct travel between the United States and Cuba is prohibited by the U.S. government.

The most significant barriers Canada has to free trade are restrictions on the ownership of companies that are headquartered in the country. Foreign individuals and companies are limited to 25 percent ownership in Canadian airlines and 20 percent ownership of telecommunications companies. They are also restricted to 49 percent stakes in commercial fishing ventures. Furthermore, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan limit real estate sales to people or companies from outside of the province.

Because of the potential influence of American culture, Canada has taken steps to try to preserve its culture from being overwhelmed by the United States. For instance, the Canadian government exempted cultural industries such as movies, music, or literature from the provisions of NAFTA. In addition, Quebec requires that all products marketed in the province be labeled in French, and throughout Canada both French and English are used in packaging and labels.

While 90 percent of all goods enter Canada without any form of tax or tariff, certain products face tariffs that range from 0.9 percent to 13 percent. The highest level of tariff is applied to goods such as vegetables, cut flowers, sugar, wine, textiles, clothing, footwear, and boats. These tariffs apply to 35 different countries. In addition, Canada uses 300 percent tariffs to protect the dairy and poultry industry from competition, although in 1999 the WTO agreed with the United States and New Zealand that such tariffs were in violation of WTO regulations.

MONEY

In August 2001, 1.51 Canadian dollars equaled 1 U.S. dollar. The value of the Canadian dollar has remained fairly constant in relation to the U.S. dollar since hitting an all-time low in 1985. In 1995, 1 U.S. dollar equaled 1.3724 Canadian dollars. Recent weaknesses in the Canadian dollar have helped the nation's economy by making its exports cheaper for countries like the United States, a development that has helped spur the increase in Canadian exports.

The Bank of Canada is the nation's central bank. Its main purpose is to regulate monetary policy . The Bank of Canada prints paper currency and mints coins and is responsible for setting interest rates. The Bank is a private institution that is independent of the government. However, the members of the board of directors that oversee the Bank are appointed by the federal government's Finance Minister for 3-year terms. It is not a regular commercial bank and it loans money only to other banks or government bodies. The Bank is also in charge of administering the national debt and making payments on the debt. In an effort to combat the drug trade and counterfeiting, the Bank has undertaken a variety of measures in recent years, including adding new security features to

Exchange rates: Canada
Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1
Jan 2001 1.5032
2000 1.4851
1999 1.4857
1998 1.4835
1997 1.3846
1996 1.3635
SOURCE: CIA World Factbook 2001 [ONLINE].

currency and eliminating the Can$1,000 bill (since it was rarely used by legitimate businesses, but commonly used in the drug trade).

The Toronto Stock Exchange (TSE), founded in 1852, is one of the largest in North America. Its "TSE 300" index, which lists the 300 largest companies on the exchange, is usually used as the major Canadian stock index. Other major Canadian stock exchanges include the Alberta, Montreal, Vancouver, and Winnipeg stock exchanges. The total value of these exchanges in 1998 was US$543.4 billion. There were 1,384 domestic companies listed in these exchanges in addition to a host of international companies.

POVERTY AND WEALTH

Canada is a prosperous and affluent country. It has a highly developed social welfare system that includes a progressive health-care system. The nation aggressively pursues policies which emphasize human rights. In terms of the welfare of its citizens, Canada is one of the world's most progressive nations. The combination of a thriving economy and generous social benefits gives Canada one of the highest standards of living in the world. In the Human Development Report 2000, published by the United Nations, Canada ranks number-one in the world in human development. Furthermore, over the past 25 years Canada has consistently ranked number-one or two in the report. The GDP per capita in 1999 was US$23,300. Education is mandatory through age 15 and the literacy rate exceeds 97 percent.

The highest 10 percent of the population accounts for 23.8 percent of all income. At the same time, the lowest 10 percent makes only 2.8 percent of all income. The majority of Canadians fall into what is considered to be the middle class. While most people in Canadian society share in the nation's prosperity, there are several groups that are generally excluded from the affluence of the country. Among these groups are the native people of Canada and recent immigrants. Women and the disabled

GDP per Capita (US$)
Country 1975 1980 1985 1990 1998
Canada 14,535 16,423 17,850 19,160 20,458
United States 19,364 21,529 23,200 25,363 29,683
Mexico 3,380 4,167 4,106 4,046 4,459
Brazil 3,464 4,253 4,039 4,078 4,509
SOURCE: United Nations. Human Development Report 2000; Trends in human development and per capita income.

also face inequities in employment and wages. While women have the same property rights and are guaranteed equal employment under the law, many women are paid less than male workers in similar jobs. Women head over 85 percent of single-parent households and these households have a higher level of poverty than their traditional 2-parent family counterparts.

Native Americans in Canada generally do not share in the nation's prosperity. They have higher rates of unemployment, alcoholism, suicide, and poverty than the national averages. Increasingly, the tribes have sought greater autonomy and political control over themselves and their land. In response, the government has allocated US$400 million for programs designed to alleviate the worst problems of the tribes since 1996. The federal government is also currently in negotiations with over 350 different tribes over issues of self-government.

The Canadian health-care system is often described as a model for other nations. The system is a combination of public financing and private delivery of medical care. In other words, private doctors and health-care providers treat people, but the costs are paid for by the government. The federal government sets standards and provides funds for the provincial governments. Each province is responsible for specific planning, public health, and the financing of the health-care system. Over 95 percent of Canadian hospitals are private non-profit ventures that are run by community boards and municipalities.

Household Consumption in PPP Terms
Country All food Clothing and footwear Fuel and power a Health care b Education b Transport & Communications Other
Canada 14 5 10 4 21 9 38
United States 13 9 9 4 6 8 51
Mexico 30 6 4 2 7 5 46
Brazil 22 13 18 15 34 4 -6
Data represent percentage of consumption in PPP terms.
a Excludes energy used for transport.
b Includes government and private expenditures.
SOURCE: World Bank. World Development Indicators 2000.
Distribution of Income or Consumption by Percentage
Share: Canada
Lowest 10% 2.8
Lowest 20% 7.5
Second 20% 12.9
Third 20% 17.2
Fourth 20% 23.0
Highest 20% 39.3
Highest 10% 23.8
Survey year: 1994
Note: This information refers to income shares by percentiles of the population and is ranked by per capita income.
SOURCE: 2000 World Development Indicators [CD-ROM].

For-profit hospitals exist mainly to provide long-term care. In 1998, total health-care expenditures were Can$82.5 billion or Can$2,694 per person. Each year, health care usually accounts for about 10 percent of GDP, and about one-third of total spending by the provincial governments. The main complaint about the system is the length of time that patients often have to wait before they receive certain treatments. In 1999, the average time between referral by a primary care doctor and treatment by a medical specialist was 14 weeks.

WORKING CONDITIONS

Total employment in Canada in 1999 was 15.9 million. That same year, the unemployment rate was 7.6 percent. Unemployment in Canada has remained fairly constant at this rate during the 1990s, despite the strong economy. However, there were real declines in unemployment compared with the 1980s, when unemployment hovered near 10 percent.

With the exception of members of the armed forces, all workers in Canada have the right to form unions. Unions may organize strikes, but employees of the government who provide essential services, including law enforcement and medical care, are forbidden to strike. In 2000, there were a number of notable strikes, including one in British Columbia that closed the province's seaports for 10 days. The province also saw an illegal nurses strike in 2001, as well as a crippling public transit strike in Vancouver which shut down the bus and light rail system for 4 months. Specific laws that oversee the formation and conduct of unions vary from province to province. Unions are independent of the government and often form coalitions with other trade organizations or international bodies. Outside of the government, union membership is 29.5 percent nationwide. The government vigorously enforces union protections, and there are provincial and federal agencies that monitor and investigate working conditions and worker safety.

The standard work week varies from province to province. It ranges from 40 to 48 hours per week, but all provinces mandate at least one 24-hour rest period during the week. The minimum wage rates are set by each province and also vary widely. The lowest minimum wage is Can$5.25 per hour in Newfoundland and the highest is Can$7.60 in British Columbia. In addition, Alberta and Ontario have lower minimum wages for workers under the age of 18. The minimum wage is not sufficient for a single worker to support a family and, in fact, those families with only a single wage earner making minimum wage are classified as being below the national poverty line. There are prohibitions on child labor, and children under the age of either 15 or 16depending on the provinceare not allowed to work without parental consent. Some provinces also have restrictions on youths working at night or in hazardous jobs.

Several groups are under-represented in the workforce and are often paid less than their counterparts in similar occupations. Native American peoples are particularly subject to discrimination and their proportion of the workforce is far lower than their proportion of the population. The same is true of people with disabilities. People with disabilities who are capable of work represent 6.5 percent of the total population, but only 2.7 percent of current employees. Women are employed in all sectors of the economy and laws guarantee equality in all areas of employment except the military. Under the terms of a 1998 court decision, the federal government has been paying back wages to women who were paid less than their male counterparts in the same occupation. However, disparities in income still exist between men and women with similar jobs.

Although the nation is officially bilingual, cultural pressure and regulations force many English-speakers in Quebec and French-speakers elsewhere in the country to use the language of the majority of that particular province. For instance, the provincial government of Quebec limits access to English-language schools and places restrictions on the use of English for commercial purposes and in advertising.

COUNTRY HISTORY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

1600. King Henry IV of France grants a fur trading monopoly in the Gulf of St. Lawrence to a French company.

1608. Samuel de Champlain founds Quebec, the fist permanent European settlement in Canada.

1644. Wheat is planted and harvested for the first time in Canada.

1670. The Hudson's Bay company is formed by British merchants to trade in the Hudson Bay area.

1731-43. French fur trappers go into the territory beyond Lake Winnipeg and begin to send furs back to the east, establishing a lucrative trade.

1756-63. French and Indian War or Seven Years War results in British control of Canada, including Quebec.

1775-83. American Revolutionary War. British and Canadian forces defeat several American invasion attempts. Thousands of Americans loyal to England emigrate to Canada during the war.

1791. Many British loyalists settle in western Quebec, leading to the division of Quebec into Upper Canada (Ontario) and Lower Canada (Quebec). A year later George Vancouver begins his explorations of the Pacific Coast.

1807. Slavery is abolished in Canada.

1812-14. The War of 1812 is fought between the United States and Great Britain. The Americans burn York (Toronto), the capital of Ontario, but British forces retaliate by burning Washington, D.C.

1821. The 2 major economic forces in Canada, the Hudson's Bay Company and the Northwest Company, merge. This creates widespread unemployment.

1838. Rebellions by Native Americans and French-speaking Canadians break out across the colonies.

1841. The Act of Union unites Upper and Lower Canada into the single colony of Canada.

1857. Ottawa becomes the capital of Canada.

1867. Great Britain's North American colonies are united in a confederation to form the Dominion of Canada and are given semi-independent status, including self-government.

1870s. The northern bison herds are decimated. This leads to the collapse of the west's economy.

1880-84. A transcontinental railway is built, mainly by immigrant Chinese laborers.

1897. Gold is discovered in the Klondike. This leads to a widespread gold rush that attracts thousands, including many Americans.

1917. The income tax is adopted during World War I, but never repealed.

1922. The Canadian Northern and Canadian Transcontinental Railways merge to create Canadian National Railways. Four Canadian scientists share the Nobel Prize for their discovery of insulin.

1923. Anti-immigration sentiment leads the government to virtually halt Chinese immigration.

1931. The Statute of Westminister grants Canada full control over internal and external affairs. The governor-general becomes the representative of the British monarch.

1932. The Ottawa Agreements establish preferential trade between Canada and the other British Commonwealth nations.

1935. The Bank of Canada is established as the nation's central bank.

1937. Trans Canada Air Lines establishes regular flights.

1945. Canada joins the United Nations. The nation's first atomic reactor is built in Ontario.

1959. St. Lawrence Seaway opens.

1962. The Trans-Canada Highway opens. Canada becomes the third nation in space with the launch of a satellite.

1965. Canada and the United States sign the Auto Pact. The Maple Leaf flag is adopted.

1980. In a referendum in Quebec, voters reject independence from Canada.

1982. Canada gains a new constitution. The most severe economic recession since the Great Depression begins.

1984. The Gulf of Maine dispute between Canada and the United States is settled by the International Court of Justice.

1987. The Meech Lake Accords fail to solve the question of the status of Quebec.

1989. U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement goes into effect.

1990. The Goods and Services Tax (GST), a 7 percent national sales tax, is enacted. Canada and the United States sign the Fisheries Enforcement Agreement.

1992. Canada is the first nation to sign the bio-diversity treaty following the United Nations Earth Summit in Brazil.

1994. Trade restrictions between the provinces are eased and cigarette taxes are lowered following widespread smuggling from the United States. Canada joins the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

1995. Voters in Quebec narrowly reject independence.

1996. Substantial cuts in government spending are announced.

1997. Canada initiates a free trade agreement with Chile.

1999. Canadian forces participate in the NATO-led military operation against Serbia in Kosovo. Canada and the United States sign the Pacific Salmon Agreement.

FUTURE TRENDS

The most pressing problem for the future of Canada is the question of Quebec's independence. A significant percentage of the Canadian economy is centered in Quebec. Independence for Quebec would raise a variety of problems since it would require a division of the assets of the federal government and require Quebec to assume part of the federal debt. Since the 1980s, there have been repeated efforts to reach some sort of permanent solution to the problem. However, the Bloc Québécois continues to push for independence. In 1998, the nation's Supreme Court ruled that a unilateral declaration of independence by Quebec would be illegal, but if a majority of the residents of Quebec vote for separation, then the federal government has to negotiate eventual independence. The English-speaking residents of Quebec and the province's native peoples both oppose independence and have expressed their wish to remain part of Canada if Quebec gains its independence.

Another problem facing the Canadian economy is the high level of taxation. On the positive side, these taxes provide the basis for the nation's very generous social benefits, including health care and education. On the negative side, taxes increase the cost of living for average Canadians and increase the costs of business for companies. In addition, even with the high level of taxation, the government has been forced to deficit spend in order to pay for services. As a result, the nation's debt increased substantially during the 1990s and only recently has the government begun to pay down the debt. The most pressing problem related to the high level of taxation is the aforementioned brain drain. Many younger Canadians who are highly skilled and/or educated are moving to the United States where they can earn much higher wages while paying lower taxes. Canada's tax burden is also blamed for the continuing unemployment levels of around 7 percent (while the American unemployment has been around 4 percent for several years).

Canada's pursuit of free and open trade has led it to join a number of international organizations. Membership in these organizations has allowed the country to take advantage of international trade so that it now contributes a significant portion of the Canadian economy. Much of the country's future growth is dependent on trade. Because of this dependence, Canada is particularly sensitive to downturns in the economies of its major trade partners, especially the United States.

DEPENDENCIES

Canada has no territories or colonies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bretton, John N.H., editor. Canada and the Global Economy: The Geography of Structural and Technological Change. Buffalo, NY: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1996.

Burke, Mike, Colin Moers, and John Shields, editors. Restructuring and Resistance: Canadian Public Policy in the Age of Global Capitalism. Halifax, Canada: Fernwood, 2000.

Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. Investing and Doing Business with Canada, 2nd edition. Ottawa: Dept. of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, 1997.

"Dog Watch: Nortel Networks." Forbes.com. <http://www.forbes.com/2001/06/15/0615dog.html>. Accessed August 2001.

Economist Intelligence Unit. Country Profile: Canada. London: Economist Intelligence Unit, 2001.

Green, Randy. "U.S. Wins Panel Decision On Canadian DairyPractices." Agriculturelaw.com. <http://www.agriculturelaw.com/links/seattle/dairy.htm>. Accessed August 2001.

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. World Factbook 2000. <http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html>. Accessed August 2001.

U.S. Department of State. Background Notes: Canada. <http://www.state.gov/r/pa/bgn/index.cfm?docid=2089>. Accessed February 2001.

U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 1999: Canada. <http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/1999/index.cfm?docid=378>. Accessed December 2000.

U.S. Department of State. FY 2001 Country Commercial Guide: Canada. <http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/business/com_guides/2001/wha/index.html>. Accessed February 2001.

Watson, William. Globalization and the Meaning of Canadian Life. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998.

Tom Lansford

CAPITAL:

Ottawa.

MONETARY UNIT:

Canadian dollar (Can$). One Canadian dollar equals 100 cents. There are coins of 1, 5, 10, and 25 cents as well as 1 and 2 dollar coins. Paper currency comes in denominations of Can$1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100.

CHIEF EXPORTS:

Motor vehicles and parts, newsprint, wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, machinery, natural gas, aluminum, telecommunications equipment, electricity.

CHIEF IMPORTS:

Machinery and equipment, crude oil, chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable consumer goods, electricity.

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT:

US$722.3 billion (purchasing power parity, 1999 est.).

BALANCE OF TRADE:

Exports: US$277 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.). Imports: US$259.3 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.).

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Canada

Canada

Basic Data
Official Country Name: Canada
Region: North & Central America
Population: 31,281,092
Language(s): English, French
Literacy Rate: 97%
Academic Year: September-June
Number of Primary Schools: 12,685
Compulsory Schooling: 10 years
Public Expenditure on Education: 6.9%
Libraries: 3,672
Educational Enrollment: Primary: 2,448,144
  Secondary: 2,505,389
  Higher: 1,763,05
Educational Enrollment Rate: Primary: 102%
  Secondary: 105%
  Higher: 87%
Teachers: Primary: 148,565
  Secondary: 133,275
Student-Teacher Ratio: Primary: 16:1
  Secondary: 19:1
Female Enrollment Rate: Primary: 101%
  Secondary: 105%
  Higher: 95%

History & Background


Canada, the world's second largest country, stretches 4,000 kilometers from north to south and 3,500 miles from east to west. The nation is divided into smaller governing units known as provinces and territories. Located east of the U.S. state of Alaska and north of the northernmost boundaries of the lower 48 U.S. states, Canada has 10 provinces and 2 national territories. One of those latter units, the Northwest Territory, is itself politically broken into two separate territories. The provinces are divided into the Atlantic Provinces (Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia); Quebec, Ontario, British Columbia, and the Prairie Provinces (Alberta, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan); and the territories of Yukon, Nunavut and the Northwest Territory. Nunavut (meaning "Our Land" in the Inuit language) became a separate territory from the Northwest Territory in 1999.

Canada's capital city is Ottawa, and each state and territory has a capital. Canada's legislative branch is an elected House of Commons and an appointed Senate. A prime minister serves as the government's leader. Since the Constitutional Act of 1982, Canada's constitution has been under the Canadian Parliament's own management. Previously, from 1867 to 1982, the dominion of Canada's constitution was subject to the control of Great Britain's Parliament (acting upon the request of Canada's bicameral Parliament). The roots of the Canadian educational system are found in the two countries most energetically involved in its colonial settlement and early exploitation: France and Great Britain. Though these influences were great, educators have long looked to the geography and climate of Canada as additional influences on educational development.

Since so many early schools were smalloften a cabin or tiny schoolhouseand isolated, some of the more elitist vestiges of French and British schools vanished. In their place, a school system evolved that was more attuned to life in a frontier society that trumpeted the ideals of equal educational opportunities for all. In that regard, early schoolhouses then housed both the children of poor trappers and rich merchants alike, and some characteristics of that early social democracy still clung to Canadian schools even when the population shifted to urban centers and schools consolidated and grew large (Johnson 1968). Also, Canada's proximity to the United States, particularly since the majority of the population lives so close to the U.S. northern border, has been a factor in the evolution of the nation's educational systema system that may indeed see additional changes because of an influx of immigrants to Canada's vast land mass.

While Canada has borrowed from the United States, it is in no way a mere U.S. clone since individual sections of the nation show strong adherence to British or French traditions. Canada's native Indian peoples have developed an educational tradition drawing from American, British, and/or French education, but also with their own cultural distinctions differing from these three. However, due to immigration, the uniting features of the Internet, and modern media outlets, even sprawling Canada has acquired in many areas the so-called "melting pot" characteristics that occurred in the United States when diverse populations underwent a process of integration.

According to 2000 figures, Canada's ethnic groups are broken down into British (28 percent); French (23 percent); miscellaneous European (15 percent); Asian, Arab, or African (six percent); aboriginal Indian and Eskimo (two percent); and mixed background (26 percent). The population of people of British and French origin in Canada has dropped since 1985 when 40 percent of the total population was British and 27 percent were French.

As early as A.D. 1000, explorers from Norway landed on the shores of what would become the eastern seaboard of Canada. Unheralded Basque and Norman sailors may have arrived in the fifteenth century. Great Britain's exploration of Canada began in 1497 when John Cabot, a Venetian representing and financed by British merchants, visited the eastern coast of (the land that would become) Canada in search of riches or a shorter route to the Indies. Cabot mistakenly thought he had located an unsettled section of Asia. His explorer son, Sebastian, also mistakenly boasted that he had located the Northwest Passage through the Americas. It is likely that he sailed instead to massive Hudson Bay. Because the Cabots found neither a passage to India nor the gold the Spaniards had looted from the Incas in the southern hemisphere, English backers in time lost whatever excitement they possessed for the exploration of the New World's far north. England's former interest, however, was taken over by France until the Hudson's Bay Company generated wealth from fur trading after 1670, and the English vied for this colonial land prize. Although disappointed no waterway linked the great Atlantic and Pacific oceans, French excitement was stirred by the founding of a settlement in 1605. In 1524, France had sent the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazano on a mission, and his ship traveled as far to the north as Newfoundland and as far south as North Carolina. The King of France claimed the land he explored in Canada.

The adventurer and explorer Jacques Cartier in 1524 went inland and explored the St. Lawrence River. Cartier and his men brought back furs and stories about the native aborigines they met in Kanata, a native term for "village." (Other theories as to how Canada got its name abound, but none are definitive.) The furs brought back to Europe raised hopes that other treasures might be found. The Indian tribes also inspired droves of black-robed missionaries to voyage to the New World in quest of religious conversions. Cartier's explorations brought him to sites that later would become the province of Quebec and the city of Montreal, which sprung up from an island village on the St. Lawrence River.

Since England and France saw Canada as a nation of conquest, hostilities in the late seventeenth and much of the eighteenth century erupted into numerous battles and all-out war. Hostilities ceased in 1632 when England and France signed a treaty that returned Acadia and Quebec to the French, but peace was short-lived. Throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, an intermittent series of battles occurred between the two great empires, England and France, for control of the northern empire. These frontier squabbles, massacres, and political wrangling culminated in the French and Indian War between 1754 and 1763. Some intellectuals in France questioned Canada's importance; the philosopher Voltaire, for example, dismissed the importance of "acres of snow."

Each nation put its generals to the test as France and Great Britain struggled for supremacy in Canada. In 1759, Quebec was wrested away from French control. Great Britain was ultimately the victor of the French and Indian War. The Treaty of Paris in 1763, among other things, ended France's claim to Canada and established Britain's supremacy. Jesuit lands and the schools on them were taken over by the British. Nonetheless, from the eighteenth through the twenty-first century, nationalistic fervor in Quebec has remained high as that province continued to embrace the customs and language of France.

In 1774, Britain passed the Quebec Act of 1774, which established Britain's Parliament as law in Canada, a political display of power much despised by the American colonies and cited as one of the causes of the American Revolution. Canada became a place of refuge for American colonists who remained loyal to King George, and these Loyalists continued to settle many years after the Revolution because they found themselves despised in America.

In an attempt to keep the peace in Canada after the successful American Revolution that drove Loyalists in great numbers to settle in Canada, the British created, out of Quebec, British-speaking Ontario (formerly Upper Canada) and French-speaking Quebec (formerly Lower Canada) in 1791. The two areas were reunited in 1841 as Canada Province, but in 1867 the British divided the newly named Dominion of Canada into the provinces of New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, and Nova Scotia. In 1869, following their purchase from the Hudson's Bay Company, the Northwest Territories were established (with Yukon splintering off as a territory in 1898). In time, separate provinces were founded as Manitoba (1870), British Columbia (1871), Price Edward Island (1873), Alberta (1905), Saskatchewan (1905), and Newfoundland (1949). Nunavut became a separate territory from the Northwest Territory in 1999, and some 85 percent of the population was located in a single city, Iqaluit.

Latter-day Canada is a land of geographic contrasts. It has great hot and frigid temperature extremes and an uneven distribution of natural resources and lands suitable for settlement or farming. A great disparity exists in wealth generated by some sections of the country as opposed to others, allowing the wealthier sections such as Ontario to provide educational services, up-to-date technology, and higher teacher salaries more readily. In July of 2000, Canada's population was 30,750,087. With fewer people in all Canada than residing in the single U.S. state of California, the nation ranks as one of the world's more sparsely settled countries. Its unemployment rate was 7 percent in April 2001.

Unlike the United States, Canada conducts a census twice a decade, sending questionnaires to citizens in years ending in a "1" or "6." Thus, unless otherwise specified, data contained here refers to information obtained in the 1996 census. The 1996 census provided a comprehensive look at the aggregate educational attainments of Canada's citizenry by highest degree. Of 22,628,925 citizens 15 years of age or older, 8,331,615 had neither degree nor diploma, 5,217,20 had a secondary school diploma, 525,560 had a community college degree or other certificate below bachelor level, 1,979,460 had a bachelor degree, 501,505 had a master's degree, and 103,855 had an earned doctorate in 1996. These numbers represented a significant gain in one decade. In 1986, of the 19,634,100 people 15 and older, 9,384,100 had neither degree nor diploma, 3,985,820 had a secondary school diploma, 381,580 had a community college degree or other certificate below bachelor level, 1,254,250 had a bachelor degree, 293,335 had a master's degree, and 66,955 had an earned doctorate degree.


Constitutional & Legal Foundations

The British North America Act of 1867 was a statute providing for the unification of the country a few years after the disastrous Civil War in America provided a valuable lesson in the dangers of secession, as French-speaking Quebec has often threatened to do from the rest of Canada. In addition, some of Canada's desire to unite its disparate provinces no doubt was incited by periodic U.S. political discussions about the possibility of annexing Canada; to be sure, a minority of Canadian leaders, mainly in Montreal, also touted what they claimed would be the economic benefits of annexation. In the end, Canadians, proud of their country and seeing the effect civil war had on the United States, expressed desire for a strong federal government. In 1866, at talks at an important conference in England, a confederation then called "The Dominion of Canada" was begun. The British North American Act became law on 1 July 1867. That date became Canada's Independence Day.

Of utmost importance, the constitution and bylaws offered citizens the assurance that the governing body of each province would be empowered to make laws related to education. This was particularly important in Canada where the primary language in a province or territory might be French, English, or even Inuit.

The Constitutional Act of 1982 reaffirmed many of the resolutions present in the 1867 BNA Act. Citizens in a province whose first language is French or English have the right to have their children given a primary and secondary school education in that same language. If enough children of a minority language are in the system, they have the right to an education taught in that language that is financed by public funds.

Rather than a federal educational system, the schooling of Canada's citizens is a responsibility assumed by provinces and territories. Such a system was the most practical way to permit the diverse cultures to address concerns and values different from those of other provinces. Each province has its own department of education under the administration of an elected minister. Each province mandates a curriculum and funnels grants to institutions under its jurisdiction.

Educational SystemOverview


Canadians historically have believed that formal education should turn out not scholars so much as educated citizens capable of achieving and sustaining useful, self-sufficient lives (Johnson 1968). The educated citizen is therefore ideally equipped to use his knowledge to benefit his community and nation.

The ideal of a unified school system is one that evolved over time, since originally the French and British cultures generally founded schools unlike each other's.

In what would become the province of Quebec, the growth of towns was very slow in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The missionaries who served the children of the merchants, traders, and farmers first began their work in 1616. In the next 15 years, Jesuit missionaries also turned their talents to the education of native Indian children. The Jesuit order also founded a small college in colonial Quebec, creating a campus on lands designated for that purpose by the French crown.

Perhaps the low-water mark in the education of Canada's citizenry occurred in the areas once known as New France after the French defeat by Britain in 1763. The driving out of the French governors ended years of financial support for church schools in the form of grants. Worse, many of the teaching clergy and French missionaries elected to return to Europe or take assignments outside Canada following the defeat. In Quebec, accounts of the day by travelers report an astounding number of Canadians unable to read or write well into the nineteenth century.

The alarming number of illiterate children and adults in Canada during the nineteenth century spurred reform attempts among educators that recommended the creation of nondenominational elementary and secondary schools open to the young of all religious sects. Around the fourth decade of the nineteenth century, many provinces arranged the construction of public, tax-supported schools to be overseen by government-connected boards or education departments. Decade after decade, province by province, these nondenominational schools became the primary institutions designated for public moneys. Some remnants of the past continue to be changed. In 1998, for example, the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador revamped some existing Pentecostal schools into a school system regulated by nondenominational guidelines.

Canada's prime minister and ruling government are involved tangentially in the running of schools. The government budgets grant moneys for postsecondary education, vocational training for the adult populace, and second language training to meet the goals of a nation committed to bilingualism. Government moneys assist with student loans, as well as meeting the needs of Indians pursuing an education, the education of those serving in the armed forces, and schooling and vocational training for those undergoing rehabilitation in federal prisons.

In May of 2001, in spite of strong objections from officials in the Ontario Department of Education, the provincial government recommended a measure that would give financial relief to parents of private school children in the form of a hefty tax credit (similar to vouchers in the United States) with a cap of $3,500. By June of 2001, public meetings between government officials and parents of public and private school children had deteriorated into name-calling sessions, making the educational issue one of the most controversial in Ontario's history of education.

The country of Canada also traditionally has differed province to province in the administration of rural schools, many single-room schoolhouses harboring several grade levels. A 1998 oral history report by education faculty member Barbara Mulcahy of Memorial University of Newfoundland reported that two-thirds of all Newfoundland and Labrador schools were classified as single-room schoolhouses. She cites the Report of the Royal Commission on Education and Youth in 1967 that found this percentage reduced to less than one-third. By 1998, there were but three such schools in existence, according to Mulcahy's research.

In the late 1940s and early 1950s, educators recognized a wide disparity in the greater amount of moneys that the United States was spending on its educational system as compared to what Canada spent. This was remedied in the late 1960s when Canada expenditures by the government surpassed even the amounts spent by the governments of the United States and Sweden. As occurred in the United States, Canadian provinces began to consolidate smaller schools into larger school districts. However, as Canada faced hard economic times in the 1970s through 1990s, many school districts struggled to meet expectations of the highest educational standards while facing budget cuts and the need for costly educational equipment such as computers.

Nonetheless, according to a 1999 United Nations survey, in spite of Canada's struggling economy, the nation devoted 7 percent of its gross national product (GNP) to education, which was second only to Norway with 7.5 percent of its GNP devoted to education. The United States trailed Canada at 5.4 percent of its GNP devoted to education. In the late 1990s, wide public attention was directed toward Canada's Fraser Institute as it collected data on Alberta and British Columbia kindergarten through twelfth grade private, public, and separate school systems, providing statistics that showed where schools are exceeding expectations and where they are failing. In 2000, Quebec schools were also given report cards, followed by Ontario in 2001. By 2001, the system also offered comparisons over a five year period to indicate where schools have made improvements or where conditions have deteriorated. Provincial ministries of education provided information. The report cards have received wide praise from the public and some condemnation from educators and government leaders, particularly in Ontario, that claim some data analyzed was flawed, leading to lower rankings by some schools. In general, however, school critics have insisted that test scores by Canadian students ought to be higher, a complaint frequently heard in other industrialized nations such as the United States.


Enrollment: Enrollment in elementary and secondary schools combined rose from 5,141,003 in 1990 to 1991 to 5,386,301 in 1997 to 1998. During the 1990s, the year of greatest enrollment was 1995 to 1996 when 5,430,836 children enrolled in elementary and secondary schools across Canada. By 1998-1999, the number had dropped to 5,369,716.

Of the 22,628,925 persons that are 15 years of age or older living in Canada, 2,801,280 attended school at one level or another full time, according to the 1996 census. Another 1,167,820 attended part time. This represented only a slight change from 1991 census figures. Of the 21,304,740 persons at least age 15 living in Canada, 2,537,715 attended school full time and 1,243,450 part time.


Technology in the Schools: Canadian politicians have long said that the Internet seemed made for Canada as an important way to link its outer provinces and territories. In 2001, a spokesperson for the Canadian government claimed that Canada boasted the highest percentage of population using the Internet in the world. Quickly putting emphasis on wiring the schools, Canada as a nation succeeded in linking every school and library to the Internet in the 1990s. Even in remote provinces, Canada's schools have vowed to have one computer for every five students by 2005. It has more computers in households than any other country. Canada's universities, though few in number, are the envy of most industrialized countries in quality of computer technology programs.


Compulsory Education: Canada's primary and secondary public school system is co-educational and paid for by the Canadian government. Canada is one of the many nations signing a United Nations resolution guaranteeing children the right to an education. Compulsory education laws, by province or territory, generally decree that children attend school from 6 or 7 years old until they are 15 or 16 years old.

About one-half of all Canadians have a high school graduation certificate. Individual provinces can also require certain classes to be taught. In Ontario, compulsory classes include Grade 7: History and Geography; Grade 8: Geography; and Grade 10: Canadian History in the Twentieth Century. In all provinces, physical education is mandatory from kindergarten through twelfth grade. Following lobbying attempts by Canadian war veterans who expressed shock at student ignorance about their country's participation in World War Two, the province of Nova Scotia made Canadian history mandatory in grade 11.

In 1871, Canada's first compulsory attendance statute was passed in Ontario. By 1890, nearly all provinces and territories followed Ontario's lead as many legislators were upset by an alarming increase in child labor in factories.

Because so much of Canada consists of remote outposts and homesteads, particularly in the nineteenth century, territories and provinces have recognized the right of parents to home school their children as an alternative to school-based classes. Generally, the parent applies to a provincial Department of Education officer to seek permission to home school and for an exemption from compulsory schooling in a classroom.

Minority Education: After the United States passed the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, which allowed or even required police officers and citizen trackers to return escaped slaves to their "owners" after capture, many slaves and their children crossed the northern border to begin anew in Canada. Religious organizations, most prominently the Colonial Church and School Society, welcomed childrenblack or whiteinto its schools.

Canada took a little longer to provide for the educational needs of Indians and mixed culture peoples known as métis who were at loose ends in the nineteenth century with the reduction in buffalo herds and fur-bearing animals. Acting on the recommendation of Catholic religious leaders in the territories, the government began to establish residential schools in the 1880s.

In the twentieth century, Indian schools in the Northwest Territories came under the management of the Federal Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development's Education Division under a superintendent. The Canadian government maintained these schools, open to other races under different budgetary line items.

As of 2001, the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND) funnels educational grant moneys to First Nation education authorities. Moneys pay for the expenses needed to operate First Nation reserve schools run either by the federal government or First Nation tribal authorities. The government also pays for the tuition and many incidental costs of on-reserve students that choose to attend provincial schools.

In 1997, founding members of the First Nations Adult and Higher Education Consortium (FNAHEC) created a charter. Numerous Indian schools of higher learning were represented, among them Blue Quills First Nations College, Maskwachees Cultural College, Nakoda Nation Post-Secondary Education Center, Red Crow Community College, and Old Sun Community College. According to a FNAHEC position paper on the Internet, FNAHEC exists "to provide quality adult and higher education, controlled entirely by people of the First Nations"' tribes. FNAHEC was modeled after the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), but it contains its own distinguishing characteristics.

As the mission statement of the University of Saskatchewan Native Studies Department states, today's academic research involving aboriginal peoples strives to end a long-standing parasitical exploitation system between non-Indian researchers and their subjects. Instead of past "intellectual colonialism, today's researchers attempt to carry out studies and uncover data in a way that is both intellectually and ethically sound."

To meet the demand for more professionals in under-represented professions such as law, University of Victoria offered a cooperative law school program in 2001 that would allow up to 20 Inuit students to enter Akitsiraq Law School in Iqualuit to earn their professional degrees in law. The program was offered on a one-time basis and would not be repeated.

In 2000, after Canadian legislators received test scores demonstrating that minority student scores trailed drastically behind those of non-minority students, parents and legislators nationwide demanded reforms and an infusion of public moneys into the lower grades of the poorest performing schools to raise scores. However, the wide debate showed that the Canadian public differed widely as to what should be done to help raise minority test scores.

By 2001, the new government was debating plans for a new school in Iqaluit that would have classes taught only in Inuit. There also was adopted a cooperative program with the law school at the University of Victoria that would allow up to 20 Inuit students to enter Akitsiraq Law School in Iqualuit and earn their professional degrees in law.


Preprimary & Primary Education


Unlike some other countries such as France, which has a high preschool enrollment by age three, Canadian children generally wait until age four to enter preschool. According to 1992 figures, 46 percent of all 4 year olds and 69 percent of all 5 year olds attended public or primary schools of education. Canada's children average 1.2 years in preschool as of 1992, far below France (3.4 years) and the United States (1.8 years).

According to 1995-1996 figures, enrollment in Canadian preprimary schools had risen to 509,589 students. Of that total, 248,071 students were gender classified as female. While many 5 year olds in the United States enroll in kindergarten, Canada enrolls 30 percent of its 5 year olds in primary schools of education, according to 1992 statistics.

The first primary schools were French and related to the Catholic Church. Each parish priest was responsible for starting and maintaining a school where reading, writing, and arithmetic were taught. These most often were broken into separate schools for boys and girls by 1750. The most widely known school for French and Indian girls before 1750 was run by the Ursuline Order of nuns; it was opened in Quebec on a spacious campus in 1642. The Congregation of Notre Dame founded other schools in Montreal and other communities. Some convent schools founded by the latter order still exist. British forces destroyed one convent school in 1758, however. Marguerite Bourgeoys, one of Canada's earliest and best known pioneering female personages in education, began the Congregation of Notre Dame. The Congregation of Notre Dame de Montreal was one of the first boarding schools in North America for girls. The reputation of the school and its foundress Bourgeoys led citizens in the American colonies to request similar missions. Additional missions were built in diverse Canadian locations such as Cape Breton Island and Trois Rivières, Quebec. The Congregation of Notre Dame de Montreal was literally built in a forest cleared by local supporters and farmers. In the territories, the Hudson's Bay Company encouraged the education of the Indians and the sons and daughters of settlers.

The seventeenth century also saw the establishment of Anglican and other Protestant schools in Canada, particularly where English was the primary tongue. However, other Protestant sects rebuffed Anglican leaders in their attempts to establish their church elementary and grammar schools to the extent that such schools found recognized acceptance in other British possessions such as Northern Ireland. Catholic church leaders in 1789-1790 also successfully objected to a proposal in lower Canada that would begin a system of free parish schools, but contained a proposal for the building of a college in which theology was noticeably absent from the curriculum. After the departure of France, the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning was instrumental in setting up nondenominational schools, not an easy or controversy-free task in many parts of Canada where French-Catholic settlers were in the majority.

One of the more progressive educational decisions was the 1790 publication of the Means for Promoting Education, which was the work of a special legislative council committee headed by Chief Justice William Smith. The committee recommended the establishment of free elementary schools in all parishes and villages, as well as schools for older, more advanced students roughly equivalent to secondary schools.

Primary education was conducted on a haphazard basis throughout Canada around 1800. That is, while all or nearly all cities and most towns of any size possessed such schools, their quality varied greatly, and neither provincial nor territory governments established standards. Under such conditions, the way was open for charlatans posing as itinerant scholars to set up shop in smaller schools and one-room schoolhouses; the situation was quite like the situation with frauds posing as dentists or preachers in North America in the nineteenth century. Finally, according to historian Edgar McInnis, legislatures in Upper Canada and Nova Scotia established schools in 1807 and 1811 respectively, but public funding of the schools lagged by a few years. The most important single piece of legislation for elementary schools in the nineteenth century was the Common School Act of 1816.

Not until the nineteenth century and in many provinces not until near mid-century did educational reformers obtain political support for nonsectarian primary, grammar, and secondary schools. Sociologists Wilfrid B.W. Martin and Allan J. Macdonell note that, until the nineteenth century, education was a right of the privileged and wealthy that was too often denied the common citizen. Local school boards under the watchful eyes of government education departments administered these early schools, depending upon the locale. Such schools grew rapidly in number and acceptance. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, nondenominational schools supported by public moneys were the norm in many parts of Canada such as Ontario. Nonetheless, Catholic, Anglican, and miscellaneous Protestant denominations fought for the recognition of tax-supported church-related schools, particularly in fiercely Catholic areas of Quebec. The influence of the church schools cannot be overestimated in contributing to high literacy rates in many Catholic and Christian strongholds in Canada prior to the departure of France.

By 1850, the Canadian West was a stirred pot with reformers clamoring to reduce the influence of churches on schools and political issues. The need for more diverse schools became clear between 1897 and 1912 when great numbers of immigrants from the United States and parts of Europe, neither British nor French, streamed into the country at the invitation of Canada, which then favored a policy of so-called "national expansion" (McInnis 1969). While standardized school systems and a common curriculum had elevated educational standards in Ontario and other settled provinces, the Northwest and Western provinces battled over such issues as restrictions on Catholic schools and parochial school instruction, administrative structure of schools, and unifying scattered schools into comprehensive school systems. In short, these squabbles focused on ways to serve the majority of citizens while taking into the account the needs of a minority of citizens, some of whom had established roots long before the newcomers built homes.

In modern Canada, elementary schools are overseen by locally elected school boards, which are sometimes known as school commissions. These boards are responsible for fiscal matters, the employment of teaching professionals, and the carrying out of the curriculums provided by the province's department of education.

In terms of enrollment, according to 1990-1991 government figures, 2,375,704 students were enrolled in Canada's primary grades. Of that total, 1,147,503 students were female. The student to teacher ratio was 15 to 1. During the 1995 to 1996 school year, according to government records, the total enrollment in primary grades rose slightly to 2,448,144. Of that total, 1,185,025 were female. The student to teacher ratio had changed slightly to a 16 to 1 ratio.

An attempt to begin elitist schools reminiscent of British schools in Eton and other grammar schools was doomed to failure in egalitarian Canada. A public corporation that administered many common schools in the nineteenth century, the aforementioned Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning, in 1816 founded two such classical schools supervised by headmasters. These Royal Grammar Schools struggled for three decades, closing in 1846, according to educational scholar John Calam.

The early grammar schools were important for two reasons. They were created by legislation, the District Public Schools Act of 1807, and they showed the government's willingness to support the costs of education and even the salary of a schoolmaster. Second, the law involved the state in education, an important first step in the creation of nondenominational schools. These schools were much like today's private schools in that tuition and fees were required. The schools themselves proved highly unpopular. Canadians thought them too elite and too close to the class-conscious schools of England such as Eton.


Secondary Education

The Jesuits founded the first secondary institution in Canada. Its curriculum was closely based on Jesuit colleges in Europe.

High schools in Canada actually were modifications of grammar schools. They were late taking hold in Canada, not finding supportive voices among educators until the mid and late 1860s. By the 1870s, high schools in Ontario would prove to be the model for future secondary schools in Canada. Just as common schools became known as public schools in that era, so too were grammar schools known always as high schools in Canada. The high schools by then offered a sophisticated collegiate curriculum, although the percentage of students attending college would not increase substantially until the twentieth century.

Similar to elementary schools, Canada's secondary schools fall under the governance of elected school boards at the local level. Board members establish guidelines for budgets and teacher employment. They are responsible to the province's department of education regarding curriculum matters.

In Canada, students for the most part pursue one of two high school tracks. One track serves the interests of students intending to attend a university. The other track is more geared to students that will enter the workforce after either education or who will do so after getting additional training in a vocational or technology school or from a community college. Remedial programs meet the needs of students having difficulty with their high school studies.

In enrollment at the secondary level in Canada, 2,292,497 pupils were enrolled during the 1990 to 1991 academic year. Of that total, by gender breakdown, 1,118,112 were female. During the 1995 to 1996 academic year, 2,505,389 pupils were enrolled for a slight increase. Female students represented 1,218,403 of that total.


Higher Education


With few exceptions, Canadian postsecondary schools break down into universities and colleges. In the twenty-first century, the term "colleges" usually refers to community colleges.

Because of bickering and cultural differences among the nation's disparate groups, it took hundreds of years before the people of Canada concentrated on their common beliefs and values to form a quality system of higher education. Canada's early schools of higher education were then called colleges. All these colleges possessed denominational affiliations, often instituted by ministers, dioceses, or colonists with strong religious ties. Consequently, their early offerings stressed religious studies or theology and a classical education such as was pursued in Europe at the University of Paris or Oxford or at Harvard College in the American colonies.

Canada's first "college," the Collège des Jésuites, established in 1635 by the Jesuit Order in Quebec, actually was a primary school (petite école ) for children and young Indians. To give some idea of this accomplishment, Harvard College would not be established in Massachusetts until 1636. In short time, Latin was taught and eventually the school offered seminary studies. By the 1660s, a full college course and the opportunity for a classical education were also offered. The British closed this school in 1768 after the French defeat.

Until late in the eighteenth century, British authorities frowned upon French Catholic educational institutions, but eventually came to tolerate and even support them. However, the Petit Séminaire de Montréal (formerly the Collège St. Raphaël) was begun by Catholic religious in 1773, offering a partial classical course. Université Laval was founded in 1663 as the Séminaire de Québec; the school still exists today.

The aforementioned 1790 Means for Promoting Education, the special legislative council committee headed by Chief Justice Smith, recommended the formation of a college similar to the great universities of Europe, but theology-free, an attempt to suppress Catholic teachings. This was blocked.

Higher education was not absent from Canada through 1860, but colleges were in very short supply. Potential students had the choice of attending two major institutions at Quebec or Montreal that were similar to the classical universities of Europe or attending five smaller institutions, specifically Nicolet (1803), St. Hyacinthe (1811), Ste. Théresé-de-Blaineville (1825), Ste. Anne-de-la-Pocatière (1827), and L'Assomption (1832) (Harris 1976). A number of short-lived institutions failed to outlast the nineteenth century. All these were propelled by the enthusiasm and entrepreneurial abilities of various parish priests and their bishops who, perhaps less nobly, were attempting to keep Catholic students from choosing to enter British, non-sectarian institutions such as McGill University.

Not surprisingly, one of the important reasons for the establishment of institutions of higher learning in English-occupied Canada was the training of missionaries and ministers. Until 1763, the British lagged behind the French in higher education, having established no colleges up to that time. Other institutions, particularly those large non-denominational schools such as McGill (first operating in 1821 with a medical faculty and then eventually expanding to include numerous professional and academic disciplines) and Dalhousie (1818) Universities, were founded to preserve British culture, traditions, and way of life. The King's Colleges at Frederickton, Windsor, and Toronto consciously and warily attempted to preserve Canadian traditions, lest Canadian schools become "Americanized" culturally. The founders of the Windsor, Ontario, and Frederickton, New Brunswick institutions were United Empire Loyalists. Many of today's universities originally had different names at the time of their founding. The University of Toronto was King's College in Toronto when chartered in 1827. The Frederick institution begun in 1829 is now the University of New Brunswick.

Canada's colleges tended to have denominational roots. Four colleges were independent as of 1867, while the remaining 13 had denominational ties, according to the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada. Rather than continue to work against one another, Canada's nondenominational and religious universities formed cooperative, if sometimes uneasy, alliances. For example, the nonsectarian University of Toronto collaborated with three religious colleges that were Anglican, Catholic, and Methodist by the early 1900s (McInnes 1969).

As of 2000, Canada possessed 92 universities ranging from small liberal arts institutions mainly or exclusively for undergraduates to extensive, heavily enrolled research communities of knowledge. A few offer specialties such as art and design; others contain every imaginable specialty study. (Some of the specialty schools are comparable to community colleges in the U.S.)

Some of the more noteworthy universities in Canada and the dates of their founding include the following: Carleton University (1957, formerly Carleton College with a 1942 founding), Lakehead University (1965, formerly Lakehead Technical Institute), Memorial University of Newfoundland (1949), University of Alberta (1906), University of Guelph (1965), University of Lethbridge (1967), and University of Sasketchewan (1907). Like U.S. state universities, many universities in Canada have a similar relationship to province governments.

In spite of attempts by the government and universities to minimize U.S. influences on higher education, sociologists and educators frequently note the tendency of institutions to form boards of governors similar to trustee boards in the United States. Like those of the U.S., these boards tend to be heavily populated with members outside the immediate university community. Other American influences can be seen in the methods of operation Canadian universities employ in their graduate and professional schools, according to sociologists Wilfrid B.W. Martin and Allan J. Macdonell. Finally, the four western provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan established universities that borrowed from the model of U.S. land grant colleges, according to the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada.

In the twentieth century, Canada's government and people placed growing importance on higher education, requiring trained and educated employees and management for the knowledge-based industries. Approximately 8 percent of Canada's gross domestic product (GDP) goes toward education expenditures. A little over one quarter of Canadian citizens possess a university or college degree.

Not surprisingly, Canada's biggest boom in university enrollments came during the Baby Boom era. Enrollment in full-time studies more than tripled from 1960 to 1970, with more than 350,000 students enrolled during the 1970-1971 academic year. All told, student enrollment (including part time students) exploded to 493,000 students during the 1973-1974 academic year. By the 1998-1999 school year, attendance of full and part time students had increased to 580,376 full time students and 245,985 part time students. Of these totals, Ontario is the leader by province in student numbers with 229,985 full time students and 72,958 part time students. Quebec is second with 134,162 full time students and 98,116 part time students. Not all provinces have prospered equally in recent years. From 1994-1995 to 1998-1999, the provinces of Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, New Brunswick, and Manitoba recorded slight drops in full time student enrollment.


Community Colleges & Technical Colleges: In Canada, in addition to the universities offering degreed programs, there are also in operation a wide number of community colleges, technical schools, agricultural colleges, schools of agriculture, two-year colleges of art, and schools of nursing.

Canada has built a significant number of these schools in a relatively short time. As late as the 1960s and 1970s, community colleges were struggling to find a niche in the country's educational system. Many of the educational offerings and vocational courses are designed to be completed in two years. Often students transfer to four year institutions after attending community colleges.

In 1996-1997, Canada awarded 85,908 degrees in career programs. These were broken down into business and commerce (23,327), engineering and applied sciences (18,279), social sciences and social services (16,779), health sciences (11,618), the arts (7,191), the natural sciences (4,819), humanities (1,235), arts and sciences (2,531), and miscellaneous unreported categories (129).


Vocational Training: The first trade school in Canada offered not only vocational courses but also training in the arts such as painting and sculpture. The school was founded in Quebec at St. Joachim around 1670. In the early 1700s, a similar institution opened in Montreal. The Jesuits ran both schools. These schools served mariners, artisans, and students aspiring to become farmers.

In modern times, when the presence of a skilled work force increasingly demands that workers bring skills to a job instead of getting them on the job, trade and vocational training has become nearly mandatory for Canadians lacking a community college or college education. The types of vocational programs and the number of programs vary from province to province. Both community colleges and vocational centers advertise classes in advance. The applicant pays for most programs, although some are government-funded such as language skills for newcomers or courses for aboriginal peoples. Many trades require skills that increase as one advances. For example, an electrician may move from an apprentice to a journeyman.


Administration, Finance, & Educational Research

Both the provinces and federal government invest in Canada's attempt to cultivate an educated populace through aid programs benefiting students in need of some or all financial resources. The federal government, in addition to loan guarantees through the Canada Student Loans Program, works closely with provinces to provide student aid. In 1991-1992, the last year for which data was available, student aid totaled nearly $800 million combined from the federal government and province governments.


Teaching Profession

Canada takes pride in being a pioneer in teacher training in North America. The first teacher training institution, then referred to as a "normal school," operated in 1836 in Montreal. This was the first teacher training school in North America, opening three years before the United States began a normal school under the direction of pioneer educator Horace Mann. However, normal schools were slow to catch on in Canada, unlike the United States where they proliferated. Nonetheless, a handful of schools for teachers did open in Upper Canada and New Brunswick (1847), Nova Scotia (1855), Prince Edward Island (1856), and Quebec (1857).

A failed experiment in the late nineteenth century was the opening of model schools for teachers that required the briefest of courses and very little practice teaching. They largely died out in the early years of the twentieth century, but hung on in remote provinces until 1924, according to author-educator F. Henry Johnson who refers to the model schools as a "travesty."

The more rigorous normal schools flourished in most urban centers in Canada, but critics frequently objected to relaxed admission standards and failure to require a high school diploma for entry in many cases. The Roman Catholics also established normal schools for the training of nuns and laity in the twentieth century. Even by 1940, many normal schools such as one in Prince Edward Island still failed to require a diploma from high school for admission to their programs. Others, however, were more demanding in entrance requirements and curriculum improvements included the offering of classes in educational psychology (Johnson 1968). Many reform efforts were internal, the work of professional teacher associations. These groups advocated curriculum standardization, formal textbook adoption procedures, and the inclusion of teacher training at respected Canadian universities.

In modern Canada, teacher education programs are now part of university course offerings at numerous institutions, nearly all offering a curriculum overseen by departments of education. Teacher training is typically a vigorous one year program (in some cases two years), and would-be teachers spend an additional three or four years to receive their university degree. Standardization has not fully occurred, and teacher certification programs vary, depending upon the province or territory. Teachers typically specialize in elementary, middle, or secondary school programs. Others specialize in subjects such as the teaching of English or French as a second language. Many focus on specialty subjects such as music, the arts, or physical education.

Teacher education programs stress the learning of not only educational theory and academic subjects, but also require mastery in the classroom before actual students during practice teaching stints called practicums. By the twenty-first century, in spite of abundant reforms from 1940 to 2001, it became clear that teacher reform was an unfinished business. In New Brunswick, reformers frequently mounted platforms for methods to ensure that teachers experienced continuous growth and improvement over the course of their careers. The Canadian Association of Deans of Education (CADE) and the Association francophone des doyens, doyennes, directeurs, et directrices d'éducation (AFDEC) stress that good teachers need to continuously update their skills by reading, taking workshops, traveling, and participating in teacher exchange programs.


Summary

Education in Canada has contributed to a remarkable era of prosperity in the nation during the late 1990s and first part of the twenty-first century. Reforms in the educational system have been apparent in primary and secondary education, colleges and universities, and vocational training. Although there has been recent dissatisfaction with the test scores of students in the primary and secondary grades, the rising number of Canadians with degrees and advanced degrees has offered some consolation. Conflicts between French and British interests in the far-flung provinces have been eased by the government's strong support of bilingual education. Likewise, the government has been supportive of attempts by the aboriginal peoples to better their lot in life through education, even as they preserve their customs and language.

While Canada's economy is expected to lose some of its luster as the United States and other industrialized nations experience economic downturns in 2001 and lower population rates will certainly lead to declines in university and college enrollments in certain provinces, the future of Canada overall looks brilliant in the twenty-first century as its ample resources and educated or trained workforce give the nation benefits many other nations only can envy.


Bibliography

Calam, John. "The Royal Grammar Schools." Educational Record 79(4) (October-December 1963): 256ff.

Cochrane, J. The One-Room School in Canada. Toronto: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1981.

Fraser Institute, The. Report Cards. Available from http://www.fraserinstitute.ca.

Harris, Robin S. A History of Higher Education in Canada: 1663-1960. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976.

Katz, Michael B. and Paul H. Mattingly. Education and Social Change: Themes from Ontario's Past. New York: New York University Press, 1975.

Johnson, F. Henry. A Brief History of Canadian Education. Toronto: McGraw-Hill of Canada, 1968.

Martin, Wilfred B.W. and Allan J. Macdonell. Canadian Education: A Sociological Analysis. Scarborough, Ontario: Prentice-Hall of Canada, 1978.

McInnis, Edgar. Canada: A Political and Social History. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, 1969.

McNaught, Kenneth. The Penguin History of Canada. London: Penguin, 1988.

Mulcahy, Dennis. Learning and Teaching in Multi-grade Classrooms. St. John's: Faculty of Education Monograph, Memorial University, 1993.

. The One-Room School in Newfoundland and Labrador. An Oral History Project. 19 January 1999. Available from http://www.ucs.mun.ca.

Robinson, Laura. Crossing the Line. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1998.

Statistics Canada. 1996 and 2001 Census Information. 2001. Available from http://www.statcan.ca.

UNESCO Statistical Overview: School Enrollment. Canada. 1999. Available from http://www.ibe.unesco.org.

University of Sakatchewan. Native Studies Review. 31 October 1999, Available from http://www.usask.ca.

U.S. Department of Education. Condition of Education: 1995. 2001. Available from http://www.ed.gov.


Hank Nuwer

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Canada

CANADA

CANADA. Canada is a vast country touched by three oceans, and it holds within its boundaries prairies, hills, mountains, semidesert and desert country, rocky thin-soiled lands, a multitude of lakes, enormous forests, and Arctic tundra. While the terrain varies greatly, there is a commonality across Canada, and that is the severity of winter. Few European immigrants in Canada's early history were prepared for the cold, and from the beginning, Canadians struggled with the elements for their survival. This was a defining factor in the development of Canadian cuisine. But it is the people of Canada who, more than the land and weather, created Canada's cookery. From the First Nations people to the waves of immigrants from every country in the world, Canada's cuisine became distinctly regional.

Diversity has been a characteristic of Canadian cuisine from the beginning of settlement. In the seventeenth century, the first Europeans in Canada encountered a highly varied population of Native Peoples, for example, hunters and gatherers including the Inuit in the Arctic; agricultural people in parts of southern Quebec and Ontario; buffalo hunters on the plains; and fishermen on the West Coast among the nearly sedentary Pacific North Coastal people.

By the end of the eighteenth century, the dominant groups in Canada were British (particularly English and Scots), French, and American Loyalists. The cuisine that developed during the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century reflected these influences. There were strong overtones of French cookery in Quebec, British influences in English-speaking Canada, and a strong import of culinary culture from the United States. While there were many ethnic groups in Canada by the end of World War II, British-American cookery dominated Canadian cookery. A partial exception to this generalization was the Chinese influence. Peasants from southern China immigrated to "Golden Mountain" (Canada or, more specifically, British Columbia) beginning in the 1850s. Many were employed in construction and the building of the railroad. As with other cultural groups, they were discriminated against, but they introduced Canadians to Chinese cuisine by opening Chinese restaurants in nearly every village and city across Canada.

In spite of the cultural dominance of English-speaking Canadians, other ethnic immigrant groups often settled in regional pockets where they maintained their language and their culinary traditions. Coming from different regions in their home countries, they melded traditions together. For example, in the Ukraine, women made pysanky (eggs decorated with ritualistic symbols) according to their local traditions, but in Canada, they drew designs from many regions of Ukraine. Northern and Southern Italian foods such as pasta and polenta, likewise, were simply "Italian" in Canada.

Until after World War II, ethnic foods were rarely written about in Canadian food magazines or cookbooks, and ethnic recipes were highly modified. In a 1920s community cookbook, for example, a chop suey recipe was a mixture of fried hamburger, rice, tomatoes, and onions, baked for an hour; and spaghetti was cooked meat, spaghetti, onion, butter, green pepper, and canned tomato soup, baked with buttered bread crumbs; both were seasoned only with salt and pepper. In the 1970s the milieu changed when, under the leadership of Pierre Trudeau, Canada adopted a policy of multiculturalism. It then became the fashion to share ethnicity, and the easiest way was through cookery. The foods that ethnic groups had eaten in the privacy of their homes became de rigueur.

After World War II, fast-food eateries and chain restaurants serving inexpensive, mass-produced foods swept across North America. Franchises on the U.S. model were adopted and Canadians quickly developed their own fast food restaurants for hamburgers, fried chicken, and pizza. A favorite fast-food chain is Tim Horton Donuts, a coffee and donut shop. Popular Canadian restaurant chains that developed were "road houses" serving grilled foods and pasta. The Americanization of Canadian foods and foodways was influenced also by food articles in American magazines and by television food shows.

Canadian cuisine is strongly regional in character with American influences. The eating pattern of three meals a day, the popularity of many foods, the importation of fresh produce and manufactured foods, and the eating of particular foods at the feasts of Thanksgiving, Christmas, and Easter are common denominators of the cuisine of both the United States and Canada. The real difference is the highly visible regional cuisines of Canada, based on the available ingredients and the ethnic groups who settled in these regions. Canadian cuisine cannot be understood without examining these regional traditions.

Newfoundland: A Survival Cuisine

From the early sixteenth century, the huge and lucrative cod fisheries on the coasts surrounding this island province and the Grand Banks offshore attracted fishing vessels manned by Basque, Portuguese, French, and British sailors. Before settlement, these groups salted cod in summer fish-drying camps, and then dried it on "flakes." A product that could keep indefinitely, salt cod was eaten in Europe for centuries. Eventually the English settled in the north and west, followed by the Irish, in St. John's and the east coast, and French along the south shore. Newfoundland's environment is harsh and demanding with deceivingly warm but short summers. The cuisine that developed was simple and entrenched.

Only a few ingredients are needed to make ribsticking, hearty, and soul-satisfying meals. Fish (cod) and root vegetables form the basis of the Newfoundlanders' diet. There is little agriculture on the island, but root vegetables can be grown there, and tiny vegetable garden plots are often found along the roadside on the western coast. Potatoes, carrots, onions, turnips, parsnips, and cabbage are mainstays.

In 1992 the cod stocks crashed on the Grand Banks, and a moratorium was placed on commercial fishing in Canadian waters on the Banks. Although a way of life for Newfoundlanders seemed to have been lost, cod remains their favorite food. While the major cod fisheries are still closed, some fish is available on the southern coast, and local inhabitants are allowed to "jig" for cod two weekends a year. When a Newfoundlander says the word "fish," he or she means "cod," which, over the centuries, has been the preferred dish. A fresh cod dinner is Newfoundland comfort food. A thick piece of cod, usually grilled or poached, is served with mashed potatoes, mixed peas and carrots, coleslaw and fluffy white rolls. Delicacies are cod tongues and cheeks, either sautéed or deep-fried. Salt cod is prepared most commonly as fish 'n' brewis (also called "fisherman's brewis"). The salted fish is soaked, shredded, and cooked with dried bread chunks (hardtack) until thick, and schruncheons (fried diced salt pork) with its fat is poured over the mixture.

Pea soup (a thick potage of yellow split peas with diced turnips, carrots, and potatoes) can be traced back to the daily fare of sixteenth-century fishermenwith salt beef added on Sundays. Split peas are also used to make pease pudding by dropping a pudding bag of peas into Jigg's dinner, a boiled dinner of salt beef, onions, potatoes, carrots, and turnips.

To supplement and vary the fish and salt-beef diet, many men hunt partridge, ptarmigan, rabbits, turr (a seabird), moose, caribou, and deer. Moose is preferred only because it will fill the hunter's freezerand his neighbors'and last through the winter. A traditional wild-game dish is flipper pie made from seal flippers, carefully prepared and cooked in a pastry. The wilds also provide berries in abundance, eaten fresh and preserved for the long winter, either frozen for pies and other desserts or made into jams. Favorites are blueberries, strawberries, blackberries, raspberries, partridgeberries (lignonberries), and yellow baking apples (cloud berries).

More than anything else, Newfoundlanders are known for fun: parties, Newfoundland fiddling, and rum. Screech, a dark rum, was named because American servicemen during World War II found it made them "screech." Those "from away" may undergo a Newfoundland initiation by tossing back Screech and reciting an intonation, always with good humor, and sometimes accompanied by kissing a cod.

The Maritime Provinces: An Entrenched Cuisine

The cuisine of the Maritime provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island (P.E.I.) is a bittersweet onebitter because so many people were dislocated, either within the Maritimes or because they had to leave their homelands, sweet because the Maritime cuisine was a result. Early migration into the Atlantic provinces generally took place of necessity. Power struggles between France and England led to the forced displacement of the French Acadians in 1755, and American planters took over their rich farmlands. Scattered to many countries, some Acadians returned after 1763, not to their rich farmlands but to less desirable land, or they turned to fishing. Settling in parts of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Quebec, they developed a distinct cuisine in each area: buckwheat pancakes, poutine râpée (dumpling stuffed with salt pork), râpure (grated potato and chicken or seafood pie), fricots (stews), rabbit pies, and many other traditional dishes.

Later in the century, in 1783, United Empire Loyalists, scorned in the United States, made their way into the Maritimes. These American Loyalists brought New England food traditions, popularizing corn in many forms (corn-on-the-cob, johnnycakes, corn puddings, and Anadama or Yankee bread), and the Saturday night custom of baked beans and brown bread. Freed African loyalists and others of African descent also came north. Blacks settling in the Shelburne area brought Southern American cooking: deep-fat frying, barbecued meat, the use of corn meal and hominy, pork, rice, and fish. Germans left for Lunenberg, Nova Scotia, in 1753 and contributed Solomon Gundy (pickled herring), soused eels, and sauerkraut. Scots in Cape Breton brought oat cakes and porridge bread. These early settlers created distinct regional cuisines. But the one traditional meal common to the Maritimes is Dutch mess, also called hugger-in-buff, fish and schrunchions, or house bankin, depending upon where one lives. Salt cod is soaked, then cooked; potatoes are boiled in the fish broth; salt pork and onions are fried, vinegar and cream added and poured over the cod and potatoes. The next day, leftovers are mashed and made into fish cakes.

The abundant fish and shellfish were the key ingredients defining early Maritime cuisine, and they continue to do so today. These seafoods, along with root vegetables, dried peas, cabbage, and trade goods from Britain formed the basic components used in early eastern Canadian cookery. Early English colonists were dependent upon Great Britain for food, and these supplies grew into a thriving trade of tea, sugar, spices (ginger was a favorite), and dried fruits. The triangular trade between England, New England, and the Caribbean brought molasses, rum, and ginger from the Caribbean. Halifax, the early center of British social life, retains a distinct English character. Gaily signed pubs serve meat pies and fish and chips. British dishes lingerroast beef with York-shire pudding, trifle, and gingerbread.

Each Maritime province has vast coastal areas, and cod is common to all. Products of the sea vary somewhat in each province. Prince Edward Island is associated with lobster fisheries, aqua-cultured blue mussels, Malpeque oysters, and Irish moss. Nova Scotia is known for Digby scallops and dulse (a reddish seaweed). New Brunswick fishes for Fundy salmon, smelt, trout, and shad. Samphire greens (eaten locally) are harvested from the shores of each of these provinces. In countryside Nova Scotia, roadside "canteens," one-room buildings, sell some of the region's best seafood: lobster or clam rolls, fried scallops, or fried fishall seafoods cooked fresh from the sea.

The harvest from the land is also regional. Nova Scotia is known for its Annapolis Valley apple orchards, New Brunswick for its maple syrup and wild chanterelles, and P.E.I. for its potatoes. New Brunswick fiddleheads from the Ostrich fern are a gourmet delicacy picked in early spring before the fronds open, and are cooked as a vegetable.

By the early 1800s, established food traditions had become associated with a way of life, and to a great extent, have remained impervious to change. Even the large migrations of ethnic groups after World War II were insufficient to displace these three-hundred-year-old culinary traditions.

Quebec: A Distinct Cuisine

Quebecois consider themselves a distinct society, and this is reflected in their cuisine. Restaurant menus are written in French, and the cuisine is distinctly French, but with a difference: most of all, the love ofeven obsession withgood food and its celebration, the use of flavorful sauces, the elaboration of courses, the use of fresh ingredients, and the respect for their chefs. The first European settlers in Canada in the early seventeenth century were French. They maintained close ties with their mother country until after the English conquest in the mid-eighteenth century. At that time, communication with France was cut off.

Thus, many traditional Quebec dishes resemble those prepared in medieval and early Renaissance France. Well-known favorites across Quebec are cretons (a rich pork pâté), tourtière (meat pie), ragoût de pattes et de boulettes (pigs' feet and meatball stew), les cipaille or cipâte (baked casserole made by layering pastry with meat, poultry, and/or seafood), and galettes de sarrasin (buckwheat pancakes). A hearty fare, originally cooked for fishermen, farmers, and loggers, they are today reserved for family gatherings and holidays.

The abundance of wild game and the land available to provide forage for it probably influenced Quebec's cuisine more than any other factor. This provided ordinary settlers with meat and gave them an equality with royalty unknown to the seventeenth-century French peasant. Indeed, in France at that time, food was frequently scarce. It is not surprising that the Quebecois' diet was rich in meat, poultry, and fish and that regional dishes were made with these ingredients.

Although maintaining their French heritage, the Quebecois incorporated ingredients and dishes from other cultures. From the beginning, the French had close ties with aboriginal peoples whose culture dictated that they share game and fish with their friends. The Native Peoples showed them the edible wild flora and fauna, and the French were quick to incorporate wild game, berries, and maple sugar into their diet. It should be noted that corn, beans, and squash had already been introduced into France before Quebec was colonized, and potatoes are thought to have been introduced by the British. American Loyalists and British immigrants after 1755 also influenced Quebec cookery; the French especially liked sweet British desserts, many of them made with molasses. Cultural influences continue today as with the Middle Eastern innovation mechoui, a popular party at which a whole animal is barbecued, usually wild game like buffalo or wild boar. Quebec cities, like other Canadian centers, have a multicultural character. This is especially true of Montreal, where there are more French-speaking immigrants than in other major Canadian cities: Haitians, Lebanese, and Vietnamese have all influenced Quebec's cookery, particularly in their family-owned restaurants and their ingredients in small grocery stores. Moreover, Montreal's population contains a mix of people speaking a multitude of languages who have contributed their foodways to the cultural mix of this city.

Quebec's cuisine is a highly regional one. The Institut de Tourisme et d'Hôtellerie du Québec has identified at least seventeen gastronomical regions within the province and has searched out more than 30,000 regional recipes. In the Gaspé, for instance, salt is used liberally and salmon layered with pastry is their version of cipâte. People from the Lac Saint-Jean area are called "les Bluets" (blueberries), and these berries are made into grandpères (dumplings cooked in blueberry sauce) or a blueberry cipaille. Gourgane beans brought from Europe are unique to this area and are often made into soupe aux gourganes, a filling bean, barley, and vegetable potage.

Today, young Quebec-trained chefs search out local ingredients, experiment with them, and to some extent are turning to France for inspiration. Artisanal breads, soft cheeses, goat cheeses, Normandy-style apple cider, local wines, organically grown vegetables, white asparagus, fresh herbs (especially summer savory), wild mushrooms, rabbits, caribou, and wild game birds are some of the ingredients finding their way onto the Quebec table. The Quebec diet is changing but the accent remains distinctly French Quebec.

Ontario: A Dynamic Cuisine

The French and then the British and, shortly thereafter, American Loyalist immigrants had close contact with members of the Iroquoian tribes. From these original farming inhabitants, the immigrants learned how to plant corn, beans, squash, Jerusalem artichokes, and sunflowers, and to tap the maple trees for their sweet sugar. In the early days of settlement, wild game and fresh fish from the streams and the many lakes in Ontario were plentiful. The French left little impact upon Ontario's cuisine, but the English foodways became dominant: their style of eating and especially their love of sweets, roasted beef and pork, cooked root vegetables, white bread, and tea. One of the first tasks the settlers had was to build grist mills to grind wheat for their cakes and breads. They found the farmland in southern Ontario to be fertile, and most of the crops from their homelands flourished. Dairy herds were established, which led in the nineteenth century to a significant trade in cheddar cheese with England and the popularity of this cheese in Ontario.

There were two influential groups who came north with the Loyalists at the end of the eighteenth century. The Iroquois under the leadership of Joseph Brant settled near Brandford to form the Six Nations. An agricultural people, they grew the "Three Sisters"corn, beans, and squashand reinforced the growth and use of these crops in Ontario. The other group was the Pennsylvania German Mennonites who took up farming in the Waterloo area. When the Ontario Mennonites chose their food preparations from the Pennsylvania German recipe repertoire, a difference appeared. While the recipes they loved best were still distinctly Mennonite, the choices of foods changed. In Ontario, they are known for summer sausages, Nusschinken (cool-smoked ham), smoked pork chops, Koch Käse (a runny cooked whey cheese flavored with caraway seed, smeared on bread with apple butter), shoofly pie made with maple syrup, Dutch apple pie, doughnuts, and mint tea.

In the nineteenth century, southern Ontario was the terminus of the "underground railroad," offering shelter to American blacks escaping slavery. They brought Southern American cookery to Ontario. Irish, Scots, English, and other groups streamed into Ontario during this century, reinforcing British cuisine. Rutabagas (called turnips) were standard winter fare. Steamed carrot pudding became a Christmas tradition. China tea cups were given to brides, and the prescribed wedding cake was a dark fruit cake.

Some ethnic groups entering Ontario in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries formed communities around Ontario: the Poles in Wilno, the Portuguese in Strathroy, the Italians in Guelph, the Scots in the Renfrew valley near Ottawa, the Finns in Thunder Bay, and Ukrainians and Eastern Europeans in Hamilton. This is not to say that myriad cultural groups are not found in these areas; the point is that in these areas, the home cuisine and the language of these settlers was maintained.

Coming primarily from politically troubled parts of the world, approximately 175,000 immigrants annually enter Canada. Of these, about half locate in Ontario, the majority moving into the Toronto area. Immediately after World War II came Italians, Eastern Europeans, British war brides, and many others. In the 1970s, after Canada's newly entrenched multicultural policy, immigrants streamed in from Hong Kong, Vietnam, Somalia, Ethiopia, Croatia, Serbia, India, Sri Lanka, the Middle East, and other countries. Ontario had long served up a meat, potato, and root vegetable table, but the influx of new people and their culinary traditions meant a developing and rapidly changing gastronomy in Ontario, led by Toronto.

Toronto, the most culturally diverse city in Canada, is a reflection of Canadian multiculturalism in the makeup of its population and in its cuisine. There are five Chinatowns in the Toronto area, most recently settled by affluent Chinese from Hong Kong, and Chinese restaurants represent every region in China. Upscale restaurants serve Italian, Portuguese, Greek, Indian, Lebanese, Caribbean, and American cuisine, but the neighborhood dining spots are the best places to find the comfort food of nearly every nation in the world and at a reasonable price.

As a result of this diversity, Ontario is somewhat fragmented in its cuisine, but people in Ontario pride themselves on a receptivity to the flavors of the world. Hoisin sauce, garam masala, baba ghanoush, phyllo pastry, flat breads, tzatziki, pierogies, rice and beans, Jamaican meat patties, and espresso are, if not daily fare, part of Ontario's food repertoire.

The Prairies: Bread and Beef

Traveling west through the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, seemingly endless fields of wheat dominate the landscape. The wheat belt runs through all three prairie provinces, and wheat is an important economic export. Canadian cuisine has been affected by this bountiful crop since it was first planted on the Prairies in the last half of the nineteenth century. Canadians have a history of baking. In 1913 Five Roses Flour Company published a cookbook of recipes collected from women across Canada. By 1915 this book was found in 950,000 or nearly half of the homes in Canada. In addition to bread and pastry flours, durum wheat that is made into semolina flour for making pastas is grown here.

Prairie history, however, was not one of farming. Native Americans who dominated the plains lived primarily on buffalo, which they preserved by drying and mixing it with buffalo fat and berries, usually Saskatoon berries, and storing the mixture, known as pemmican, in containers made of buffalo skin. French and Scottish voyagers of the fur trade were provisioned with pemmican by Native People, and early settlers relied upon it. When overhunting led to the demise of the huge buffalo herds, beef took its place. A favored method of beef cookery is grilling, and some cook it outdoors year round. For community barbecues, a hole is dug with a backhoe large enough for several cords of wood and an entire beef animal. After twelve hours of underground cooking, the beef is sliced and served with baked beans, fresh breads, salads, pickles and relishes, pies and cakes. Calgary, the home of the Canadian cowboy, glorifies the chuck wagon at "stampede," the annual rodeo. Chuck wagon races are an awaited event; the wagons dash pell-mell around a circle and at the finish line the cowboy "cook" must be the first to light the campfire. Chuck wagon expressions humorously included "baked wind pills" (baked beans), "CPR (Canadian Pacific Railroad) strawberries" (prunes), "dough-gods" (dumplings), "paperweights" (hot biscuits), and "yesterday, today and forever" (hash).

Until the 1950s, British settlers strongly influenced prairie cuisine. Stews, roast beef with Yorkshire pudding, and cakes named after British royalty (Prince of Wales, Prince Albert, King George and King Edward cakes) were popular. Today, Alberta is dotted with English tea houses, in as unlikely locations as a grain elevator.

While British cookery dominated the great wave of immigration (over a million) in the early part of the twentieth century, immigrant groups did not sacrifice their culinary traditions. Russian Mennonites settling in Manitoba, Icelandic immigrants in Grimli, Manitoba, Hutterites in Alberta, and the French who came early in settlement, particularly in Winnipeg, continued to cook their favorite recipes, as had their families before them.

Ukrainians, however, influenced prairie cookery. From the time they arrived at the end of the nineteenth century, they brought with them a tradition of wheat farming and cuisine. Mothers taught daughters the ancient art of making traditional breads and pysanky. They introduced varenyky or pierogies (flour-based rounds of dough stuffed with a unique Canadian potato and cheddar cheese mixture), stuffed cabbage rolls, psyrizhky (baked stuffed buns), and paska (Easter bread).

Newer immigration waves have made their mark on Prairie cuisine, particularly in the cities. In Winnipeg there is the largest Philippine population outside of that country. West Indian roti shops, Middle Eastern foods, and other ethnic foods add to the culinary flavors of Winnipeg, Edmonton, Saskatoon, and Calgary.

British Columbia: Aboriginal, English, Chinese, and California Fusion

Because of settlement patterns in British Columbia, Canada's westernmost province, its cuisine is different from the rest of Canada. The aboriginal people included many bands of North Coastal and Interior Coastal Peoples living in small villages along the Pacific Ocean and in the interior mountainous areas. By the 1860s there was a genteel English colony on Vancouver Island enjoying garden parties and afternoon tea. Chinese laborers arrived in the last half of the nineteenth century, and in addition to opening restaurants, frequently became cooks in English homes. In the twentieth century, the Californian free-spirited cookery spread up the coast, espousing the use of fresh local ingredients and healthy cooking, including vegetarianism. Many other cultural groups added to this mix but the dominant cuisine is Aboriginal, English, Chinese, and Californian.

As the cuisine in British Columbia developed, locally grown or harvested ingredients from land and sea respectively were adopted by all groups and each modified them according to their backgrounds. The Pacific harvest focuses on salmon: coho, chinook, pink, chum, and red sockeye salmon. Halibut, black cod, lingcod, tuna, rockfish, and eulachon are also favored fish. Shellfish include crabs (especially Dungeness) oysters, scallops, shrimp, prawns, abalone, and many varieties of clams. Agricultural areas in the beginning were developed in the Fraser River delta, supplying produce for Victoria and Chinese vegetables for early Chinese immigrants. Further inland, microclimates characterize the agricultural areas of the Okanagan and Similkimen Valleys, the fruit-growing regions of British Columbia. This climate is ideal for viticulture, and some grapes left on the vine until January are made into Eiswein. Soapberries, thimble-berries, salmonberries, huckleberries, and many other berries are harvested from the wild, as are pine mushrooms growing in evergreen forests.

The first inhabitants who influenced British Columbian cookery were the North Coast Native Peoples. Salmon was and continues to be their primary foodstuff: it is baked, poached, barbecued, and smoked. Family smokehouses are common in the coastal villages. Women also preserve salmon by canning for times when it is not in season. Eulachon oil and herring eggs are prized foods. Eulachon, a small oily fish (also called "candle fish" because when dried it can be lighted), can be eaten fried or baked, but is prized more for its oil, used as a dip for foods and as a seasoning. Spruce boughs are placed in the ocean water and become a spawning site for herring. The branches are harvested with the eggs still clinging to them and are then dried. It is not uncommon to see these boughs drying on the sides of houses. Roots were gathered in the past but are not as commonly used today with the exception of roasted camas bulbs. Indian ice cream is made by whipping the indigenous soapberries into a froth. These local ingredients still dominate aboriginal cooking, particularly since food must be brought to many native villages by ferry. However, the overall cuisine of the Native Peoples has been affected by Canadian culinary culture and their daily menus are as likely to include pizza, burgers, donuts and coffee, stews, pies and cakes as that of any other Canadian. But they value their distinct culinary traditions.

Victoria on Vancouver Island, more than any other Canadian city, has a decidedly English character. Afternoon tea is still a tradition, and locally brewed ales can be found at English-style pubs. In the warm climate (by Canadian standards), growers around Victoria are able to successfully harvest such fruits as kiwi and figs. Their small farms are often organic, and herbs are grown year-round.

Vancouver, the largest city in British Columbia, although multicultural, has a character all its own. Here there are English, Chinese, Pacific Coast Native, Italian, and Japanese, as well as Californian influences. The Chinese influence is strongest in Vancouver. The Chinese community demands fresh produce and fishevident in Vancouver food stores. Chinese vegetables such as gai lohn have long been grown in the Fraser River delta. Live fish and shellfish from the Pacific are kept in tanks (goe-duck clams, Dungeness crabs, and rockfish). Recent wealthy immigrants from Hong Kong created a demand for imported Chinese foods and medicines such as ginseng (grown commercially in British Columbia and Ontario), dried abalone, shark's fin, and bird's nest.

Young, well-trained chefs are combining this cooking in various adaptations, creating a fusion cuisine. These young people revere local ingredients, ethnic ideas and styles, organically grown foods, herbs, edible flowers, whole grains, and enjoy the good life.

The North: Finding Food for Survival

Canada's agricultural belt as well as its population is concentrated in approximately the lower one-third of its land mass. The "North" includes the territories of the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and the newest territory, Nunavut. For purposes of describing the regional cuisines of Canada, the forest land south of the tundra and north of the agricultural belt are also included, as are parts of the Prairie provinces, Ontario, Quebec and Labrador.

Indigenous ingredients distinguish the cuisine of northern Canada from other regions. Because food supplies are difficult to transport, there is more of an emphasis upon local foods than in southern Canada. Caribou, muskoxen, moose, deer, ptarmigan, and arctic char are hunted or fished. Today aboriginal people supply wild game to restaurants and the luxury market, particularly caribou, muskoxen, and arctic char. Migratory ducks and geese provide variety to the larder in the fall. Berries grow profuselyblueberries, partridge berries, cranberries, and black currants are made into pies, preserves, jellies, and sauces. These foods all have local habitatsnot all are found in every part of Canada's north.

The aboriginal population comprises about twothirds of the northern population. Before European settlement, the Inuit occupied the Arctic, that is, the tundra beyond the tree line that encompasses the northern third of Canada's land mass. The aboriginal tribes of the Mackenzie and Yukon River basins and the Northern Cree occupy the northern wooded areas. Before contact with Europeans, these Peoples of the First Nations were self-sufficient and lived seasonally, either following herds of caribou or moving from place to place where food could be found. Their diet was rich in protein, with plant materials making up an estimated five percent of their food. This diet was healthy and supplied all their nutritional needs. In the twentieth century, attempts to assimilate Native Peoples into white society changed the native culture dramatically. Many were moved to permanent settlements (especially the Inuit) and were no longer able to resume their migratory food patterns. They began to live on foods that could be transported into their villages, usually by plane. These foods were much different from their traditional diet. Carbohydrates were introduced, particularly white flour and refined sugar. Manufactured foods like potato chips and soft drinks became popular, especially because the traditional pattern was to eat when hungry rather than at set mealtimes. Rich in fat and starch, these new foods were detrimental to the health of Native Peoples, leading to diabetes and other dietary diseases. While there is a trend among Native Peoples to return to their traditional diet, permanent settlements make this difficult.

The largest white settlements in the north are in the Yukon and Northwest Territories. Dawson and Whitehorse were settled during the gold rush, and Yellowknife was established as the capital of the Northwest Territories. The Yukon today has predominately British roots. The center of the gold rush beginning in 1897, Dawson drew miners, honky-tonk girls, and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). To prevent starvation, miners were required to pack in a year's supply of food before they were allowed into the territory. Provisions were basic and affected the cuisine of the territory: beans, flour, dried fruit, sugar, bacon, and tea were common items. Wild game supplemented their plain diets, but if they struck it rich they could buy luxury foods such as chocolate, champagne, and fresh eggs. Prospectors became known as "sour-doughs" because they craved white bread so much they baked it in their camps. Legend has it that they kept the yeast starter alive by carrying it in their armpits when traveling in the bitter cold.

Today procurement of food for the north still requires a great deal of planning. Winter is unpredictable, and even where there are logging trails or water access to northern communities, food supplies are sometimes delayed. Nearly any food can be shipped in by air, but that option is expensive. With modern communications with the rest of the world, there is demand for many more food products, especially in increasingly popular luxury fly-in hunting and fishing lodges. Overall, diets in the North are simpler than elsewhere, but definitely Canadian in style.

From coast to coast, diverse regional cuisines dominate Canadian cooking. Canadians today value their ethnic origins highly and take pride in preserving their culture, particularly their cuisine. Overlying these regional cuisines is a dominant North American influence, which is not surprising since there was American immigration into Canada early in its history, the language is understood by most Canadians, and the cultural influence of the media has brought trends and new foods to Canada. Canadians also take advantage of fruits and vegetables grown south of the border that lend variety to winter meals. One cannot say that there is a national cuisine, as there is in Mexico, but one must experience and enjoy the diverse regional cuisines of Canada, which together create a diversity of foodways that reflect Canadian society.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aitken, Julia, and Anita Stewart. The Ontario Harvest Cookbook: An Exploration of Feasts and Flavours. Toronto: Macmillan, 1996.

Armstrong, Julian. A Taste of Quebec. Toronto: Macmillan, 1990.

Barer-Stein, Thelma. You Eat What You Are: People, Culture and Food Traditions. 2nd ed. Toronto: Firefly Books, 1999.

Canadian Historical Association. Canada's Ethnic Groups, series of booklets. Ottawa: Canadian Historical Association, 19821991.

Driver, Elizabeth. A Bibliography of Canadian Cookbooks (18251949). Toronto: University of Toronto Press, forthcoming.

Ferguson, Carol, and Margaret Fraser. A Century of Canadian Home Cooking: 1900 through the '90s. Scarborough, Ontario: Prentice Hall, 1992.

Five Roses Cook Book. Montreal: Lake of the Woods Milling Co., 1913.

Institut de Tourisme et d'Hôtellerie du Québec. Cuisine du Québec. Montreal: Les Éditions TransMo, 1985.

Lafrance, Marc, and Yvon Desloges. A Taste of History: The Origins of Québec's Gastronomy. Montreal: Les Éditions de la Chenelière, 1989.

Nightingale, Marie. Out of Old Nova Scotia Kitchens. New York: Scribners, 1971.

Ontario Historical Society. Consuming Passions: Eating and Drinking Traditions in Ontario. Toronto: Ontario Historical Society, 1990.

Powers, Jo Marie, ed. Buon appetito! Italian Foodways in Ontario. Toronto: Ontario Historical Society, 2000.

Powers, Jo Marie, ed. From Cathay to Canada: Chinese Cuisine in Transition. Toronto: Ontario Historical Society, 1998.

Powers, Jo Marie, and Anita Stewart, eds. Northern Bounty: A Celebration of Canadian Cuisine. Toronto: Random House of Canada, 1995.

Stechishin, Savella. Traditional Ukrainian Cookery. Winnipeg: Trident Press, 1957.

Stewart, Anita. The Flavours of Canada: A Celebration of the Finest Regional Foods. Vancouver: Raincoast Books, 2000.

Turner, Nancy J. Food Plants of Interior First Peoples. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1997.

Jo Marie Powers


The Order of Good Cheer

The small band of French explorers at Port Royal, Nova Scotia, anticipated the winter of 1606 with dread. The previous winter many of their men had died from a mysterious "land-sickness." The illness was thought to be caused by ill-temper, idleness, and discontent. Samuel de Champlain, a member of the band, founded L'ordre de bon temps (the Order of Good Cheer) to prevent the illness. The object of the society was to go hunting and fishing for wild game and seafood that could be served up in a series of feasts held throughout the winter.

The feasting was met with great enthusiasm by Chief Henri Membertou and his Mi'kmaq followers, who joined the hunting forays and were invited to the grand dinners. It was the custom of the Mi'kmaq to share their food with whoever was in the vicinity, and the French reciprocated this generosity. The variety of raw ingredients for their meals was extensivevenison, moose, beaver, ducks and geese, salmon and trout caught through the ice, scallops, cockles, sea urchin, crabs, and lobster. In addition to these foods, there was plenty of wine and provisions from France.

Although we do not know the dishes prepared for the feasts, the gentlemen in the group were accustomed to sophisticated food. Champlain had been a visitor to the court of Henry IV; one of the men wrote in his diary that their food was as good as roastmeats from the cook shops of Paris. As well, Champlain kept stocked fish ponds near the Habitation.

The Order did help to fend off the illness (scurvy) during the winter. More than anything else, however, the lasting benefit of the dinners was an enduring friendship between the Mi'kmaq and the French. As others have found, the dining table is much better than a negotiating table for mediating conflicts between cultures. The spirit of the Order of Good Cheer is a culinary legacy to Canadians.



Poor Man's Fare

Pâté à la râpure (or rappie pie, the English name) is a traditional Acadian dish with its roots in the frugality of French women. After the British victory in Nova Scotia in the late eighteenth century, some families who had been expelled from the fertile Annapolis Valley returned, but to fishing or to farming marginal land. Times were extremely hard, but they were able to cultivate potatoesand the men liked their white shirts starched. The women made starch by grating potatoes, squeezing out the starch, and boiling the white shirts in the extract. Since they couldn't waste the potato gratings, they put them into a pan with lobster or fish and baked this mixture. The result, distinctly different from sliced and baked potatoes, was a gelatinous, translucent mixture flavored with seafood, called râpure. Today the tradition continues and, although they still squeeze out the starch to give râpure its distinct character, the starch is seldom used for stiffening white shirts.



Cabin au sucre

Where the sugar maples grow in Quebec, there will be "sugar shacks." From the beginning of settlement, colonists tapped the clear maple sap to produce sugar for the year's use as a sweetener. "Spiles," originally wooden tubes with sharpened ends and now metal tubes with hooks for buckets or tubing, were placed in holes drilled into the sugar maple trees. When the nights were cold and days warm, the sap flowed. In the old days, horses hauled tubs of the clear liquid to a covered shed where the sap was boiled down day and night. It took thirty to forty buckets of sap to produce one bucket of golden maple syrup. Men and boys stayed for weeks in the bush tending the fires and watching the syrup so that it would not burn. Today, when one drives through Quebec in the early spring before the snow melts, buckets adorning maple trees and smoke billowing from the bush are a common sight. From this, today's cabin au sucre, or sugar shack, has become a Quebec feature that anyone can enjoy. City folk today flock to the cabins au sucre to feast on maple-drenched dishes, to dance, and to drink. Outdoors, children are treated to la tire, syrup boiled down to a taffy and hardened on snow, and horses draw wagons of fun-seekers into the bush to view the miles of plastic tubing collecting the clear sapQuebec "gold."


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Canada

Canada (kăn´ədə), independent nation (2001 pop. 30,007,094), 3,851,787 sq mi (9,976,128 sq km), N North America. Canada occupies all of North America N of the United States (and E of Alaska) except for Greenland and the French islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon. It is bounded on the E by the Atlantic Ocean, on the N by the Arctic Ocean, and on the W by the Pacific Ocean and Alaska. A transcontinental border, formed in part by the Great Lakes, divides Canada from the United States; Nares and Davis straits separate Canada from Greenland. The Arctic Archipelago extends far into the Arctic Ocean.

Canada is a federation of 10 provinces—Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia—and three territories—Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, and Yukon. Canada's capital is Ottawa and its largest city is Toronto. Other important cities include Montreal, Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary, Winnipeg, Hamilton, and Quebec.

Land

Canada has a very long and irregular coastline; Hudson Bay and the Gulf of St. Lawrence indent the east coast and the Inside Passage extends along the west coast. The straits between the islands of N Canada form the Northwest Passage, but until the 21st century the passage was ice-clogged year-round. During the Ice Age all of Canada was covered by a continental ice sheet that scoured and depressed the land surface, leaving a covering of glacial drift, depositional landforms, and innumerable lakes and rivers. Aside from the Great Lakes, which are only partly in the country, the largest lakes of North America—Great Bear, Great Slave, and Winnipeg—are entirely in Canada. The St. Lawrence is the chief river of E Canada. The Saskatchewan, Nelson, Churchill, and Mackenzie river systems drain central Canada, and the Columbia, Fraser, and Yukon rivers drain the western part of the country.

Canada has a bowl-shaped geologic structure rimmed by highlands, with Hudson Bay at the lowest point. The country has eight major physiographic regions—the Canadian Shield, the Hudson Bay Lowlands, the Western Cordillera, the Interior Lowlands, the Great Lakes–St. Lawrence Lowlands, the Appalachians, the Arctic Lowlands, and the Innuitians.

The exposed portions of the Canadian Shield cover more than half of Canada. This once-mountainous region, which contains the continent's oldest rocks, has been worn low by erosion over the millennia. Its upturned eastern edge is indented by fjords. The Shield is rich in minerals, especially iron and nickel, and in potential sources of hydroelectric power. In the center of the Shield are the Hudson Bay Lowlands, encompassing Hudson Bay and the surrounding marshy land.

The Western Cordillera, a geologically young mountain system parallel to the Pacific coast, is composed of a series of north-south tending ranges and valleys that form the highest and most rugged section of the country; Mt. Logan (19,551 ft/5,959 m) is the highest point in Canada. Part of this region is made up of the Rocky Mts. and the Coast Mts., which are separated by plateaus and basins. The islands off W Canada are partially submerged portions of the Coast Mts. The Western Cordillera is also rich in minerals and timber and potential sources of hydroelectric power.

Between the Rocky Mts. and the Canadian Shield are the Interior Lowlands, a vast region filled with sediment from the flanking higher lands. The Lowlands are divided into the prairies, the plains, and the Mackenzie Lowlands. The prairies are Canada's granary, while grazing is important on the plains.

The smallest and southernmost region is the Great Lakes–St. Lawrence Lowlands, Canada's heartland. Dominated by the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes, the region provides a natural corridor into central Canada, and the St. Lawrence Seaway gives the interior cities access to the Atlantic. This section, which is composed of gently rolling surface on sedimentary rocks, is the location of extensive farmlands, large industrial centers, and most of Canada's population. In SE Canada and on Newfoundland is the northern end of the Appalachian Mt. system, an old and geologically complex region with a generally low and rounded relief.

The Arctic Lowlands and the Innuitians are the most isolated areas of Canada and are barren and snow-covered for most of the year. The Arctic Lowlands comprise much of the Arctic Archipelago and contain sedimentary rocks that may have oil-bearing strata. In the extreme north, mainly on Ellesmere Island, is the Innuitian Mt. system, which rises to c.10,000 ft (3,050 m).

Canada's climate is influenced by latitude and topography. The Interior Lowlands make it possible for polar air masses to move south and for subtropical air masses to move north into Canada. Hudson Bay and the Great Lakes act to modify the climate locally. The Western Cordillera serves as a climatic barrier that prevents polar air masses from reaching the Pacific coast and blocks the moist Pacific winds from reaching into the interior. The Cordillera has a typical highland climate that varies with altitude; the western slopes receive abundant rainfall, and the whole region is forested. The Interior Lowlands are in the rain shadow of the Cordillera; the southern portion has a steppe climate in which grasses predominate. S Canada has a temperate climate, with snow in the winter (especially in the east) and cool summers. Farther to the north, extending to the timberline, is the humid subarctic climate characterized by short summers and a snow cover for about half the year. The huge boreal forest, the largest surviving remnant of the extensive forests that once covered much of North America, predominates in this region. On the Arctic Archipelago and the northern mainland is the tundra, with its mosses and lichen, permafrost, near-year-round snow cover, and ice fields. A noted phenomenon off the coast of E Canada is the persistence of dense fog, which is formed when the warm air over the Gulf Stream passes over the cold Labrador Current as the two currents meet off Newfoundland.

People

About 28% of the Canadian population are of British descent, while 23% are of French origin. Another 15% are of other European background, about 26% are of mixed background, 6% are of Asian, African, or Arab descent, and some 2% are of aboriginal or Métis (mixed aboriginal and European) background. In the late 1990s, Canada had the highest immigration rate of any country in the world, with more than half the total coming from Asia, and immigration has continued to contribute significantly to the nation's population growth. Over 75% of the total population live in cities. Canada has complete religious liberty, though its growing multiculturalism has at times caused tensions among ethnic and religious groups. About 43% of the people are Roman Catholics, while some 23% are Protestant (the largest groups being the United Church of Canada and Anglicans). English and French are the official languages, and federal documents are published in both languages. In 2001, about 59% of Canadians cited English as their mother tongue, while 23% cited French.

Economy

Since World War II the development of Canada's manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has led to the creation of an affluent society. Services now account for 68.5% of the GDP, while industry accounts for 29%. Tourism and financial services represent some of Canada's most important industries within the service sector. Manufacturing, however, is Canada's single most important economic activity. The leading products are transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, processed foods, wood and paper products, fish, petroleum, natural gas, electrical and electronic products, printed materials, machinery, and clothing. Industries are centered in Ontario, Quebec, and, to a lesser extent, British Columbia and Alberta. Canada's industries depend on the country's rich energy resources, which include hydroelectric power, petroleum (including extensive oil sands), natural gas, coal, and uranium.

Canada is a leading mineral producer, although much of its mineral resources are difficult to reach due to permafrost. It is the world's largest source of nickel, zinc, and uranium, and a major source of lead, asbestos, gypsum, potash, tantalum, and cobalt. Other important mineral resources are petroleum, natural gas, copper, gold, iron ore, coal, silver, diamonds, molybdenum, and sulfur. The mineral wealth is located in many areas; some of the most productive regions are Sudbury, Ont. (copper and nickel); Timmins, Ont. (lead, zinc, and silver); and Kimberley, British Columbia (lead, zinc, and silver). Petroleum and natural gas are found in Alberta and Saskatchewan.

Agriculture employs some 2% of the population and contributes a similar percentage of the GDP. The sources of the greatest farm income are livestock and dairy products. Among the biggest income-earning crops are wheat, barley, rapeseed (canola), tobacco, fruits, and vegetables. Canada is one of the world's leading agricultural exporters, especially of wheat. Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta are the great grain-growing provinces, and, with Ontario, are also the leading sources of beef cattle. The main fruit-growing regions are found in Ontario, British Columbia, Quebec, and Nova Scotia. Apples and peaches are the principal fruits grown in Canada. More than half of the total land area is forest, and Canadian timber production ranks among the highest in the world.

Fishing is an important economic activity in Canada. Cod and lobster from the Atlantic and salmon from the Pacific historically have been the principal catches, but the cod industry was halted in the mid-1990s due to overfishing. About 75% of the take is exported. The fur industry, once vitally important but no longer dominant in the nation's economy, is centered in Quebec and Ontario.

A major problem for Canada is that large segments of its economy—notably in manufacturing, petroleum, and mining—are controlled by foreign, especially U.S. interests. This deprives the nation of much of the profits of its industries and makes the economy vulnerable to developments outside Canada. This situation is mitigated somewhat by the fact that Canada itself is a large foreign investor. Since the free trade agreement with the United States (effective 1989), and the North American Free Trade Agreement (effective 1994), trade and economic integration between the two countries has increased dramatically.

The United States is by far Canada's leading trade partner, followed by China and Mexico. Machinery and equipment, chemicals, and consumer goods comprise the bulk of imports; crude petroleum and motor vehicles and parts rank high among both the nation's largest imports and exports. Other important exports are industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment, chemicals, plastics, fertilizers, forest products, natural gas, hydroelectric power, and aluminum.

Government

Canada is an independent constitutional monarchy and a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The monarch of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is also the monarch of Canada and is represented in the country by the office of governor-general. The basic constitutional document is the Canada Act of 1982, which replaced the British North America Act of 1867 and gave Canada the right to amend its own constitution. The Canada Act, passed by Great Britain, made possible the Constitution Act, 1982, which was passed in Canada. The document includes a Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which guarantees the rights of women and native peoples and protects other civil liberties.

Power on the federal level is exercised by the Canadian Parliament and the cabinet of ministers, headed by the prime minister. (See the table entitled Canadian Prime Ministers since Confederation for a list of Canada's prime ministers.) The federal government has authority in all matters not specifically reserved to the provincial governments, and may veto any provincial law. The provincial governments have power in the fields of property, civil rights, education, and local government; they may levy only direct taxes. Canada has an independent judiciary; the highest court is the Supreme Court, with nine members.

The Parliament has two houses: the Senate and the House of Commons. There are generally 105 senators, apportioned among the provinces and appointed by the governor-general upon the advice of the prime minister. Senators may serve until age 75; prior to 1965 they served for life. The 338 members of the House of Commons are elected, largely from single-member constituencies. Elections must be held every four years, but the Commons may be dissolved and new elections held earlier if the government loses a confidence vote. There are four main political parties: the Liberal party, the Conservative party (formed in 2003 by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative party), the Bloc Québécois (aligned with the Parti Québécois of Quebec), and the New Democratic party.

History

Early History and French-British Rivalry

Prior to the arrival of Europeans in Canada, the area was inhabited by various peoples who came from Asia via the Bering Strait more than 10,000 years ago. The Vikings landed in Canada c.AD 1000. Their arrival is described in Icelandic sagas and confirmed by archaeological discoveries in Newfoundland. John Cabot, sailing under English auspices, touched the east coast in 1497. In 1534, the Frenchman Jacques Cartier planted a cross on the Gaspé Peninsula. These and many other voyages to the Canadian coast were in search of a northwest passage to Asia. Subsequently, French-English rivalry dominated Canadian history until 1763.

The first permanent European settlement in Canada was founded in 1605 by the sieur de Monts and Samuel de Champlain at Port Royal (now Annapolis Royal, N.S.) in Acadia. A trading post was established in Quebec in 1608. Meanwhile the English, moving to support their claims under Cabot's discoveries, attacked Port Royal (1614) and captured Quebec (1629). However, the French regained Quebec (1632), and through the Company of New France (Company of One Hundred Associates), began to exploit the fur trade and establish new settlements. The French were primarily interested in fur trading. Between 1608 and 1640, fewer than 300 settlers arrived. The sparse French settlements sharply contrasted with the relatively dense English settlements along the Atlantic coast to the south. Under a policy initiated by Champlain, the French supported the Huron in their warfare against the Iroquois; later in the 17th cent., when the Iroquois crushed the Huron, the French colony came near extinction. Exploration, however, continued.

In 1663, the Company of New France was disbanded by the French government, and the colony was placed under the rule of a royal governor, an intendant, and a bishop. The power exercised by these authorities may be seen in the careers of Louis de Buade, comte de Frontenac, Jean Talon, and François Xavier de Laval, the first bishop of Quebec. There was, however, conflict between the rulers, especially over the treatment of the indigenous peoples—the bishop regarding them as potential converts, the governor as means of trade. Meanwhile, both missionaries, such as Jacques Marquette, and traders, such as Pierre Radisson and Médard Chouart des Groseilliers, were extending French knowledge and influence. The greatest of all the empire builders in the west was Robert Cavelier, sieur de La Salle, who descended the Mississippi to its mouth and who envisioned the vast colony in the west that was made a reality by men like Duluth, Bienville, Iberville, and Cadillac.

The French did not go unchallenged. The English had claims on Acadia, and the Hudson's Bay Company in 1670 began to vie for the lucrative fur trade of the West. When the long series of wars between Britain and France broke out in Europe, they were paralleled in North America by the French and Indian Wars. The Peace of Utrecht (1713) gave Britain Acadia, the Hudson Bay area, and Newfoundland. To strengthen their position the French built additional forts in the west (among them Detroit and Niagara). The decisive battle of the entire struggle took place in 1759, when Wolfe defeated Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham, bringing about the fall of Quebec to the British. Montreal fell in 1760. By the Treaty of Paris in 1763, France ceded all its North American possessions east of the Mississippi to Britain, while Louisiana went to Spain.

British North America

The French residents of Quebec strongly resented the Royal Proclamation of 1763, which imposed British institutions on them. Many of its provisions, however, were reversed by the Quebec Act (1774), which granted important concessions to the French and extended Quebec's borders westward and southward to include all the inland territory to the Ohio and the Mississippi. This act infuriated the residents of the Thirteen Colonies (the future United States). In 1775 the American Continental Congress had as its first act not a declaration of independence but the invasion of Canada. In the American Revolution the Canadians remained passively loyal to the British crown, and the effort of the Americans to take Canada failed dismally (see Quebec campaign).

Loyalists from the colonies in revolt (see United Empire Loyalists) fled to Canada and settled in large numbers in Nova Scotia and Quebec. In 1784, the province of New Brunswick was carved out of Nova Scotia for the loyalists. The result, in Quebec, was sharp antagonism between the deeply rooted, Catholic French Canadians and the newly arrived, Protestant British. To deal with the problem the British passed the Constitutional Act (1791). It divided Quebec into Upper Canada (present-day Ontario), predominantly British and Protestant, and Lower Canada (present-day Quebec), predominantly French and Catholic. Each new province had its own legislature and institutions.

This period was also one of further exploration. Alexander Mackenzie made voyages in 1789 to the Arctic Ocean and in 1793 to the Pacific, searching for the Northwest Passage. Mariners also reached the Pacific Northwest, and such men as Capt. James Cook, John Meares, and George Vancouver secured for Britain a firm hold on what is now British Columbia. During the War of 1812, Canadian and British soldiers repulsed several American invasions. The New Brunswick boundary (see Aroostook War) and the boundary W of the Great Lakes was disputed with the United States for a time, but since the War of 1812 the long border has generally been peaceful.

Rivalry between the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company erupted into bloodshed in the Red River Settlement and was resolved by amalgamation of the companies in 1821. The new Hudson's Bay Company then held undisputed sway over Rupert's Land and the Pacific West until U.S. immigrants challenged British possession of Oregon and obtained the present boundary (1846). After 1815 thousands of immigrants came to Canada from Scotland and Ireland.

Movements for political reform arose. In Upper Canada, William Lyon Mackenzie struggled against the Family Compact. In Lower Canada, Louis J. Papineau led the French Canadian Reform party. There were rebellions in both provinces. The British sent Lord Durham as governor-general to study the situation, and his famous report (1839) recommended the union of Upper and Lower Canada under responsible government. The two Canadas were made one province by the Act of Union (1841) and became known as Canada West and Canada East. Responsible government was achieved in 1849 (it had been granted to the Maritime Provinces in 1847), largely as a result of the efforts of Robert Baldwin and Louis H. LaFontaine.

Confederation and Nationhood

The movement for federation of all the Canadian provinces was given impetus in the 1860s by a need for common defense, the desire for some central authority to press railroad construction, and the necessity for a solution to the problem posed by Canada West and Canada East, where the British majority and French minority were in conflict. When the Maritime Provinces, which sought union among themselves, met at the Charlottetown Conference of 1864, delegates from the other provinces of Canada attended. Two more conferences were held—the Quebec Conference later in 1864 and the London Conference in 1866 in England—before the British North America Act in 1867 made federation a fact. (In 1982 this act was renamed the Constitution Act, 1867.)

The four original provinces were Ontario (Canada West), Quebec (Canada East), Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. The new federation acquired the vast possessions of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1869. The Red River Settlement became the province of Manitoba in 1870, and British Columbia voted to joined in 1871. In 1873, Prince Edward Island joined the federation, and Alberta and Saskatchewan were admitted in 1905. Newfoundland (now Newfoundland and Labrador) joined in 1949.

Canada's first prime minister was John A. Macdonald (served 1867–73 and 1878–91), who sponsored the Canadian Pacific Railway. In the west, religious tension and objections to lack of political representation and unfair land-grant and survey laws produced rebellions of Métis, led by Louis Riel in 1869–70 and 1884–85. The Métis were French-speaking Roman Catholics who had considered themselves a new nation combining the traditions and ancestry of Europeans and native peoples.

Under the long administration (1896–1911) of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, rising wheat prices attracted vast numbers of immigrants to the Prairie Provinces. Between 1891 and 1914, more than three million people came to Canada, largely from continental Europe, following the path of the newly constructed continental railway. In the same period, mining operations were begun in the Klondike and the Canadian Shield. Large-scale development of hydroelectric resources helped foster industrialization and urbanization.

Under the premiership of Conservative Robert L. Borden, Canada followed Britain and entered World War I. The struggle over military conscription, however, deepened the cleavage between French Canadians and their fellow citizens. During the depression that began in 1929, the Prairie Provinces were hard hit by droughts that shriveled the wheat fields. Farmers, who had earlier formed huge cooperatives, sought to press their interests through political movements such as Social Credit and the Co-Operative Commonwealth Federation (now the New Democratic party).

World War II to the Present

With W. L. Mackenzie King as prime minister, Canada played a vital role on the Allied side in World War II. Despite economic strain Canada emerged from the war with enhanced prestige and took an active role in the United Nations. Canada joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following the war, uranium, iron, and petroleum resources were exploited; uses of atomic energy were developed; and hydroelectric and thermal plants were built to produce electricity for new and expanded industries.

King was succeeded by Louis St. Laurent, the first French-speaking prime minister. John G. Diefenbaker, a Progressive Conservative, came to power in 1957. The St. Lawrence Seaway was opened in 1959. The Liberals returned to office in 1963 under Lester B. Pearson. After much bitter debate, the Canadian Parliament in 1964 approved a new national flag, with a design of a red maple leaf on a white ground, bordered by two vertical red panels. The new flag symbolized a growing Canadian nationalism that de-emphasized Canada's ties with Great Britain. The Pearson government enacted a comprehensive social security program. The Montreal international exposition, Expo '67, opened in 1967 and was applauded for displaying a degree of taste and interest far superior to that of most such exhibitions.

Pearson was succeeded by Pierre Elliot Trudeau, a Liberal, in 1968. The Trudeau government was faced with the increasingly violent separatist movement active in Quebec in the late 1960s and early 70s. In 1968, Trudeau's government introduced the Official Languages Bill, which encouraged bilingualism in the federal civil service. In elections in Oct., 1972, Trudeau's Liberal party failed to win a majority, but he continued as prime minister, dependent on the small New Democratic party for votes to pass legislation; in July, 1974, the Liberals reestablished a majority, and Trudeau remained prime minister. Except for a brief period (June, 1979–Mar., 1980) when Conservative Joe Clark gained office, Trudeau was prime minister until 1984. Increased government spending and slowed industrial growth were Canada's main problems, in addition to the continuing threat of Quebec separatism.

After Quebec voted (1980) not to leave the Canadian federation, Trudeau began a constitutional debate that culminated with the Canada Act of 1982, which made Canada fully independent from Great Britain by giving it the right to amend its own constitution. Quebec's provincial government, however, did not accept the new constitution.

With the country reeling from the effects of a recession, Trudeau resigned (1984) and was succeeded as head of the Liberal party and prime minister by John Turner. In the elections later that year, Brian Mulroney led the Progressive Conservatives to victory in a landslide. Mulroney's first major accomplishment was the Meech Lake Accord, a set of constitutional reforms proposed by Quebec premier Robert Bourassa that would have brought Quebec into the constitution by guaranteeing its status as a "distinct society." However, aggressive measures by the Quebec government to curtail the use of English, such as forbidding the use of any language other than French on public signs, caused a wave of resentment in Canada's English-speaking population. The accord died on June 22, 1990, when Newfoundland and Manitoba failed to ratify it, leaving Canada in a serious constitutional crisis. In Oct., 1992, Canadian voters rejected a complex package of constitutional changes (the Charlottetown Accord) intended to provide alternatives that would discourage the separatist movement in Quebec.

Canada's new constitution also opened the way for native land claims that have changed the political appearance of N Canada and had effects elsewhere as well. In 1992, as part of the largest native-claim settlement in Canadian history, the Inuit-dominated eastern portion of the Northwest Territories was slated to be separated as the territory of Nunavut, which was completed in 1999. The subsequent years saw the signing of a series of similar self-government agreements with various aboriginal groups to settle additional native claims; none of these agreements, however, established separate province-level territories. In 1998 the federal government issued a formal apology to its indigenous people for 150 years of mistreatment and established a fund for reparations.

The most significant accomplishment of Mulroney's first government was a free-trade agreement with the United States, which was ratified by parliament after Mulroney and the Progressive Conservatives returned to power in 1988 reelection; the agreement came into effect in Jan., 1989. In his second term this pact formed the groundwork for the broader North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), signed in 1992. NAFTA came into effect in Jan., 1994, establishing a free-trade zone that consisted of Mexico, Canada, and the United States.

In 1993, Mulroney resigned and was succeeded by fellow Conservative Kim Campbell, who became (June, 1993) Canada's first woman prime minister.

Widespread anger over recession and high unemployment led to a Progressive Conservative rout in the elections of Oct., 1993, sweeping the Liberals to power and making Jean Chrétien prime minister. The Conservatives were left with only two seats, having lost a total of 151. Two relatively new parties, the Bloc Québécois (a Quebec separatist party) and the Reform party (based in western Canada), won nearly all the remaining parliamentary seats. In Oct., 1995, Quebec voters again rejected independence from Canada in a referendum, but this time the question was only narrowly defeated.

Chrétien's Liberal party held onto 155 seats following the June, 1997, parliamentary elections, and he remained prime minister. The majority of the opposition seats went to the Reform party (60), which in 2000 reconstituted itself as the Canadian Alliance, and the Bloc Québécois (44). In the late 1990s the low Canadian dollar and relatively high unemployment were among the country's chief concerns, but the government made progress in paying down the national debt.

In July, 2000, Chrétien won passage of a bill designed to make it harder for Quebec to secede, by requiring that a clear majority support a clearly worded proposition and that such issues as borders and the seceding province's responsibility for a share of the national debt be resolved by negotiations. In the elections of Nov., 2000, Chrétien led the Liberals to a third consecutive victory at the polls, winning 172 seats in the House of Commons; the Canadian Alliance (66) and Bloc Québécois (38) remained the principal opposition parties. Although the country suffered an economic slowdown in 2001, the government rejected the stimilus of deficit spending, adhering instead to the fiscal discipline established in the late 1990s, and by the end of the year economic conditions had improved. Following the Sept., 2001, terrorist attacks against the United States, a contingent of Canadian forces participated in operations against Al Qaeda and the Taliban in Afghanistan.

In 2002, Chrétien's cabinet was hurt by charges of lax ethical standards, resulting in a shakeup; Finance Minister Paul Martin, a likely challenger to Chrétien's leadership, was also forced out. Increasingly active Liberal opposition to Chrétien's continuation as party leader led him to announce announce that he would not seek a fourth term as prime minister. In the weeks before the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq (Mar., 2003) Canada attempted to negotiate a compromise Security Council resolution; the failure of the council to reach agreement led the Canadian government not to participate in the invasion. Beginning in May, 2003, the country's livestock industry was hurt when other nations banned imports of Canadian beef after an occurrence of "mad cow" disease in Alberta. The situation was not ameliorated later in the year when a cow with the disease was found in the United States and was discovered to have been imported from Canada several years before.

Late in 2003 Liberals elected Paul Martin to succeed Chrétien as party leader and prime minister, and Chrétien resigned in December. Meanwhile, conservatives moved to end the divisions on the right by merging the Canadian Alliance and Progressive Conservative party in the Conservative party of Canada. In the ensuing June, 2004, elections, Martin and the Liberals were hurt by scandals, but they retained sufficient parliamentary seats to form a minority government as voters did not rally to the Conservatives' socially conservative positions.

A scandal originating in a federal advertising sponsorship program begun in the mid-1990s and designed to promote national unity in Quebec increasingly undermined Paul Martin's government in 2005, though he appeared not to have been involved personally. Under Chrétien Quebec advertising firms aligned with the Liberal party received millions of dollars but apparently did little or no work, and some money was funneled illegally to Liberal party coffers. It was unclear whether the former prime minister knew of the scandal, but one of his brothers was implicated in testimony in 2005. The scandal was first uncovered in 2002, and hurt the Liberals in the 2004 elections.

New, detailed revelations about the scandal in 2005 threatened to bring down the government, which narrowly survived a confidence vote in May, 2005. Parliament subsequently passed an appropriations bill and a gay-marriage bill by more comfortable majorities. In Nov., 2005, Martin's government finally collapsed after the New Democrats joined the Conservatives and Bloc Québécois in a no-confidence vote; the vote had been preceded by the release of an investigative report into the advertising sponsorship scandal that called it an elaborate kickback scheme designed to funnel money to individuals and the Liberal party.

The Jan., 2006, elections saw the Conservatives, led by Stephen Harper, win a plurality of the seats in parliament and 36% of the vote, but the results did not indicate a significant rightward shift in Canadian attitudes, as the majority of the vote (and seats) went to left of center parties (the Liberals, the Bloc Québécois, and the New Democrats). Issues concerning the extent of Canadian sovereignty in the Arctic and Canadian control over the Northwest Passage became more prominent in 2006 as Harper's government sharply rejected U.S. assertions that Canada was claiming international waters.

Seeking to strengthen his minority government, Harper called a snap election in 2008, and in the October vote won an increased plurality (with 37.6% of the vote) but failed to secure a parliamentary majority. Two weeks into the new parliamentary session, the opposition agreed to bring down the government over what they denounced as an inadequate economic stimulus plan in the face of a worsening economy, and the Liberals and New Democrats were prepared to form a minority government with Bloc support. However, Harper secured the governor-general's suspension of the session until late January in order to avoid the December confidence vote and buy time to mount a publicity campaign against the opposition plans.

Harper subsequently proposed a significant government stimulus package, and the Liberals supported (Feb., 2009) the budget after the Conservatives agreed to an amendment requiring regular reports on government spending and its effects. In June a Conservative-Liberal agreement to study unemployment insurance reform and to permit a no-confidence vote in September preserved the minority government. Harper survived that vote and another in early October, and in December he again secured the suspension of parliament, this time until Mar., 2010. In Mar., 2011, however, the government lost a confidence vote.

In the May, 2011, elections the Conservatives won a majority of the seats and almost 40% of the vote. The Liberals and Bloc Québécois suffered large losses as the New Democrats emerged as the largest opposition party, with more than a hundred seats. Parliamentary elections in Oct., 2015, brought the Liberals, now led by Justin Trudeau (son of Pierre Trudeau), back to power. Aided by Conservative political scandals and a weaker economy, they won a majority of seats and nearly 40% of the vote; the New Democrats placed third, behind the Conservatives, and lost more than half their seats.

Bibliography

Classic works on early Canada are those of Francis Parkman. See also G. M. Wrong, The Rise and Fall of New France (2 vol., 1928; repr. 1970); D. G. Creighton, The Story of Canada (rev. ed. 1971); R. C. Brown and Ramsay Cook, Canada, 1896–1921: A Nation Transformed (1974); Robert Bothwell et al., Canada Since 1945: Power, Politics, and Provincialism (1981); L. D. McCann, Heartland and Hinterland (2d ed. 1987); R. T. Naylor, Canada in the European Age, 1453–1919 (1988); George Woodcock, A Social History of Canada (1988); H. Crookell, Canadian-American Trade and Investment Under the Free Trade Agreement (1990); R. C. Vipond, Liberty and Community: Canadian Federalism and the Failure of the Constitution (1991); R. K. Weaver, The Collapse of Canada? (1992). See also The Canadian Encyclopedia (4 vol., 1988).

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Canada

Canada

Families in Canada—more so than in Britain, France, or even the Americas—are characterized by enormous diversity, especially regional and ethnic diversity. Canada has historically been a society of immigrants and of regions. First, the Aboriginal, or native people, arrived from Asia about ten thousand years ago. They organized into complex national groups with their own distinct cultures, economic bases, and languages. Norsemen explored but did not settle Canada in the years before 1500. French explorers and colonists arrived in the early seventeenth century and continued to settle throughout the first half of the next. The British began arriving in the early eighteenth century. After skirmishes and a decisive battle between the French and British armies in 1763, the British came to dominate the part of North America that is today Canada. In 1867 Confederation—Canada's founding event—set the groundwork for provincial differentiation (Quebec versus the rest), two official languages (French and English), two privileged religions (Protestantism and Catholicism), and what became known in the late twentieth century as "multiculturalism."

Varied timetables of immigration, economic opportunities, and demographic mixes caused Canada's regions to develop differently from one another. Their lack of similarity was largely due to Canada's enormous size, disparate economic development, and the distances between communities. Unequal educational opportunities and social mobility maintained the ethnic and class distinctions that made Canada what the sociologist John Porter came to call a "vertical mosaic."

Today, with more postsecondary education, travel, and mass communication, these ethnic and regional variations have begun to shrink. In this entry we will emphasize similarities and general tendencies. The theme of diversity remains important, though, as it is essential to understanding Canadian family life.


Defining Families

Canadians generally derive a great deal of pleasure from their families. In a 1994 Angus Reid opinion poll, two-thirds of Canadians strongly agreed with the statement that their families are "the greatest joy in their lives." Yet the meaning of family varies from one person to the next. Statistics Canada, the branch of the Canadian government responsible for collecting and analyzing national data, defines the family as

a now-married couple (with or without never-married sons and/or daughters of either or both spouses), a couple living common-law (with or without never-married sons and/or daughters of either or both partners), or a lone parent of any marital status, with at least one never-married son or daughter living in the same dwelling. (Statistics Canada, 1999, p. 119)

They call this family form the census family and it is the basic unit upon which the agency collects its family data. Unless otherwise noted, the statistics discussed throughout this article will refer to this family arrangement.

Although a majority of Canadians live in census families—83 percent in 1996—a significant proportion do not (Gee 2000). In 1996 just under a quarter (24.1%) of households were made up of a single person, and 4 percent consisted of people who were either unrelated, or related but did not meet the census definition of a family. The agency also overlooks relations of affection and support that occur outside the immediate household (e.g. relations between absent parents and their children, and between elderly parents living independently from their adult children). Thus, the fairly narrow definition held by Statistics Canada fails to portray accurately the variety of Canadian family and household forms.


Trends in Marriage

More than one hundred years ago, settlers from northern and western Europe brought norms that dictated that young people establish independent homes upon marriage (Gee 1982). As a result, many people did not marry, or they married late in life because they did not have the financial resources to support a household. In 1921 the average age of marriage for men was twenty-eight years and for women it was just under twenty-five. In some ethnic groups—for example, those descended from Highland Scots—the average age of marriage was even higher.

Historically, marriage rates in Canada have fluctuated with the state of the country's economy. In the 1930s, while Canada experienced the Great Depression, many couples refrained from marrying due to economic uncertainty and high unemployment. Marriage rates decreased from 7.5 marriages per 1,000 people in 1928 to 5.9 in 1932 (Milan 2000). It was not until World War II that Canadians began to marry again in large numbers. New employment opportunities stimulated the increased rate of matrimony, as did the possibility of conscription. Single men were being called to wartime service, and many couples tried to prevent this through marriage. As a result, in 1942 there were almost eleven marriages per 1,000 people—nearly twice the marriage rate of a decade earlier. The rate declined while the men were at war, but it returned to its 1942 level when couples were reunited in 1946.

By the late 1940s marriage rates began to drop again and continued to decline until the 1970s, when children of the postwar marriages, called the baby boom generation, were themselves ready to marry. However, in the 1980s marriage rates returned to a downward trend, and in 1998 they reached an unprecedented low of five marriages per 1,000 people. Fewer Canadians were choosing to marry than ever before, although the economy was not a major influence in this decline.

Typically, nations with low marriage rates are late marrying populations, so along with the fluctuations in the incidence of marriage rates came a variation in the average age of first marriage. During the early twentieth century, couples married late in life. This changed in the years following World War II, as marriage rates increased and the average age at first marriage declined steadily. By 1962 the average age had dropped to 25.2 years for men and 22.5 for women. The increased affluence following World War II contributed to lowering the age at first marriage because couples could then afford to marry earlier.

Since the late 1960s, the age at first marriage has risen again. In 1997, for example, first-time brides were, on average, 27.4 years old and grooms were 29.5 year old (The Vanier Institute 2000). This increase has been associated with, among other factors, greater acceptance of cohabitation without marriage, as well as more education and economic independence for women. So paradoxically, though current figures are similar to those earlier in the century, the reasons behind them are quite different.


Cohabitation versus Marriage

Most Canadian families, 74 percent, were based in married couple unions in 1996. However, membership in this group had declined since 1986, when 80 percent of all couples were legally married. The decreased rate of marriage has been associated with a corresponding increase in common-law unions. Statistics Canada defines a common-law couple as "two persons of opposite sex who are not legally married to each other, but live together as husband and wife in the same dwelling." Although historically Canadians frowned on couples who lived together before marriage, more recently the stigma against nonmarital cohabitation has diminished, if not disappeared. By the end of the millennium, the common-law union was the fastest-growing family category. In 1996 one in seven couples in Canada was living common law, compared with one in nine in 1991. Nonmarital cohabitation was most prevalent in the province of Quebec, where one in four couples live common-law and 43 percent of all such relationships in Canada occurred (Bélanger et al. 2001).

For some Canadians, nonmarital cohabitation is a temporary state that precedes a legal marriage, but for others it is a permanent substitute for marriage. There are important differences between legal marriage and cohabitation, despite their perceived interchangeability in some quarters (Baker 2001). Canadian society provides less protection for the property rights of partners in common-law relationships than those of legally married partners. Common-law relationships are typically shorter, produce fewer children, and have a greater tendency towards spousal abuse. They are also particularly vulnerable to changes in economic circumstances (Wu and Pollard 2000). Finally, cohabiting relationships and post-cohabiting marriages are at greater risk of dissolution than are marriages not preceded by cohabitation. The last factor is likely due to what researchers call adverse selectivity. That is, these relationships attract people who are more willing to dissolve unsatisfactory relationships, rather than remain in them unhappily.

However, marriage is not necessarily better than cohabitation. Once other factors (including adverse selectivity) are controlled, physical and mental health differences between cohabiters and the currently married disappear, and both categories are better off than the divorced, separated, and single/never married.


Divorce

At the beginning of the twentieth century, divorce was rare in Canada. In 1900 a mere eleven divorces were registered. People widely disapproved of divorce, and the law restricted it. Until 1968, adultery was the only grounds for divorce. Families did dissolve during this period: Some spouses canceled their spousal and parental responsibilities by simply abandoning their families. However, they remained married under law, and this prevented remarriage and the legal establishment of a new family.

The introduction of the Divorce Act in 1968 led to a massive change in family behaviors. This law allowed judges to grant divorces on the grounds of "marriage-breakdown," after a couple had been separated for at least three years. Between 1968 and 1970, the number of divorces nearly doubled. A subsequent amendment to the Divorce Act in 1986 reduced the minimum period of separation to one year. Again, this modification resulted in a huge increase in divorce, with the number peaking at 90,900 divorces in 1987 (Oderkirk 1994).

Between 1965 and 1988, Canada's divorce rate went from being one of the lowest among industrialized nations to being one of the highest, surpassing even the divorce rates in progressive countries such as France and Sweden. In 1991, once divorce rates had leveled off, there were still 2.8 divorces per 1,000 people in Canada, compared with 1.9 in France and 2.5 in Sweden (in 1992). However, the American divorce rate surpassed that of Canada. In 1992 there were 4.8 divorces per 1,000 people in the United States—nearly twice the Canadian rate (Dumas 1994).


Variations on the Dominant Pattern

Immigrant families. In the years following Confederation, wave upon wave of immigrants arrived in Canada, often "imported" into particular regions to carry out specific economic tasks: from China to construct the railroad, from Eastern Europe to settle the prairie wheatlands, from Southern Europe to build the central cities. Yet government legislation at the time effectively prevented the development of certain ethnic communities, especially among Asian and black immigrants (Das Gupta 2000). For instance, in the early twentieth century, Chinese immigrants had to pay a "head tax" to gain entrance to Canada. Since most men could not afford to bring their wife and children into the country, this law systematically prevented the creation of Chinese Canadian families.

Before the mid-twentieth century, Canadian immigration policy favored European settlement in hopes of maintaining a predominantly Anglo-Saxon society (Richard 1991). Immigration from non-European countries was severely restricted. This changed as popular opinion in the early 1960s turned against restrictions on nonwhite immigration. In 1968 a new immigration policy was set up that based admission eligibility not on ethnicity or race, but on broader criteria such as education and training, skills, personal attributes (such as adaptability, motivation, and initiative), demand for the applicant's occupation in Canada, arranged employment, and knowledge of English or French. In the decades that followed, the numbers of British and American immigrants to Canada decreased, and immigration from Asian countries increased substantially.

Many immigrants came from cultures in which men subordinate women, and their elders subordinate young people. Migration creates profound changes in the relationship between men and women, as well as between generations; it disrupts traditional expectations and supports the possibility of individuation (Shahidian 1999).

Women's experience of cultural displacement through immigration may be more positive than that of men because women may be less inclined to resist the women-friendlier dominant culture. For example, more Iranian men retained the socially conservative nature of their patriarchal home culture after immigration than did Iranian women, and they also experienced more problems in adjusting to Western social and economic trends, and to changes in gender roles that augment women's notions of self and female sexuality (Moghissi and Goodman 1999). On the other hand, institutional racism may counterbalance women's positive experiences (Moghissi 1999).

Migration can lead to generational conflict as young people attempt to embrace North American society (Tirone and Pedlar 2000). Young immigrants, or the children of immigrants, may have problems adjusting to school life, have strained family relationships, and experience issues of ethnic identity and minority status. Often community organizations help young people—especially women—develop an awareness of their condition, a new identity, and a measure of control over their lives (Ralston 1998).

In the new cultural environment, families become more nuclear, with the result that extended families loosen their grip, and a cultural distance builds up between members of the diaspora and members of the homeland (Chan and Dorais 1998). Some communities, such as the Asian Indians in Toronto, modify traditional patterns of arranged marriage to give the young more freedom while at the same time enforcing traditional group expectations.

The post-1960s amendments to the Immigration Act have led to greater ethnic diversity in Canada, especially among nonwhite groups. While one might expect this to have increased inmarriage (or endogamy) among newly enlarged minority groups, paradoxically, the opposite has occurred. The postwar "merit-point system" created a stream of affluent and highly educated new entrants. People with higher levels of education are more exogamous: that is, they show a greater tendency to marry outside their group (Richard 1991). It is therefore not surprising that ethnic exogamy has been increasing.

However, Canadians have always practiced ethnic intermarriage, and this trend has been on the rise since the time of Confederation. In 1991 Canada-born husbands and wives were more exogamous than their foreign-born counterparts, and higher proportions of males married out of their ethnic group than females. Groups who have had high rates of immigration—such as Asian Indians and Chinese—showed the lowest rates of exogamy. Canadians of French and English descent also have low levels of ethnic out-marriage, probably because their large numbers in the Canadian population make it easier to find a spouse of the same ethnic group. Overall, members of the British and French "charter groups" are a popular choice of mate. Both men and women tend to marry members of these groups, if they do not marry people of their own ethnic background (Kalbach 2000).


Same-sex unions. Although fewer social barriers prevent marriage between people of different ethnic groups, the same is not true for same-sex partners. Although Canadians are more liberal in their views on homosexuality than Americans or Mexicans (Tepperman and Curtis 2002)—religious ideas continue to fuel discrimination against homosexuals and their right to form families. In Canada, as in most nations, gays and lesbians are unable to legally marry because marriage continues to be defined as a union between a man and a woman. Gays and lesbians are often portrayed as being outside of and excluded from family social relations. In reality, many are deeply embedded in familial structures as partners, parents, children, siblings, aunts, uncles, and grandchildren.

At the start of the twenty-first century, same-sex couples had gained some of the recognition and benefits automatically granted to heterosexual couples. In February 1998 the province of British Columbia became the first jurisdiction in North America to redefine the term "spouse" in its Family Relations Act to include same-sex couples. The amendment gave gay and lesbian partners the same privileges and obligations held by those in heterosexual unions, including: custody of children, access, and child support (O'Brian and Goldberg 2000). In 1999 and 2000 Quebec, Ontario, and the federal government adopted omnibus bills granting same-sex common-law spouses almost all the same rights as heterosexual couples under the tax system, social security programs, and family law (Rose 2000). Additionally, in 2001 Statistics Canada included questions about same-sex unions for the first time in the national census.

These changes showed the growing acceptance of gay and lesbian couples in Canadian society. Public opinion polls confirmed that Canadians are becoming more accepting of same-sex unions. In a 2001 Leger Marketing poll, 65.4 percent of those surveyed agreed that Canada should grant same-sex couples the right to legally marry and 75.7 percent felt that Canada should give homosexuals the same rights as heterosexuals.

However, these tolerant attitudes do not extend to the issue of childcare. For example, only 53.1 percent of those surveyed agreed that Canada should permit homosexuals to adopt children. This disapproval of adoption by gays and lesbians likely reflects the belief that homosexual parenting will have a harmful influence on the child's sexual development. By contrast, research on the topic shows that children raised by gays and lesbians exhibit neither a greater tendency toward homosexuality nor significant differences in gender identity or gender behaviors than children raised by heterosexual parents (O'Brien and Goldberg 2000).


Families with Children

The addition of a child has an enormous impact on any family. Family dynamics and relations are often altered to accommodate the new member. Typically, a woman's dependence on her partner's earnings, and thereby her vulnerability within the family, increases with the presence of young children and relative to the number of children. This pattern is similar—indeed, deeply entrenched— across Western industrial countries, and continues even in the face of active social policies to minimize their effects (Bianchi, Casper, and Peltola 1999). From this standpoint, fertility and fertility decline play important roles in changing gender relations and family life, in Canada and elsewhere.

Fertility Decline

The average size of the Canadian family has dropped since the 1970s. In 1971 families had an average of 3.7 persons; since 1986, the average has remained constant at 3.1 persons. Contemporary Canadian families are similar in size to those in the United States, where an average of 3.2 persons made up the American family in 2000 (Fields and Casper 2000). These small family sizes are mainly a result of lower fertility and reduced childbearing, as showed by lower birth rates.

In fact, birth rates have been dropping in most industrialized countries since the latter part of the nineteenth century. These rates have fluctuated slightly over that period. For instance, after World War II (roughly 1946–1966), both Canada and the United States experienced high birth rates in what people refer to as the postwar baby boom. During this boom, the total fertility rate (TFR)—the average number of children a woman is likely to bear in her lifetime—peaked at 3.94 children in 1959, and actual birth rates peaked in 1957 (Péron et al. 1999).

The Canadian TFR dropped dramatically from its height in the 1960s, and fertility remained fairly stable through the mid-1970s to the end of the millennium. After 1976, the rate fluctuated between 1.8 and 1.6, although 1998 saw a slight drop in TFR to 1.55 births (Bélanger et al. 2001). These rates have varied across the country, illustrating Canada's regional and ethnic diversity. In 1998 Newfoundland had the lowest fertility rate in Canada, at 1.2 births per woman. In the same year Nunavut, a region with a high proportion of Aboriginal peoples, had a fertility rate of three births per woman.

Canadian women give birth to more children than do women in many European countries. This is largely because of high rates of immigration from high-fertility countries. Still, the Canadian fertility rate is below that of the United States, where in 1997 American women were estimated to bear
2.06 children in their lifetimes (Bélanger 1999).

Not only are Canadian couples having fewer children than in the past; they are also having children later in life. Many Canadian women now wait until they are in their late twenties or early thirties before having their first child. The mother's age at childbirth, which varies by region and ethnicity, also varies according to social and economic status. Women who have children early typically have less education and fewer job skills (therefore, lower job possibilities and less income potential). Young mothers are also more likely to be unmarried, so many must deal with the economic difficulties associated with single parenthood.


Single-Parent Families

Among those Canadian marriages that dissolved in 1995, child custody was a concern in approximately 70 percent of these cases. In more than two-thirds of these divorces, the courts granted mothers sole custody of their offspring. Thus, many women in Canada who experienced divorce also became single parents.

Of the 1.1 million single parents enumerated in 1996, 58 percent were separated or divorced, 22 percent were single or never married, and 20 percent were widows. The vast majority, 83 percent, were women (The Vanier Institute 2000). This gender difference is significant because female-headed single-parent families are more likely to suffer from lower incomes—indeed, poverty—than male-headed single-parent families. In 1998 single-parent families headed by women made up the largest fraction of all low-income families. Women-headed families were more than twice as likely as male-headed families to be living in poverty (42% versus 17.5%).

The number of Canadian single-parent families increased dramatically since the 1970s: almost 250 percent between 1971 and 1996, compared with an overall increase of only 55 percent in the total number of Canadian families. These rates mark a return to proportions seen in the early decades of the twentieth century. In 1931, for example, 13.6 percent of Canadian families were headed by one parent; this is compared to 15 percent in 1996. However, the reasons for single parenthood have changed during this century. Whereas in the first half of the twentieth century, most single-parent households were a result of the death of a spouse, in the second half of the century they were mainly the result of separation, divorce, or nonmarriage (Oderkirk and Lochhead 1992).

Families over the Life Course

Canada's population is aging. This results from a combination of lowered fertility and general increases in life expectancy among both men and women. In 1999 12.4 percent of the Canadian population was sixty-five years of age or older (Bélanger et al. 2001). By the year 2001, it was projected that this portion will have risen to 14 percent, and with continued declines in fertility, this fraction will continue rising. These are trends common to other Western societies, especially those throughout Europe.

With the graying of the population, concerns about the costs of treating an aging population have increased. Recently, there has been a trend to move elder care outside institutional settings, and it has increasingly become the responsibility of informal caregivers, most frequently female family members. Health care services that were previously offered in institutional settings are now being performed in community health centers, day clinics, and people's own homes. This has created a difficult situation for elderly people, especially in rural Canada. Alongside limited formal health care supports in these areas, depopulation, aging communities, smaller family sizes, limited community resources, and volunteer burnout have resulted in fewer informal community supports (Blakley 1999).

This, in turn, led to widespread unease that the middle-aged children of elderly parents will be squeezed or sandwiched by the multiple roles and obligations associated with dependent children, elderly parents, and work obligations (McDaniel 2001). Elder care involvement can significantly reduce the amount of time available for other family relationships, as well as for work and leisure; yet research has shown that, so far, this has not occurred among the vast majority of middle-aged Canadians. Few Canadians provide frequent help to their elderly parents (Rosenthal et al. 1996). In fact, until parents reach the age of seventy-five, the flow of support favors the children: they receive more help from parents than they give to them.

The majority of Canadian seniors continue to live on their own well into advanced age, and most of the care they receive comes not from their children, but from other members of the same generation, usually a spouse. Friends and neighbors may, however, provide essential help when seniors live alone (Martel and Legare 2000).

Ethnicity influences the amount of assistance provided to older relatives. Asians, East Indians, and southern Europeans provide higher levels of help than British respondents; for example Oya koh koh (filial obligation in Japanese) has a significant effect on nisei (second generation) and sansei (third generation) children's provision of emotional support to older parents in British Columbia (Kobayashi 2000). However, structural factors (like living arrangement and age) rather than cultural factors (like filial obligation) are stronger predictors of assistance and involvement (Keefe, Rosenthal, and Beland 2000). Even among nisei and sansei children, financial and service support are more affected by such material conditions as socioeconomic status, child's availability, and parent's health (Kobayashi 2000.)


Conclusion

This chapter has provided an illustration of the diversity of Canadian families over time and space. We have seen that government policies sometimes shape Canadian families, and sometimes people form their families despite such policies. Families grow out of past traditions and new perspectives. Relations within and between families will often differ, depending on gender, race, ethnicity, economic situation, and sexual orientation.

Changes in Canadian families since the mid-1970s include fewer children, more working mothers, more divorces, and more people cohabitating. Exogamy has increased even among traditional endogamous people such as Jewish Canadians. In many respects, Canadian families are similar to families in other Western societies, such as the United Kingdom, France, and the United States. Households have shrunk throughout the West. Marriages are expressive and companionate, and though they may have an instrumental component, they are not formed for instrumental reasons alone. Women will often leave marriages that do not provide what they require. Family members, generally, are mobile and often distant. Overall, people's lives are more individualized: more fluid, varied, and idiosyncratic (see Jones, Marsden, and Tepperman 1992).

Enormous diversity has always characterized families in Canada, although the nature of this diversity has changed over the years. Canada has historically been a society of immigrants and a society of regions. The new immigration policy has increased the ethnic mélange of the Canadian population and in so doing dramatically shifted the variety of Canadian families. It also increased exogamy and mixing, leading to the creation of new, blended cultures, in an already multicultural population.

See also:Canada First Nations Families; French Canadian Families; United States


Bibliography

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tracy matsuo lorne tepperman

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"Canada." International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family. 2003. Encyclopedia.com. 1 Oct. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Canada

Canada

Official name : Canada

Area: 9,976,185 square kilometers (3,851,809 square miles)

Highest point on mainland: Mount Logan (5,959 meters/19,551 feet)

Lowest point on land: Sea level

Hemispheres: Northern and Western

Time zone: Newfoundland: 8:30 a.m. = noon GMT; New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and eastern Quebec: 8 a.m. = noon GMT; Ontario east of 90° and western Quebec: 7 a.m. = noon GMT; western Ontario and Manitoba: 6 a.m. = noon GMT; Alberta and Saskatchewan: 5 a.m. = noon GMT; British Columbia and Yukon Territory: 4 a.m. = noon GMT

Longest distances: 5,187 kilometers (3,223 miles) from east to west; 4,627 kilometers (2,875 miles) from north to south

Land boundaries: 8,893 kilometers (5,526 miles) total boundary length; United States (mainland), 6,416 kilometers (3,987 miles); the state of Alaska, 2,477 kilometers (1,539 miles)

Coastline: 243,791 kilometers (151,485 miles)

Territorial sea limits: 22 kilometers (12 nautical miles)

1 LOCATION AND SIZE

Canada is located on the northern portion of the North American continent, north of the mainland of the United States. Waters bordering the country include the North Atlantic Ocean to the east, the North Pacific Ocean to the west, and the Arctic Ocean to the north. With a total area of about 9,976,185 square kilometers (3,851,809 square miles), it is the largest country in the Western Hemisphere and the second-largest in the world, exceeded only by Russia. Canada's size is about the same as that of the continent of Europe. Canada is divided into ten provinces and three territories.

2 TERRITORIES AND DEPENDENCIES

Canada has three territories: Yukon Territory, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut Territory. These lands are all located in the northwestern, tundra regions of Canada, and each of them has a relatively small population in comparison to the other provinces. The territories are primarily settled by native tribes; these indigenous peoples have obtained a certain level of self-government for each particular territory.

The Yukon Territory (pop. 31,070 as of 1999) was originally occupied by the Athapaskan tribe, which still has six distinct groups of peoples residing in the territory. In the Northwest Territories (pop. 39,672 as of 1996), about 28 percent of the population is descended from the Dene tribe. Other native groups include the Inuvialuit and the Métis.

The Nunavut Territory (pop. 27,700 as of 2000) was separated from the Northwest Territories in 1999. It is now the largest political subdivision in the country, covering 18 percent of the total land areaalso the largest native land-claim settlement in the history of the country. About 84 percent of the residents claim ancestry from native tribes;the largest of these Nunavut tribes is the Inuit (83 percent), formerly known as the Eskimos (a derogatory term meaning "eaters of raw meat"). The remainder of the native population in Nunavut Territory is descended from the Dene and Métis tribes.

Each territory has only one senator and one representative in the national parliament, many fewer legislators than those representing the other provinces.

3 CLIMATE

Canada's continental climate is sub-arctic to arctic in the north, while near the U.S. border a narrow strip has a temperate climate with cold winters. The east and west coasts are maritime and more temperate. The north Canadian coast is permanently icebound, except for Hudson Bay, which is frozen for only nine months of the year. Canada's greatest temperature variation is found in the Northwest Territories, where at Fort Good Hope temperatures range from -31°C (-24°F) in January to 16°C (61°F) in July.

Temperatures on the west coast of Canada range from about 4°C (39°F) in January to 16°C (61°F) in July. On the Atlantic coast, the winter temperatures are warmer than those of the interior, but the summer temperatures are lower. Much of the southern interior of Canada has high summer temperatures and long, cold winters. Average temperature ranges in Ottawa are -15° to -6°C (5° to 21° F) in January and 15° to 26°C (59° to 79°F) in July.

The west coast of the country and some inland valleys have mild winters and mild summers with rainfall occurring throughout the year. The west coast receives between 150 centimeters and 300 centimeters (60 and 120 inches) of rain annually while the maritime provinces receive 115 to 150 centimeters (45 to 60 inches) annually. The driest area is the central prairie, where fewer than 50 centimeters (20 inches) of rain fall each year. The region to the east of Winnipeg is considerably wetter than the western prairie, receiving 50 to 100 centimeters (20 to 40 inches) of rainfall yearly.

4 TOPOGRAPHIC REGIONS

Topographically, Canada is divided into the Atlantic provinces, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands, the Canadian Shield, the Interior Plains, the Western Cordillera, and the Northwest Territories (including the political division of the Nunavut Territory). The Territories cover the region east of the Western Cordillera and north of the Interior Plains and the Canadian Shield. Within this large area, there are two distinct sub-regions: the sub-arctic Mackenzie River Valley to the west, and the arctic area of the islands and north-central mainland.

The Canadian Shield is surrounded by a series of lowlands: the Atlantic region and the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands to the east, the Interior Plains to the west, and the Arctic Lowlands to the north. The Atlantic provinces have rugged, indented coasts. The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands constitute the heartland of the country's population. This region has the largest area of level land easily accessible by water from the east.

Canada is located on the North American Tectonic Plate.

Because much of Canada has low population density (averaging just three people per square kilometer, or eight people per square mile), many species of wildlife thrive in large expanses of native habitat. The habitat of the northern Arctic region supports populations of Arctic fox, wolf, Arctic hare, ptarmigan, ookpik (a species of owl), musk ox, polar bear, seal, and caribou. The Rocky Mountain region supports species of bear (brown, black, and grizzly), cougar, elk, deer, moose, bighorn sheep, mountain goat, and coyote. The vast plains region supports coyote, deer, and hawk, among others. The ocean waters surrounding Canada support species of whale, and the country's many lakes support trout, salmon, and pike.

5 OCEANS AND SEAS

Seacoast and Undersea Features

Canada borders three oceans: the Pacific on the west, the Arctic to the north, and the Atlantic on the east. The Beaufort Sea in the Arctic Ocean lies off the northwest border of the country, near the border shared with Alaska.

The Arctic Archipelago lies on a submerged plateau of the Arctic Ocean, with a floor that varies from flat to gently undulating. From the Alaskan border eastward to the mouth of the Mackenzie River, the continental shelf is shallow and continuous, with its outer edge at a depth of 64 meters (210 feet) at about 74 kilometers (46 miles) from the shore. The underwater Mackenzie Trough (formerly known as the Herschel Sea Canyon) is located near the western edge of the Mackenzie River Delta. The submerged portion of the Mackenzie Delta forms a pock-marked undersea plain, most of it less than 55 meters (180 feet) deep. A deeply submerged continental shelf runs along the entire western coast of the Arctic Archipelago, from Banks Island to Greenland.

Along the Atlantic coast, the submerged continental shelf has great width and diversity. From the coast of Nova Scotia, its width varies from 111 to 185 kilometers (69 to 115 miles), from Newfoundland 185 to 518 kilometers (115 to 322 miles) at the entrance of Hudson Strait, and northward from there it merges with the submerged shelf of the Arctic Ocean. The outer edge varies in depth from 189 to 3,110 meters (620 to 10,201 feet). The overall gradient is slight, but the shelf is studded with shoals, ridges, and banks.

The Pacific coast is strikingly different and is characterized by bold, abrupt reliefa repetition of the mountainous landscape. From the islet-strewn coast, the continental shelf extends from 93 to 185 kilometers (58 to 115 miles), except on the western slopes of Vancouver Island and the Queen Charlotte Islands, where the seafloor drops rapidly.

Sea Inlets and Straits

Amundsen Gulf lies just east of the Beaufort Sea and separates Banks Islands from the mainland. A series of gulfs, straits, and channels surround the islands of the Arctic Archipelago. These include the Viscount Melville Sound, M'Clintock Channel, Queen Maud Gulf, the Gulf of Boothia, Lancaster Sound, Parry Channel, M'Clure Strait, Norwegian Bay, Jones Sound, and Smith Sound. These waters of the Arctic are locked in ice most of the year.

Baffin Bay, in the north, separates Baffin Island from Greenland, opening to the Davis Strait and then to the Labrador Sea, which lies off the southeastern tip of Greenland. Turning south around Newfoundland, the easternmost point of the North American continent, the Cabot Strait separates Newfoundland and Nova Scotia and provides a channel to the Atlantic for the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The Hudson Bay is a shallow inland sea which is 822,325 square kilometers (317,417 square miles) in area, having an average depth of 128 meters (422 feet). Hudson Bay, along with its southern arm James Bay and its northern arm Foxe Basin, connects to the Labrador Sea and the Atlantic Ocean through the Evans Strait and the Hudson Strait. The Hudson Strait, which also separates Baffin Island from the continental coast, is 796 kilometers (495 miles) long and from 69 to 222 kilometers (43 to 138 miles) wide.

On the west coast of Canada, fronting the North Pacific, is a labyrinth of straits and sounds extending from Vancouver Island in the south and winding through the Alexander Archipelago in the north. These waters include the relatively shallow Queen Charlotte Sound as well as two straits: Hecate Strait and the Strait of Georgia.

Islands and Archipelagos

Canada has more than fifty-two thousand islands, with all but a few hundred of them considered "minor" in size, defined as less than 129 square kilometers (49.81 square miles) in area. The largest islands are those in the Arctic Archipelago, extending from James Bay to Ellesmere Island. Within the Arctic Archipelago, Baffin Island is larger than 500,000 square kilometers (193,050 square miles), Victoria Island contains 217,000 square kilometers (83,783 square miles), and Banks Island covers some 70,000 square kilometers (27,027 square miles).

The Queen Elizabeth Archipelago surrounding the north magnetic pole has thirty-five islands, each one larger than 129 square kilometers (49.81 square miles) in size. Elles-mere, the northernmost of Canada's islands, is the largest of the Elizabeth group, covering more than 196,000 square kilometers (75,675 square miles).

DID YOU KNOW?

Visitors to Gros Morne National Park in Newfoundland can see plate tectonics in action. Geologists believe that, at least six hundred million years ago, North America and Europe were a single landmass. As the two continents pulled apart, magma from deep inside Earth oozed up between them. This solidified magma, as well as fossils preserved in the sedimentary rock, is on display at Gros Morne, which also contains some of eastern Canada's most dramatic scenery.

The largest islands on the western coast are Vancouver Island (31,285 square kilometers/ 12,079 square miles) and the Queen Charlotte Islands. Large islands on the eastern coast include: Newfoundland (108,860 square kilometers/42,030 square miles), Prince Edward

Name Area Province
Lake Superior 82,367 square kilometers (31,802 square miles) Ontario (shared with U.S.)
Lake Huron 59,565 square kilometers (23,000 square miles) Ontario (shared with U.S.)
Great Bear Lake 31,328 square kilometers (12,095 square miles) Northwest Territories
Great Slave Lake 28,568 square kilometers (11,030 square miles) Northwest Territories
Lake Erie 25,655 square kilometers (9,910 square miles) Ontario (shared with U.S.)
Lake Winnipeg 23,760 square kilometers (9,174 square miles) Manitoba
Lake Ontario 19,009 square kilometers (7,340 square miles) Ontario (shared with U.S.)
Lake Athabasca 7,850 square kilometers (3,030 square miles) Saskatchewan
Reindeer Lake 5,660 square kilometers (2,185 square miles) Saskatchewan
Nettiling Lake 5,066 square kilometers (1,956 square miles) Nunavut Territory

Island (5,620 square kilometers/2,170 square miles), Cape Breton Island (10,311 square kilometers/3,981 square miles), Grand Manan and Campobello Islands in New Brunswick, and Anticosti Island and the Ile de la Madeleine of Quebec. Manitoulin Island in Lake Huron is the world's largest island located within a freshwater lake; its land mass covers some 2,765 square kilometers (1,068 square miles).

Coastal Features

Canada's coastlines of nearly 244,000 kilometers (151,647 miles), including its mainland and offshore islands, are among the largest of any country in the world.

6 INLAND LAKES

Canada has 31,752 lakes; more than a third of these are situated in the northern half of the country, in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut Territory. Lakes and rivers cover 7.6 percent of Canada's total area; consequently, surface water is the source of 90 percent of the fresh water used by residents. Indeed, Canada's lakes play a critical role in the country's ecosystem as natural regulators of river flow, smoothing out excess runoff during flooding and sustaining the waterways during dry seasons.

Thirty-six percent of the Great Lakes, the largest freshwater lakes in the world, are situated in Canada. Of the five Great Lakes, only Lake Michigan is completely outside of Canadian borders. Lake Superior, Canada's largest lake in terms of volume (and shared with the United States), has a surface area of 82,367 square kilometers (31,802 square miles) and is the world's largest freshwater lake. Lake Nipigon, in eastern Canada near Lake Superior, is famous for its towering cliffs and its greenish-black sand beaches.

In Canada's northern provinces lie two significant lakes. The Great Slave Lake, in the Northwest Territories, is the deepest and fourth-largest of Canada's lakes, reaching a depth of 614 meters (2,014 feet). Also in this region is the Great Bear Lake, located in a largely uninhabited part of northwestern Canada. It is third in size, but it is the largest lake wholly within Canada.

In the northeast, the Nunavut Territory contains two more notable lakes. Nettiling Lake, the country's tenth-largest, receives runoff from the slightly smaller Amadjuak Lake, which in turn helps to drain Baffin Island into Foxe Basin. Nettiling Lake is frozen most of the year. Far to the north, on Ellesmere Island, is Lake Hazen (540 square kilometers/210 square miles), the largest lake in the world to lie completely north of the Arctic Circle. This lake helps function as a "thermal oasis," catching the sun's energy and heating the surrounding land to moderate temperatures that are unusual at such an altitude. The lake itself, however, almost never thaws.

In the eastern coastal regions, the important lakes are Smallwood Reservoir (an artificial lake which covers 6,460 square kilometers/2,500 square miles) and Lake Melville (3,000 square kilometers/1,160 square miles). Churchill River connects Lake Melville to Smallwood Reservoir. Lake Melville is a large coastal lake that is linked to the Atlantic Ocean by Hamilton Inlet.

Canada's southern central and western regions include the rest of the country's largest lakes. Lake Winnipeg, in the province of Manitoba, is the country's sixth-largest lake. Not far to the northwest is Reindeer Lake. Farther northwest, on the way to the Great Slave Lake, is Lake Athabasca, famous for its plentiful trout. One lucky Canadian, fishing at this lake in 1961 with a gillnet, caught one of the world's largest lake trout: a 46-kilogram (102-pound) fish.

7 RIVERS AND WATERFALLS

Canada's rivers drain into five major ocean outlets: the Pacific, Arctic, and Atlantic Oceans; Hudson Bay; and the Gulf of Mexico. The Yukon and Mackenzie Rivers in the west, the North Saskatchewan, South Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan, Peace, and Athabasca Rivers in central Canada, and the Ottawa and St. Lawrence Rivers in the east comprise Canada's main rivers.

The Central Canadian Shield is drained by the Nelson-Saskatchewan, Churchill, Severn, and Albany Rivers, all of which flow into Hudson Bay. The 4,290-kilometer-long (2,635-mile-long) Mackenzie River is the country's longest river. It is fed by several tributaries and by three large lakes (Great Bear Lake, Great Slave Lake, and Lake Athabasca), and it drains into the Arctic Ocean. The Columbia, Fraser, and Yukon Rivers are the principal drainage systems of western Canada. The Great Lakes drain into the broad St. Lawrence River, which flows into the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

In the prairies, groundwater is the principal source of water for streams during the frequent dry weather periods. In hot summer months, melting glaciers may contribute up to 25 percent of the flow of the Saskatchewan and Athabasca Rivers.

8 DESERTS

There are no desert regions in Canada.

9 FLAT AND ROLLING TERRAIN

Between the Western Cordillera and the Canadian Shield is the region broadly known as the West, including the Manitoba and Mackenzie Lowlands. The Manitoba Lowland (leading to the Saskatchewan and Alberta Plains) is one of only a few parts of Canada that is as flat as a tabletop. The Manitoba Escarpment forms the boundary between the Manitoba Lowland and the Saskatchewan Plain. In the south, the Missouri Couteau divides the Saskatchewan and Alberta Plains. The landscape of the two plains is similar to that of the U.S. Great Plains, with rolling prairie; deeply incised rivers; water-filled depressions (called sloughs); dry streambeds (called coulees); and, in the drier areas, mesas, buttes, and badlands. To the south and southeast of the Shield lies a triangular, flat, and fertile plain bounded by Georgian Bay in Lake Huron, the St. Lawrence River, and Lake Ontario. Grasslands made up of many different types of stunted bushes and grasses extend over much of the southern Canadian Great Plains.

The Tundra is situated on the northern Canadian Shield. This is an area of Precambrian rock with moss-covered, frozen subsoil. Low-growing grasses and small bushes thrive in this arctic region.

Between the northern tundra and the southern grassland is the boreal forest. Canada's great boreal forest is the largest of its woodlands, occupying 35 percent of the total Canadian land area and 77 percent of Canada's total forest land. Named for the Greek god of the north wind, Boreas, this forest constitutes a band 1,000 kilometers (600 miles) wide.

The boreal forest is characterized by the predominance of coniferous trees, which first sprung up during the Miocene Epoch, twelve to fifteen million years ago; today, this forest is an important source of paper products, jack-pine railway ties, and logs.

Canada possesses 24 percent of the world's wetlands, covering more than 127 million hect-ares (314 million acres). Most of the wetlands are located in the boreal peat bogs in arctic and sub-arctic regions, or in the Prairie pothole region across south-central Canada and the northern United States, which contains more than four million wetlands and ponds.

10 MOUNTAINS AND VOLCANOES

The principal mountainous region is the Western Cordillera (or Cordilleran) Mountain system located in the westernmost portion of Canada. The Cordilleran range, commonly known as the Canadian Rockies, is composed of relatively young, folded, and faulted mountains and plateaus. These Canadian Rockies include several smaller ranges, including the Richardson, Mackenzie, Selwyn, Pelly, Cassiar, and Cariboo Ranges. The chain is much narrower than the Rocky Mountains in the United States, with less extensive interior plateaus.

The individual summits, however, are much higher in Canada, and they contain some of the most beautiful scenery in the world, with magnificent forests of alpine fir, Engelmann spruce, lodgepole pine, aspen, and mountain hemlock. Most peaks in the Canadian Rockies exceed elevations of 4,500 meters (14,765 feet); twenty-four summits top 4,000 meters (13,123 feet). Canada's highest point is Mount Logan (5,959 meters/19,551 feet), located near the Alaskan border in the St. Elias Mountains of the Yukon Territory. The only other parts of Canada with comparable spectacular mountains are Baffin and Ellesmere Islands in the northeastern Arctic Ocean.

The Torngat Mountains stretch through Quebec, Newfoundland, and Labrador in eastern Canada. The highest point in Quebec is Mont D'Iberville, at 1,652 meters (5,420 feet), within the Torngat range. The Appalachian Chain crosses parts of eastern Canada. In the Appalachians, the highest peak is Mont Jacques-Cartier, at 1,268 meters (4,160 feet).

11 CANYONS AND CAVES

Canada has caves in nearly every region. Vancouver Island is commonly called the "Island of Caves" because of the large number of caves located there, many of which have not been explored.

The longest cave in the country is Castle-guard Cave in the Banff National Park of Alberta province. It runs about 20,122 meters (66,017 feet) long and about 390 meters (1,280 feet) deep. Banff National Park also contains the Cave and Basin, an area which boasts naturally occurring warm mineral springs. The discovery of the cave in 1883 prompted the government to choose the site as the center of its first national park, making the cave a national historic site as well as a protected area.

Arctomys Cave, in the Canadian Rockies of British Columbia, is the deepest cave in the country and one of the deepest in North America north of Mexico. It has a depth of 536 meters (1,759 feet).

There are a number of canyons throughout the Canadian Rockies, including Johnston, Marble, Cline River, Coral River, Thomson, and Fraser Canyons.

12 PLATEAUS AND MONOLITHS

The most prominent geographic feature in the country is the Canadian Shield (sometimes called the Precambrian Shield or the Laurentian Plateau), which takes up almost half of Canada's total area. It extends beyond the Canadian boundary into the United States in two limited areas: at the head of Lake Superior and in the Adirondack Mountains. Structurally, the shield may be thought of as a huge saucer, the center of which is occupied by Hudson Bay and James Bay, which have breached the northeastern rim to drain into the Atlantic Ocean through the Hudson Strait. Most of the shield is relatively level and less than 612 meters (2,000 feet) above sea level.

DID YOU KNOW?

The North Magnetic Pole is located at 78°N latitude and 104°W longitude, in the Queen Elizabeth Islands of northern Canada. The earth's magnetic poles represent the two nearly opposite ends of the planet where the earth's magnetic intensity is the greatest. These differ slightly in location from the geographic poles, which are designated as 90°N latitude/0° longitude (North Pole) and 90°S latitude/0° longitude (South Pole). The South Magnetic Pole is located at 66°S latitude and 139°E longitude, on the Adélie Coast of Antarctica.

Only along the dissected rim of the saucer are there major hills and mountains: the Torngat Mountains. Except for the plains, the rest of the shield is composed of undulating terrain with rocky, knoblike hills; lakes interconnected by rapidly flowing streams occupy the hollows between these hills. A second and far less extensive plateau supports the Western Cordillera.

13 MAN-MADE FEATURES

As of 2002, the Syncrude Tailings Dam in Alberta was the largest in the world, based on the total amount of building material used in its construction. It is a barrage dam, created from piled-up dirt and residue (or tailings) left over from mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. The Gardiner Dam in Saskatchewan is the twelfth-largest water-retaining dam in the world. Hydroelectric power from this dam is used across the province. The WAC Bennett Dam, on the Peace River in British Columbia, is responsible for the creation of Williston Lake, the largest artificial lake in Canada (1,761 square kilometers/680 square miles). The Churchill Falls Dam and its underground power station (in Newfoundland) make up the sixth largest hydroelectric plant in the world.

Yoho National Park of British Columbia contains the Spiral Tunnels, carved through the Canadian Rockies by the Canadian Pacific Railroad. The Hector Tunnel is 992 meters (3,255 feet) long and the Field Tunnel is 891 meters (2,922 feet) long.

14 FURTHER READING

Books

Flashfield, Jean F. Cartier: Jacques Cartier in Search of the Northwest Passage. Minneapolis: Compass Point Books, 2002.

Kalman, Bobbie. Canada. New York: Crabtree, 2002.

Malcolm, Andres. The Land and People of Canada. New York: HarperCollins, 1988.

MacLean, Doug, comp. Canadian Geographic Quizbook: Over 1000 Questions on All Aspects of Canadian Geography. Markham, Ontario: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ltd., 2000.

Marx, David F. Canada. New York: Children's Press, 2000.

Sorensen, Lynda. The Wonders of Canada. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Book Company, 1995.

Websites

The Atlas of Canada. Facts about Canada. http://www.atlas.gc.ca/site/english/facts/index.html (accessed June 13, 2003).

Canadian Council for Geographic Education. http://www.ccge.cecgeo.org/splash/splash.htm (accessed June 13, 2003).

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Canada

CANADA

Although Ernest Jones chose Toronto as the city from which he would undertake his campaign to institutionalize psychoanalysis in North America, Montreal is the city where it got its start in Canada. In 1957 the International Psychoanalytic Association (IPA) officially recognized the Canadian Psychoanalytic Society (CPS). Although English and French were the society's two official languages, exchanges and teaching activities took place almost exclusively in English until 1969, when the Société Psychanalytique de Montréal (Montreal Psychoanalytic Society) was established. Only after the Canadian Psychoanalytic Society created a French section, along with other English sections, did it institute a training program in French. Mirroring the relationship between Quebec and the remainder of Canada, the Société Psychanalytique de Montréal and the English-language sections were two isolated entities that continued to question the reasons for their cohabitation.

In 1908 Ernest Jones established himself in Canada as a neuropathologist at the Toronto Lunatic Asylum. He remained there until 1913, when he returned to Europe, after having contributed to the foundation of psychoanalysis in the United States. However, no permanent organization was established in Canada as a result of his presence there, and it would take another forty years before psychoanalysis gained a foothold in the country.

After being established in Montreal, a large metropolis of psychoanalysis in Canada is the result of a paradox that is as strange as it is revelatory of the unique character of the country: an anti-Franco Spanish refugee, Miguel Prados, formed an alliance with a French-Canadian priest, the Dominican Noël Mailloux. Beginning in the spring of 1945, four interns from the Allan Memorial Institute of McGill University, founded by Dr. Ewen Cameron in 1944 and affiliated with the Royal Victoria Hospital, began meeting at the home of Dr. Prados, who had obtained a position at the Neurological Institute in the early 1940s. There they discussed clinical cases and studied what they referred to as "Freudian doctrine."

In early 1946 they decided to form a group known as the Cercle Psychanalytique de Montréal (Montreal Psychoanalytic Circle). At this time Prados had only undertook a self-analysis and was not affiliated with any psychoanalytic association. In 1948 Father Mailloux, who had founded the Institute of Psychology at the University of Montreal at the same time as Cameron was founding the Allan Memorial Institute, joined the group, which grew considerably from this time on. The number of members grew to forty, with as many guests invited to meetings. From New York they invited Sándor Lorand, Edith Jacobson, Bertrand D. Lewin, Phyllis Greenacre, Rudolph Loewenstein, Rene Spitz, George Gero, Charles Fisher, and Kaufman; from Detroit, Leo Bartemeir and Richard and Editha Sterbas; from Boston, Eduard Lindeman and Edward and Grete Bibring.

Although the circle certainly helped to spread psychoanalysis, it did not promote the training of Canadian psychoanalysts. Forced to seek training at institutions in the United States, these candidates had little inclination to return to Canada. In 1948, with the help of the Lady Davis Foundation and Father Mailloux, Professor Théo Chentrier, a member of the Société Psychanalytique de Paris (Paris Psychoanalytic Society), became the first psychoanalyst to immigrate to Canada. He was appointed professor at the University of Montreal and joined the Cercle Psychanalytique, of which he later became an enthusiastic and loyal director. Between 1948 and 1950 the circle was very active and held semimonthly meetings, along with weekly seminars on clinical practice and theory.

In 1950 Dr. Eric Wittkower of the British Psychoanalytic Society came to the Allan Memorial Institute. Then in 1951 Georges Zavitzianos, a member of the Société Psychanalytique de Paris, immigrated to Montreal. In the autumn of that same year, Dr. Alastair MacLeod, of the British Psychoanalytic Society, was hired by the psychiatry department of McGill University. Finally, in September 1952 Dr. Bruce Ruddick, who had just completed his training at the New York Institute, returned to Montreal.

With the arrival of these four psychoanalysts, all members of organizations recognized by the IPA, members of the circle felt that it was time to seek official status. Since recognition could only be granted to members who belonged to an affiliate group, Théo Chentrier, Alastair MacLeod, Miguel Prados, Bruce Ruddick, Eric Wittkower, and Georges Zavitzianos formed a study group and applied to the IPA, hoping to be recognized at the 1951 congress. As the bylaws required a recommendation from an affiliate group, they turned to the Detroit Psychoanalytic Society, which was familiar with the circle, to obtain recognition as an independent organization and affiliate of the American Psychoanalytic Association (APA). Since the APA had recently discredited the Detroit training program, it was suggested to the study group that they contact the Boston Psychoanalytic Society, which they never did. At the end of September 1951, the group learned that during the congress in Amsterdam, its request had been referred to the office of professional standards of the American Psychoanalytic Association. Although the professional-standards committee may have supported the request, the APA's official response was that the time was not right: a member of the group was an analyst but not a physician, and the Canadians were planning to admit lay analysts.

Faced with this situation, the study group withdrew its request to the American association and turned to the British Psychoanalytic Society, which granted them membership after no more than a few weeks of deliberation. As a result, in March 1952 the Canadian Society of Psychoanalysts became an affiliate of the British Psychoanalytic Society. Chentrier was the president, and MacLeod the secretary. The response from the APA was immediate. They let it be known that the Marienbad Agreement of the 1936 IPA congress gave them exclusive control over all of North America. The British Psychoanalytic Society replied that since Canada was part of the British empire, it was only fair that it serve as sponsor in this case. The Americans rejected out of hand a compromise that would have involved joint sponsorship from both associations. In July 1952, after lengthy negotiations, the British Psychoanalytic Society indicated that it would not oppose an agreement with the APA if this solution would help to establish in Canada a psychoanalytic society recognized by the IPA. To facilitate negotiations with the Americans, Chentrier, who was not a physician, decided in August 1952 to give up the presidency of the Canadian Society of Psychoanalysts. MacLeod became president, and Ruddick secretary. After being dissolved on October 17, 1953, the society was replaced by the Canadian Society for Psychoanalysis. But more important, in October 1952 Prados proposed dissolving the Montreal Psychoanalytic Circle because he was convinced that the Americans confused it with the Canadian Society of Psychoanalysts, which consisted exclusively of member analysts. These concessions turned out to be pointless because the Americans never granted affiliate status to the Canadian group.

On October 17, 1953, the group was officially formed as the Canadian Psychoanalytic Society. In December 1953 the group withdrew its request for membership in the APA and reaffirmed its membership in the British Psychoanalytic Society, which had never been abandoned. Because Canada is bicultural, with equal weight given to French and English, it was decided that the society would officially be bilingual. During the summer of 1953, Dr. Jean-Baptiste Boulanger, his wife Françoise, and Dr. J. P. Labrecque, all of whom were trained by the Société Psychanalytique de Paris, became members of the study group. The following year, Dr. W. Clifford M. Scott, a Canadian psychoanalyst who had become president of the British Psychoanalytic Society; Drs. Hans and Friedl Aufreiter of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society; and André Lussier, who was completing his training at the London Institute, joined the new organization. Initially incorporated in Quebec by the lieutenant-governor of the province in 1955, it became incorporated under Canadian federal law on April 3, 1967. And with the sponsorship of the British Psychoanalytic Society, it became officially recognized as a member of the International Psychoanalytic Association on July 31, 1957, during the twentieth IPA congress.

The British Psychoanalytic Society also sponsored the Canadian Institute of Psychoanalysis. This professional organization made its initial foray into the professional sphere in 1954 in a university setting, at the Allan Memorial Institute of McGill University (directed by Dr. Ewen Cameron). With the help of Doctor Clifford Scott, agreements were concluded in mid-1954 to initiate a training program identical to that of the British Institute, with three training analysts. After thriving in Britain for a quarter century, Scott, at Cameron's request, returned to Montreal to run the program. The way was now open for training future analysts.

The first students had already begun their training in Montreal, London, Paris, or the United States. Scott helped them complete their training. The other analysts supported this decision, with the exception of Cameron, who had integrated psychoanalysis in his program at the university so it would be under his direct control. When Cameron refused to hire another training analyst, Scott and the other colleagues realized they could avoid his controlling efforts only by forming their own autonomous institute. The training committee of the Canadian Psychoanalytic Society developed and introduced a teaching program in 1958. The first seminar was held on April 4, 1959. On October 1, 1960, members of the society ratified a proposal recommending the creation and incorporation of the Canadian Institute of Psychoanalysis, which was done on March 17, 1961, in Quebec. Jean-Baptiste Boulanger was the first director. The first training program, in 1959, had twelve teachers for thirteen students. Of the thirty-seven candidates trained from 1959 to 1967, eleven were French speakers.

Around 1968 and 1969, for cultural as well as geographic reasons, a federal model was used to create different sections within the Canadian Psychoanalytic Society. A French-speaking section was created in Montreal, the Société Psychanalytique de Montréal, and an English-speaking section in Quebec, the CPS Quebec English Branch. In Ontario the Toronto Psychoanalytic Society was formed. Currently, at the start of the twenty-first century, the Canadian Psychoanalytic Society has approximately four hundred members, seven sections, and three institutes. In addition to those already mentioned, which have had an associated institute since their formation, three sectionsthe South Western Ontario Psychoanalytic Society (located in London), the Société Psychanalytique de Québec, and the CPS Western Canadian Branchdo not yet have an institute, while the Ottawa Psychoanalytic Society is still in the process of formation, since it does not have the requisite number of training analysts (five). Service agreements have been concluded with the CPS Quebec English Branch so that candidates of the Ottawa Psychoanalytic Society can continue to be trained locally. For the CPS Western Canadian Branch, the national executive committee recently authorized two training analysts from the Seattle Psychoanalytic Society in the United States to work with the Toronto Psychoanalytic Institute to train candidates in Western Canada locally. Candidates of the Société de Québec must complete their training in Montreal, since the Quebec group has only a single training analyst. Candidates of the Western Canadian Branch in Ontario undergo training at the Toronto Institute.

The CPS Quebec English Branch consists of analysts from Montreal from various ethnic and cultural backgrounds who concentrated on English language and culture when sections were created in 1969. As of 2002, it consisted of a hundred members. The training program of its institute was, until the first few years of the twenty-first century, much more academic than that of the Société de Psychanalyse de Montréal (SPM). Since 2000, the CPS Quebec English Branch has added European authors such as Piera Aulagnier, Wilfred Bion, and Jacques Lacan to the fourth-year program.

Psychoanalysis has also made progress in Toronto. In September 1954, Alan Parkin, who had just completed his training in London, England, arrived in the city. In 1956 he created the Toronto Psychoanalytic Study Circle with a core of eleven psychiatrists with an interest in psychoanalysis. He attempted to establish a psychoanalysis training program at the department of psychiatry of the University of Toronto and obtain recognition for his study group from the Ontario Psychiatric Institute. After two years of activity the circle decided to transform itself into the psychotherapy section of the Ontario Psychiatric Society by opening its doors to all members of that association. The request was ratified on January 23, 1959, and two years later, on January 20, 1961, the psychotherapy section held its first scientific congress. In his History of Psychoanalysis in Canada, Parkin comments on the prodigious growth of this section, which in January 1970 had no fewer than ninety-three members. The establishment of psychoanalysis within the context of psychiatry helped determine the medical orientation psychoanalysis assumed in Ontario. This growth continued until psychoanalytic psychologists of the Ontario Psychological Association, with the support of Division 39 of the American Psychological Association, decided, at the end of the 1980s, to found their own organization, the Toronto Contemporary Society, and their own institute, the Toronto Institute for Contemporary Psychoanalysis. Initially, candidates training at the new institute were not physicians; then psychiatrists began to apply to the organization, although it was not a part of the IPA. They were attracted by the diversity of approaches used in its training program and wanted to escape the incessant conflicts between Freudian and Kohutian factions that divided the Toronto Psychoanalytic Society. The Toronto Psychoanalytic Society would likely have split if there had not emerged a third group, the post-Kleinians, whose members were partisans of object-relations theory and followers of Margaret Mahler and Otto Kernberg. Their emergence prevented the complete polarization of the society. Today the Toronto Psychoanalytic Society has approximately 130 members.

After the formation of the first three sections of the society and the institute, other sections were created when at least five analysts or training analysts belonging to the same geographic or cultural community submitted a request. In 1972 the Ottawa Psychoanalytic Society was formed, followed by the Ottawa Institute in 1978. Then, also in 1978, the CPS Western Canadian Branch was founded, consisting of members scattered throughout the four western provinces. Donald Watterson, in Vancouver, was the first psychoanalyst to settle in British Colombia, yet there was little growth in psychoanalysis in the province until the end of the twentieth century. Julius Guild settled in Edmonton, Alberta, followed by Perry Segal in 1971 and Hassan Azim in 1973, but as of 1998 there was only one analyst in Calgary and two in Edmonton. Similar numbers were found in Winnipeg and Manitoba. Even though it covers an area that is roughly a third of Canada, the CPS Western Canadian Branch currently has only ten members: six in British Colombia, three in Alberta, and one in Manitoba.

The Southwestern Ontario Psychoanalytic Society is the sixth section of the Canadian Psychoanalytic Society. It was founded on June 5, 1982, and currently has fourteen members. Formed in 1988, the Société Psychanalytique de Québec (Quebec Psychoanalytic Society), with ten members, is the most recent of the seven sections of the Canadian Psychoanalytic Society. The senior member is Henri Richard, who began practicing after psychoanalytic training in Paris from 1952 to 1959. A few years later he was joined by Noël Montgrain, who had also studied at the Institut de Psychanalyse de Paris (Paris Institute for Psychoanalysis). There is currently no organization in the maritime provinces of eastern Canada. Aside from the cultural and economic centers of Montreal and Toronto, psychoanalysis throughout Canada has grown very slowly.

For years oral communication was the primary mode of transmission within the Canadian Psychoanalytic Society. The first generations of analysts were more absorbed with fundamental issues and transmission than in the preparation of written texts. Although a number of practitionerssuch as W. Clifford M. Scott, Georges Zavitzianos, Jean-Baptiste Boulanger, Jean-Louis Langlois, Paul Lefebvre, André Lussier, Jean Bossé, Pierre Doucet, Guy Da Silva, and Roger Dufresnewrote important articles, they spent the majority of their time training future generations of analysts.

The ephemeral character of psychoanalytic reviews bears witness to the phenomenon. The first issue of the Revue canadienne de psychanalyse, published in 1954 and sponsored by the Canadian Psychoanalytic Society, was the final one until the reappearance, nearly forty years later in the spring of 1993, of the semiannual bilingual Canadian Journal of Psychoanalysis /Revue canadienne de psychanalyse, edited by Eva Lester. Similarly, the Société Psychanalytique de Montréal has, since 1988, published an internal periodical three times a year, the Bulletin de la Société Psychanalytique de Montréal. Julien Bigras, however, was the first to promote written communication within the psychoanalytic community with the review Inter-prétation, of which he was the founder and editor-in-chief from 1967 to 1971. Josette Garon, Jacques Mauger, Lise Monette, and François Peraldi continued his efforts with the publication of Frayages. In the autumn of 1992, Dominique Scarfone published the first issue of Trans, a semiannual, semithematic, interdisciplinary journal. The journal played a key role in encouraging the exchange of psychoanalytic ideas and also played an important role in the Montreal psychoanalytic community by organizing annual colloquia open to the public. Despite this success, the editorial committee decided to discontinue publication in the spring of 1999 with the publication of issue ten of the journal. The year 1992 also saw the introduction of the semiannual Filigrane, financed by the publication of Santé mentale au Québec and directed at psychotherapists and professional psychoanalysts whose clinical methods were compatible with psychoanalysis.

Patrick J. Mahoney, Jean Imbeault, and Dominique Scarfone are among the first analysts to make significant contributions on an international level to a critical analysis of the psychoanalytic corpus.

In Canada, as elsewhere, the Canadian Psychoanalytic Society and its various sections are not the only entities involved in psychoanalysis. Alongside them have always existed unaffiliated psychoanalysts working alone or in small groups. Among the first to practice psychoanalysis outside an institutional context was Michel Dansereau, a doctor who had trained with René Laforgue in Casablanca, Morocco, and was active during the 1950s. Much later were François Peraldi, who arrived in Montreal in 1974, and Mireille Lafortune, who was active during the late 1960s.

There also exist many organizations devoted to psychoanalysis. In 1986 François Peraldi established the Réseau des Cartels (Network of Cartels), composed of analysts interested in the work of Jacques Lacan. This network did not survive the loss of its founder, and in 2004 only a single cartel is still active. The Association des Psychanalystes du Québec (Quebec Association of Psychoanalysts), founded in 1967 and having only ten members in 2004, is Lacanian in focus. The Association des Psychothérapeutes Psychanalytique du Québec (Quebec Association of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapists), founded in 1985 and consisting of some 150 members in different regions of Quebec, includes clinicians who make use of psychoanalytic methods. The association organizes colloquia and conferences, to which members of the Société Psychanalytique de Montréal are invited. The Groupe d'Études Psychanalytiques Interdisciplinaires (Interdisciplinary Psychoanalytic Study Group) consists of some fifteen professors from the Université de Québec at Montreal who teach psychoanalysis while practicing. The Institut Québécois de Psychothérapie (Quebec Psychotherapy Institute), which has existed since 1992, provides a two-year training program in analytic and systemic psychotherapy. Father Henri Samson, who trained in France and was a contemporary of Father Mailloux, founded the Institut de Psychothérapie de Québec in the 1960s for those who wanted training in analytic psychotherapy. The Groupe Interdisciplinaire Freudien de Recherches et d'Interventions Cliniques et Culturelles (Interdisciplinary Group for Freudian Research and Clinical and Cultural Interventions), founded by Willy Apollon and cooperating with psychiatrists from the Robert-Giffard Center, has gained a considerable reputation in analytic psychotherapy based on Lacanian principles, especially in its work with psychotic patients. The Cercle Jung de Québec (Quebec Jung Circle), founded in the 1970s by Marcel Gaumont, a Jungian analyst trained at the Jung Institute in Zurich, promotes Jungian psychoanalysis in Canada through public conferences and discussions. André Renaud, a psychoanalyst with the Société Psychanalytique de Québec, established in 1984, and ran until 1996, Étayage (Support), a training program for doctors, psychiatrists, psychologists, and social workers who wanted to study analytic psychotherapy. Finally, a group of analytic psychotherapists has also been at work in British Columbia in Western Canada.

Jacques Vigneault

Bibliography

Cloutier, Yvan. (1988). La naissance de la psychanalyse à Montréal. Philosophiques, 15(1), 221-225. (Reprinted from Frayages, 3 (1987).)

Paradis, André. (1988). La naissance de la psychanalyseà Montréal. Revue d 'histoire de l 'Amérique française, 41 (3), 443-446. (Reprinted from Frayages, numéro spécial (1987).)

Parkin, Allan. (1987). History of psychoanalysis in Canada. Toronto: Toronto Psychoanalytical Society.

Prados, Miguel. (1954). La psychanalyse au Canada. Revue canadienne de psychanalyse, 1, 1-33.

Sourkes, Theodore L., and Pinard, Gilbert (Eds.). (1995). Building on a proud past: 50 years of psychiatry at McGill. Montreal: McGill University.

Vigneault, Jacques. (1993). Transferts et déplacements: fondements de la psychanalyse en Amérique du Nord. Trans, 3, 223-237.

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Vigneault, Jacques. "Canada." International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. 1 Oct. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Canada

CANADA


As in all immigrant societies, the spread of formal education in Canada followed a predictable pattern as religious orders and missions attempted to "civilize" both the aboriginal and the settler communities. All levels of formal education from the seventeenth century onward had their roots in Catholicism, Anglicanism, and after 1763, when the British assumed control, a whole range of protestant denominations. Dramatic change occurred in 1867 with the enactment of the Constitution Act (formerly the British North American Act) when the principle of secular and separate systems of education funded by the state was accepted throughout Canada with a few significant exceptions. Section 98 of the act allocated exclusive jurisdiction for education to the provinces. This division of constitutional powers has remained in place and has been the basis for a degree of tension between the federal government and the ten provincial governments. The federal government is responsible for education in the three northern territories. With regard to public education, Canadians subscribe to three common social and educational values: equality of access, equality of opportunity, and cultural pluralism.

Influences On The Educational Systems

According to Rodney Clifton, Canada is the "only country without a national office of education: all other nations, including all other federated nations, have national offices of education that coordinate and/or administer various aspects of their educational system" (p. 7). While there are many similarities among Canada's systems of education, they have each developed in unique ways. These systems are profoundly influenced by the distribution of the population of 31 million across the vast country, which covers four and one-half time zones. More than 80 percent of Canadians live in urban centers within 100 miles of the border with the United States.

Canadian society has developed as a mosaic of peoples, beginning with aboriginal populations and then followed by French, British, and other European settlement. Canada has two official languages: English is the mother tongue of 61 percent of the population, and French is the mother tongue of 26 percent. Most French speakers live in Quebec, where they make up 82 percent of the population, but there are also many French speakers in New Brunswick, Ontario, and Manitoba. Education is available in both official languages, but to a greater or lesser degree, depending on the region. In the last two decades of the twentieth century, immigrants from all parts of the world were attracted to Canada, with the largest proportion coming from Asia.

The patterns of immigration have had an enormous impact on the structure and organization of educational systems. Although the systems of the western provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia followed the patterns laid down in Ontario, more emphasis was placed on meeting the needs of all people, not just Anglicans and Catholics. While "separate" (Catholic) publicly funded schools were resisted in Manitoba, by World War II only British Columbia, out of the ten provinces, maintained a secular system of education. This stance was modified in 1977, when the province began providing subsidy to private and independent schools. In 1998 Newfoundland abandoned denominational education and became the only province with a secular system.

The French tradition and language have dominated educational systems in Quebec and parts of New Brunswick and Manitoba. Since the "Quiet Revolution" in Quebec in the 1960s and the adoption of a bilingual and multicultural policy at the federal level in the 1970s, French culture has become part of all Canadian educational systems. The challenge has been to privilege the "founding" cultures while at the same time recognizing aboriginal peoples and the vast range of other cultures that form Canadian society. The complexities that come with geography, immigration, and settlement gave rise to socialization processes that placed great emphasis on the role of education in molding Canadian citizens.

Twentieth-Century Developments

The "Great Transformation" in Canadian society, as it was dubbed by Karl Polanyi in 1944, is very much a twentieth-century phenomena. Mass public education that was free and compulsory through high school had become the norm by the 1950s. Public education is provided free to all Canadian citizens and permanent residents until the end of secondary school, normally at eighteen. The ages for compulsory schooling vary from one jurisdiction to another, but generally it is required from age six or seven to age sixteen. As the federal government assumed more responsibility for funding university education from the mid-1950s and recognized the importance of human capital, so the systems of higher education expanded. Expansion of the university system and the development of parallel college systems changed the nature of higher education in Canada. By 1976 every province was operating a binary system of universities and colleges, and furthermore the number of universities offering graduate programs had risen to forty-seven from the 1960 level of twenty-eight.

As in other countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the baby boom generation flooded into the higher education system in the 1960s and the early 1970s. Enrollment continued to expand into the 1990s, but over the next decade it reached a plateau and then began to decline. Between 19911992 and 19992000, university full-time enrollment decreased from approximately 580,000 to 540,000, while part-time enrollment fell from 280,000 to 240,000. Between 19921993 and 19992000, full-time community college enrollment increased from approximately 360,000 to 400,000. Part-time community college enrollment declined from approximately 180,000 to 90,000. Furthermore, the gender balance has been reversed so that women are in the majority at the undergraduate level in both community colleges and universities and at parity with men at the graduate level.

The federal government had, through the incremental development of a science and technology policy, created an elaborate structure for funding and supporting research. In addition to the three national funding councils, which were established in the late 1970s and cover all the disciplines and fields represented in the academy, the government created other programs, such as the Networks of Centres of Excellence, the Canada Foundation for Innovation, and the Canada Research Chairs.

Education in Canada has traditionally been a public enterprise. Private or independent schools educate approximately 5 percent of the school-age population. Although these schools do generally follow the curriculum and diploma requirements of their jurisdiction, they function independently of the public system and charge fees. Five provincesAlberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Quebec, and Saskatchewanprovide some form of financial assistance to these schools. Prior to the 1990s, higher education was almost totally a public enterprise. During that decade the number of private institutions offering vocational and degree programs increased dramatically. Four provincesAlberta, British Columbia, Ontario, and New Brunswickhave passed legislation to allow for the establishment of private universities.

The Place Of Education In The Society

As an institutional form, education occupies a unique place in Canadian society. By the late 1960s, education had become a central legitimating institution in the modern Canadian state. Between 1960 and 19951996, the cost of public education increased from $1.7 billion to almost $60 billion. One in fourteen employed Canadians work in education, and 25 percent of the total population is involved with education. Public education is a major industry involving approximately 16,000 elementary and secondary schools, 200 postsecondary colleges, 75 universities and university colleges, 300,000 teachers, and 60,000 instructors and professors.

Relative to other developed countries, Canada invests a substantial amount on education. At all levels of education, Canadian expenditure per student is second highest (after the United States) among the G-7 countries (the other G-7 members being France, Italy, Germany, Japan, and the United Kingdom) and is substantially above the OECD average. Canada's educational expenditure of 7 percent of gross domestic product is the highest level among the G-7 countries and is one of the highest in the OECD. Eighty percent of Canada's adult population has completed upper-secondary (referred to as high school in North America) or postsecondary education. This is much higher than the OECD average of 64 percent. Fifty-two percent of the adult population has completed postsecondary education. This rate is the highest in the OECD and double the OECD average. Yet it should be noted that this ranking is due to the very high proportion of the population that is enrolled in nonuniversity postsecondary education.

By the mid-1990s, Canadian governments had created a mass postsecondary system. With a participation rate of more than 40 percent for eighteen-to twenty-one-year-olds, Canada ranked first among OECD nations. The system can be characterized as soft federalism. While the federal government has since the 1950s shouldered a significant portion of the bill for universities, constitutionally the responsibility has remained with the provinces. The level of institutional autonomy enjoyed by universities is probably more pronounced in Canada than in any other OECD country. The public monopoly over the binary structure (colleges and universities) accounts for the limited competition and the perceived equivalence among credentials across the country. This state public system is relatively homogeneous and, as a vestige of its roots in the United Kingdom and France, is still committed to the ethos of liberal education rather than vocationalism.

Issues And Problems

The key issues and problems facing the Canadian education systems are as follows: deprofessionalization; the dominance of a political-economic imperative in the formulation of state educational policy (accountability, privatization, market, choice, and decentralization); multiculturalism and diversity; restructuring and retrenchment; and the demographic changes facing all industrialized nations.

As governments have limited the size of the "public space" in Canadian society, so necessarily the ideals of professionalism have come under attack. On the one hand, the creation of professional "colleges of teachers" in British Columbia (in 1986) and in Ontario (in 1996), as well as the current attempts for such undertakings in Quebec, are indicators of the professionalizing trend. Other such initiatives, also present in other provinces (namely, Alberta, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia), aim at raising the standards in teacher training and at better controlling its quality through the definition of standards for training and practice. Yet the discourse of professionalism has in some respects been co-opted by the state and transformed into government by norms. The substitution of credentials for professional practice, while intended to support professionalization, serves instead to undermine it. Credentialism becomes the overriding trend and the substitute for the promotion of professionalism.

In the 1990s, accountability replaced autonomy in discussions of roles within the state. Accountability has also come to mean recognition of the dominance of market ideology. Governments press educational institutions and systems to be more responsive to the economy and to create alliances with the private sector. The accountability models are embedded within the broader, ideological mechanismsvariously characterized as public-sector reform, new public management, and the "evaluative state"that have accompanied the political-economic transition from welfare state to the global economy.

The severe limitations on public expenditures are linked to the general suspicion of public institutions and a belief in the greater efficiency of free-market forces. The key policy terms that are the symbols of both market and accountability are "choice" and "privatization." The battle against federal and provincial deficits and the adoption of neoliberal assumptions concerning the role of the state has led governments to inflict considerable budget cuts on educational systems while looking to maximize their services. Yet while the position of the provinces got worse, by 2000 the federal government had moved into surplus. Efforts to decentralize responsibility and increase the autonomy of school boards and school staffs has translated into a more significant role for parents, the development of an "in-service training" culture, and the elaboration of school programs that promote the acquisition of competencies required in the new knowledge society. A parent council structure was created in British Columbia in 2002 and was already in place in six other provinces, including Ontario and Quebec.

For a majority of teachers in urban settings, the combination of immigration policy, the longstanding commitment to diversity and multiculturalism and the new emphasis on "inclusion" has created schools very different from the ones that existed in the 1980s. Schools can contain students who speak as many as eighty different languages, a high proportion of ESL (English as a second language) students, and many students with special needs. The increasing cultural and linguistic diversity has become most evident in the three major urban centers, Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver. On the other hand, diversity and equality have been safeguarded and extended through the teaching of heritage languages, curriculum design, and the development of programs to combat racism. The development of French-language school boards across the country is a good indicator of this trend.

A major retrenchment and restructuring has occurred throughout Canada as provincial ministries have drastically reduced the number of school boards through amalgamation. These changes have been accompanied by a tightening of control over expenditures at the local level.

Skills and knowledge have become central elements in economic policy as human resource policy has become the modern equivalent of human capital theory in the 1960s. In postsecondary education there has been a growing emphasis on technical and professional programs. Universities are developing closer links with business and industry. Since the late 1980s, the shift has been toward more private and less public expenditure on postsecondary education. Part of this shift is related to the increase in tuition fees, which have more than doubled, but this trend also includes the rise in nongovernmental sources of funding for research.

The most pressing need in Canadian education systems and the society at large is the expected shortfall in the supply of professional personnel. By 2010, Canada will need to replace 50 percent of its teachers, instructors, and professors.

See also: Immigrant Education; International Education; Language and Culture; Multicultural Education.

bibliography

Axelrod, Paul. 1997. The Promise of Schooling: Education in Canada, 18001914. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Axelrod, Paul. 2002. Values in Conflict: The University, the Marketplace, and the Trials of Liberal Education. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.

Canadian Association of University Teachers. 2002. Almanac of Post-Secondary Education in Canada. Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Association of University Teachers.

Clifton, Rodney. 2000. "Post-Secondary Education in Canada, 19602000: The Best Years We Have Ever Had." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Canadian Society for the Study of Education, Sherbrooke, Quebec, May 26.

Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. 1996. The Development of Education: Report of Canada. Toronto: Council of Ministers of Education, Canada.

Council of Ministers of Education, Canada, and Statistics Canada. 2000. Education Indicators in Canada: Report of the Pan-Canadian Education Indicators Program, 1999. Toronto: Council of Ministers of Education, Canada; Ottawa, Ontario: Statistics Canada.

Dunning, Paula. 1997. Education in Canada: An Overview. Toronto: Canadian Education Association.

Fisher, Donald. 1991. The Social Sciences in Canada: Fifty Years of National Activity by the Social Science Federation of Canada. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.

Fisher, Donald; Atkinson-Grosjean, Janet; and House, Dawn. 2001. "Changes in Academy/Industry/State Relations in Canada: The Creation and Development of the Networks of Centres of Excellence." Minerva 39:5473.

Fisher, Donald, and Edwards, Gail. 1999. "The Legitimation of Education in Canadian Universities: A Social History of the Canadian Society for the Study of Education/Société Canadienne pour l'étude de l'éducation." In A Challenge Met: The Definition and Recognition of the Field of Education, ed. Michel Allard, James Covert, Collette Dufresne-Tassé, Angela Hildyard, and Michael Jackson. Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Society for the Study of Education and University of Toronto Press.

Fleming, Thomas. 1993. Review and Commentary on Schooling in Canada, 1993. A Report to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization International Seminar on Curriculum and Decentralization, Santiago, Chile, November 35.

Ghosh, Ratna, and Ray, Douglas, eds. 1995. Social Change and Education in Canada, 3rd edition. Toronto: Harcourt Brace.

Harris, Robin S. 1960. A History of Higher Education in Canada, 1663 to 1960. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Healy, Dennis. 1978. Report of the Commission on Graduate Studies in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Ottawa, Ontario: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.

Human Resources Development Canada. 1996. Federal and Provincial Support to Post-Secondary Education in Canada: A Report to Parliament, 19941995. Hull, Quebec: Human Resources Development Canada.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 1996. Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2001. Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Pagliarello, Claudio. 1994. "Private Elementary and Secondary Schools." Elementary Quarterly Review 1 (1):4250.

Polanyi, Karl. 1944. The Great Transformation. New York and Toronto: Farrar and Rinehart.

Scott, Peter. 1995. The Meanings of Mass Higher Education. Buckingham, Eng.: Society for Research into Higher Education; Bristol, PA: Open University Press.

Sears, Alan, and Hughes, Andrew S. 1996. "Citizenship Education and Current Educational Reform." Canadian Journal of Education 21:123142.

Statistics Canada. 1997. Education in Canada, 1996. Ottawa, Ontario: Statistics Canada.

Wotherspoon, Terry. 1998. The Sociology of Education in Canada. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

internet resource

Centre of Education Research Information System. 2001. "Theme: Parents." <www.schoolnet.ca/ceris/e/Parents1.html>

Donald Fisher

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Canada

CANADA

The 2001 census found that Canada has a population of 31 million people who are heavily concentrated in communities located within 100 miles of the CanadaUnited States border. There is further concentration of the population in cities and towns, as over 60 percent of all Canadians live in the twenty-five metropolitan areas that have populations of over 100,000, and 80 percent live in urban areas. Despite their vast landmass, the three northern territories (Yukon, Northwest Territory, and Nunavut) contain only about three-tenths of one percent of the total population. Like all other industrialized countries, Canada experienced significant aging of its population over the twentieth century. In 2001, 12.6 percent of the population was over age sixty-five (very similar to the United States, where 12.4 percent was over the age of sixty-five). As the size of the older population has increased, interest in aging and the place of older people in Canadian society has grown.

History of population aging

Data on the aging of Canada's population over the twentieth century are shown in Table 1. Although the population over age sixty-five increased 2.5 times between 1901 and 2001 (from 5.0 percent to 12.6 percent), the rate of change was not uniform over the century. During the first half of the century population aging progressed at a gradual pace, so that by midcentury 7.8 percent of all Canadians over sixty-five. This aging occurred primarily because of declining fertility, and would have been greater if there had not been large-scale immigration during the first several decades. Because immigrants were concentrated in the young adult ages, their large flow temporarily reduced the proportion of the population that was old. Then, in response to the baby boom and revival of immigration after World War II, the proportion of elderly in the population actually declined slightly between 1951 and 1961 (from 7.8 percent to 7.6 percent). During the last third of the century, Canada experienced very low fertility and rapid population aging occurred. By the beginning of the twenty-first century, the proportion of the population over age sixty-five reached an all time high of 12.6 percent.

Data in Table 1 also show that the proportion in the oldest-old category (over eighty-five) more than tripled between 1951 and 2001. That population is of special interest because people at this stage of life are the heaviest users of health care services. Despite the rapid increase in the oldestold category, it still constitutes less than 2 percent of the total population. An even more extreme age category is centenarians. The 1921 census found only 183 persons over age one hundred, but the number in this category grew to over three thousand by 2001 (a sixteen-fold increase).

Statistics Canada makes projections of the population by age and sex, and their projected age distributions for the years 2011 and 2026 are shown in Table 1. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, population aging is expected to continue at about the same pace it followed at the end of the previous century. But then starting in 2011, an unprecedented increase in the older population is anticipated. In just fifteen years, the percent of elderly will jump from 14.5 percent to 21.4 percent. The explanation for this dramatic development is, of course, the baby boom (1945 to 1963), and the subsequent baby bust. The first wave of the baby boom will reach age sixty-five around 2010, and then for nearly two decades successive cohorts of baby boomers will be crossing the threshold of old age. Canada, like other industrialized countries, will face a challenge of how to maintain its pension and health care benefits for older people in an era when the ratio of retired persons to workers is so much greater than it has ever been before.

Distribution of older people

Variations in the proportion of those over sixty-five across Canada are explained by differences in fertility and by past migration patterns. The territories in the north are characterized by very high fertility, and they have relatively few older people. Among the provinces, the oldest populations in 2001 were in Saskatchewan (14.6 percent over age sixty-five) and Manitoba (13.6 percent over age sixty-five). These prairie provinces have experienced slow growth for several decades, as many youth have moved out, leaving a disproportionate number of older people. In contrast, areas with significant growth due to inmigration tend to have younger populations. For example, Alberta and Ontario have both grown rapidly and have relatively fewer older people (9.9 percent and 12.4 percent over age sixty-five, respectively). The exception to this pattern is British Columbia, which was the fastest growing province in the 1990s, but does not have an especially young population (12.7 percent over age sixty-five). Indeed, Victoria, British Columbia, has the unofficial title "Canada's Senior Capital" because 18.2 percent of its population is over age sixty-five. (Statistics Canada, 1999).

In 1996, most (78 percent) older Canadians lived in urban areas, and one-third resided in the four metropolitan areas with populations exceeding one million (Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, and Ottawa). However, about one-fifth of Canada's older population lives in rural areas. Given the vast landmass of Canada, many of these areas have exceedingly low population density, making the delivery of services to seniors particularly difficult. Many rural communities are trying to develop economic opportunities to retain their younger populations and thereby be able to provide more services for seniors. The success of these endeavours has varied within and across provinces, but is the basis of important policy and planning concerns in all provinces.

Characteristics of the older population

Sex ratio. In Canada, as elsewhere, almost 3 percent more males than females are born each year. This surplus of males continues up to about age forty-five, after which females become an increasingly large majority. By the time one gets to old age, the number of females significantly exceeds the number of males. In 2001, women constituted 57 percent of all older Canadians, and 70 percent of those past age eighty-five. These ratios are expected to remain about the same until 2026 (Statistics Canada, 1999). The reason for the changing sex ratio with age is that females experience lower death rates than males at every age. By looking at sex differences in life expectancy at birth, one can see how much advantage females have over males in longevity. Life expectancy is the average number of years that one would live under age-specific death rates existing at a particular time. Death rates around 1920 resulted in women's life expectancy exceeding men's by two years (61 versus 59). By 1970 the gender gap in life expectancy had grown to seven years (76 versus 69). In recent decades the gender gap has declined a little, and in 1996 was below six (81.4 versus 75.7) (Statistics Canada, 1999). The imbalanced sex ratio in later life caused by differential mortality has implications for gender differences in aging.

Marital status. The excess number of older women compared to men means that chances of being married in old age differ by sex. While almost 75 percent of older men are married, only 41 percent of older women are married. Correspondingly, almost half of older women are widowed as compared to 13 percent of older men. This difference is even more dramatic among those age eighty-five and over, where just over half of men, but less than 10 percent of women, are married, and twice as many women as men are widowed (80 percent versus 39 percent). Given the sex differences in marital status, it is not surprising that more older women than men live alone (38 percent versus 16 percent). Among those aged eighty-five plus, the gap between women and men living alone is even greater (58 percent versus 29 percent) (Statistics Canada, 1999).

Living arrangements. Most older Canadians (93 percent) live in private households, but as cohorts age, an increasing proportion is cared for in institutions. The proportion living in institutions in 1996 increased from only 3 percent for those aged sixty-five to seventy-four to 34 percent of the population over age eighty-five. Within the oldest-old population, women, who are more likely to be widowed and have more functional limitations than men, are more likely than men to be institutionalized (38 percent versus 24 percent) (Statistics Canada, 1999). The disproportionate number of women among the older population and their greater likelihood of being institutionalized result in 70 percent of all long-term care residents being women.

Immigrant status. As a country that is largely the result of immigration, the ethnic and linguistic diversity in Canada is substantial. The original settlers were predominantly from England, Scotland, France, Ireland, and Wales, but were joined by immigrant families from Germany, Ukraine, Poland, Russia, and China in the nineteenth century. The heaviest immigration to Canada, relative to the nonimmigrant population, occurred between 1906 and 1915, and immigrants in this period tended to be young adult males. This pattern of immigration had important implications for the age and sex structure of the aging population during the latter part of the twentieth century. Even as recently as 1996, a remarkable 27 percent of all Canadians past age sixty-five were foreign born. Toward the end of the twentieth century, the largest number of immigrants came from Asia and Latin America (more than half of the immigrants since 1980 have come from Asia) (Statistics Canada, 1999). This new immigration pattern suggests that in the future there will be even greater ethnic variation in the older population than there is today. One result of the immigration history is that it creates an important difference between the languages and cultures of many seniors and those of the persons who are delivering services to seniors.

Labor force participation. Over the twentieth century the labor force participation rate declined continuously as retirement became institutionalized. This pattern continued in the late twentieth century as the proportion of those over age sixty-five still in the labor force declined from 11 percent in 1981 to 6 percent in 1998. Not surprisingly, a higher proportion of older men than women was in the labor force in 1998 (10 percent versus 3 percent). The distribution of employed older persons across occupational categories was fairly uniform: 21 percent employed in farming, 17 percent in professions, 15 percent in sales, 12 percent in both services and managerial occupations, and the remaining in clerical, manufacturing, construction, and transportation. Of course participation in the labor force is not the only way for older people to make productive contributions to Canadian society. About 23 percent of seniors participate in formal volunteer roles, and a majority (58 percent) report that they provide informal assistance to others outside their own homes. Slightly more women than men contribute in this way. As retirement has become nearly universal among people over age sixty-five, the most notable change in the labor force age structure since the mid-1970s has been the marked decrease in participation by those age fifty-five to sixty-four. Among men in what was once considered a preretirement age category, labor force participation declined from 74 percent in 1976 to 56 percent in 1998. Over this same time period, women ages fifty-five to sixty-four slightly increased their level of involvement in the labor force (from 30 percent to 36 percent). It is noteworthy that 22 percent of women, but only 2 percent of men, over age sixty-five never participated in the paid labor force (Statistics Canada, 1999).

Poverty and economic status. The proportion of older people in Canada with incomes below what Statistics Canada labels the "low income" cutoff declined from 34 percent in 1980 to 20 percent in 1998. This is the same as the percent of children with low incomes, and slightly higher than the percent of nonold adults. Within the older population, women are twice as likely as men to have low incomes (27 percent v 13 percent), and more than half (53 percent) of unattached older women have low incomes. Provincial variations in average income are substantial, with territories and provinces in the Atlantic region having lowest average incomes, and seniors living in Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia having average incomes about $5,000 above the Canadian average. The primary source of income for seniors is Old Age Security, which provides 29 percent of all income received by people over age sixty-five. Other sources are employment-based pensions (21 percent), Canada and Quebec Pension Plan benefits (21 percent), investments (17 percent), and employment (8 percent). There is a variety of programs in most provinces that supplement the incomes of seniors in need. Another indicator of economic well-being is home ownership. A majority of senior families (84 percent), and almost half of unattached seniors, own their own homes (Statistics Canada, 1999). Some provinces contribute to the rent of low-income seniors through a variety of programs, and some provide support services to enable older people to remain in their own homes after developing functional limitations.

Health status. Less than one-fourth of older Canadians report their general health is only "fair" or "poor", and 40 percent report that it is "excellent" or "very good." The remainder (38 percent) report good health. Nevertheless, 82 percent of those aged sixty-five and over reported having at least one long-term chronic condition. Regarding more serious conditions, 28 percent report being limited in at least some activities because of a chronic health conditions. Among seniors between ages sixty-five and seventy-four, slightly more men than women report some limitation (23 percent versus 21 percent), but past age eighty-five women are more likely than men to report limitations (54 percent versus 42 percent). By far the most commonly reported chronic condition among both men and women is arthritis, which increases with advancing age; 53 percent of those aged eighty-five and over have this problem. Heart disease also increases throughout the later years of life to a peak of 22 percent at age eighty-five, but high blood pressure peaks between ages seventy-five and eighty-four at 35 percent. Another significant chronic disease, diabetes, remains almost constant at about 11 percent through later life (Statistics Canada, 1999).

Health care. The public health care insurance system in Canada contributes to the sense of well-being and financial security of all Canadians, especially of older Canadians. The national system includes all medically necessary treatment as legislated by the Canada Health Act. However, the degree to which long-term care (home care and facility care) is provided or covered varies substantially from province to province. While most provinces cover prescription drugs and vision care for seniors, the existence and amount of copayment vary across the provinces. All provinces have policies and service delivery programs to meet long-term care needs. The most comprehensive programs with lowest copayment requirements are in Manitoba and Quebec, and the least comprehensive and most costly to the consumer are in Alberta, Ontario, and Nova Scotia.

Summary

Canada is a large, diverse, and aging country. Some population projections indicate that one-fourth of the population may be over age sixty-five by 2041. The population is aging in a manner much like that of the United States, but the challenge of a low population density is not experienced to the same degree in the United States. The low population density in rural areas presents Canadians with the challenge of how to deliver health, social, and commercial services to older people throughout the country. Provinces are responding to this challenge in varying ways, consistent with their history, political, and philosophical orientations. The general, social, and health conditions are also similar in Canada and the United States, but the differences in health care delivery and insurance and in pensions contributes to a greater sense of well-being and security among Canadians, particularly among senior Canadians.

Betty Havens

See also Canada, Health Care Coverage for Older People; Canda, Income Protection for Retirees; Population Aging.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Anderson, G. F. and Hussey, P. S. "Population Aging: A Comparison among Industrialized Countries." Health Affairs 19 (2000):191203.

Basavarajappa, K. G. and Ram, B. Historical Statistics of Canada. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Catalogue Number 11-516-XIE, 2001.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Labour Force Statistics, 19791999. Paris: OECD, 2000.

Statistics Canada. Census of Canada, 1981, Volume 1. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Catalogue Number 82-901, 1982.

Statistics Canada. "Population Projections for 2001, 2006, 2011, 2016, 2021 and 2026, July 1." in CANSIM Matrix 6900. Ottawa: Statistics Canada website, www.statcan.ca

Statistics Canada. A Portrait of Seniors in Canada, Third Edition. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Catalogue Number 89-519-XPE, 1999.

Statistics Canada. "Preliminary Population Estimate." The Daily. (November 20, 2001): 1.

Statistics Canada. Statistics Canada's Low Income Cut-offs, 1992 Base. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Catalogue Number 13-207-XPB, 1998.

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Canada

Canada

Recipes

Sauteed Fiddleheads ................................................... 63
Canadian Bacon with Maple Glaze.............................. 63
Sweet Corn Pancakes .................................................. 64
Canada Day Cake........................................................ 65
Nanaimo Bars ............................................................. 65
Maple Sundae............................................................. 67
Fish and Brewis ........................................................... 67
Maple Syrup Upside-Down Cake................................. 67

1 GEOGRAPHIC SETTING AND ENVIRONMENT

Canada is the world's second-largest country (after Russia), and is the largest country in North America. The eastern provinces, known as the Maritimes, are separated from the rest of the country by low mountain ranges. Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island are island provinces in the Atlantic Ocean.

Along the border with the United States in the center of Canada is a fertile plain bounded by the Saint Lawrence River, Lake Ontario, and the Hudson Bay. Also along the U.S. border further to the west are farms and ranches. Extending through western Alberta to the Pacific Ocean is the northern portion of the Rocky Mountain range. Mount Logan, at 19,524 feet (5,915 meters) the highest peak in Canada, is near the Alaska border. The climate varies across the vast Canadian territory. The west coast gets about 60120 inches (150–</