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American Airlines

American Airlines

P.O. Box 619616
Dallas/Fort Worth Airport, Texas 75261
U.S.A.
(817) 355-1234

Wholly owned subsidiary of AMR Corporation
Incorporated: 1934
Employees: 97,752
Sales: $12.89 billion
Stock Exchanges: New York

Given the difficult conditions created for the airline industry by deregulation, which was initiated in the late 1970s, the success of many airline companies was difficult to assess. American Airlines, however, has mastered the deregulation market to become the United States number one airline. As large as the company is, it is able to maintain a highly flexible and responsive attitude toward the changing conditions of the airline market.

American Airlines is a product of the merger of a number of small airline companies. One of these founding enterprises was the Robertson Aircraft Company of Missouri, which employed Charles Lindbergh to pilot its first airmail run in 1926. In April 1927 another of these small companies, Juan Trippes Colonial Air Transport, made the first scheduled passenger run between Boston and New York City. The nucleus of these and the 82 other companies that eventually merged to form American Airlines was a company called Embry-Riddle, which later evolved into the Aviation Corporation (AVCO), one of the United States first airline conglomerates. The conglomerate was headed by a Wall Street group led by Avrell Harriman and Robert Lehman that was not conversant with the new airline business.

In 1930 Charles Coburn formally united the various airlines under the name American Airways Company. American flew a variety of planes, including the Pilgrim 10A. In 1930 the company was granted control of the Southern airmail corridor from the East Coast to California. In 1934 the government suspended all private airmail contracts only to reinstate them a few months later under the conditions that previous contract holders were disqualified from bidding and companies could not have the same officers and directors. American Airways thus changed its name to American Airlines and, under the leadership of Lester Seymour, resumed its airmail business but due to the damage already caused by this interruption, was unable to maintain a profit.

During this period, a Texan named Cyrus Rowlett Smith was becoming a popular figure at American. Smith was originally the vice president and treasurer of Southern Air Transport, a division later acquired by American. Seymour recognized Smiths ability and made him a vice president of American in charge of the Southern Division.

In 1934 new American President Smith persuaded Donald Douglas, an aircraft manufacturer, to develop a new airplane to replace the popular DC-2. The company developed a larger 21-passenger airplane, designated the DC-3. Cooperation between the manufacturer and the airline throughout the project set an example for similar joint ventures in the future. American was flying the DC-3s by 1936 and, largely as a result of the successful new plane, went on to become the number one airline by the close of the decade. The DC-3 proved to be a very popular airplane; its innovative and simple design made it durable and easy to service.

During 1937, in reaction to a public scare over airline safety, American ran a printed advertisement that directly asked, Afraid to Fly? Citing the statistical improbability of dying in a crash, the copy discussed the problem in a straightforward and reassuring way. People are afraid of things they do not know about, the advertisement read, there is only one way to overcome the fearand that is, to fly. The promotion succeeded in allaying passenger fears and increasing the airlines business.

When World War II started American Airlines devoted over half of its resources to the army. American DC-3s shuttled the Signal Corps and supplies to Brazil for the transatlantic ferry. Smith himself volunteered his services to the Air Transport Command. Americans president, Ralph Damon, went to the Republic Aircraft Company to supervise the building of fighter airplanes. After the war American returned to its normal operations, and Smith set out to completely retool the company with modern equipment. The modernization went smoothly and quickly. In 1949 Americans arch rival, United Airlines, was still flying DC-3s, while American had already sold its last DC-3s.

American Airlines purchased American Export Airlines (AEA) from American Export Steamship Lines. The steamship company was forced to sell AEA when the United States Congress decreed that transportation companies could not conduct business in more than one mode. It was an attempt to prevent industrial vertical monopolies from forming.

In the late 1940s American suffered another financial crisis, caused mainly by the grounding of the DC-6. The airplanes were experiencing operational problems that led to crashes, and the federal government wanted all of them thoroughly inspected. Six weeks later they were back in service, but the interruption cost American a large amount of money. When banks restricted Americans line of credit, Smith joined representatives of TWA and United on Capitol Hill to lobby for fare increases. Subsequently, as part of a compromise, American was awarded an airmail subsidy.

Still facing financial difficulties, company management attempted to raise cash by selling overseas routes served by the Amex flying boats. The sale was blocked by the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB). American needed the cash, and Juan Trippe at Pan Am actually wanted to purchase the overseas routes. As a result, they jointly lobbied the administration of President Harry S. Truman to overturn the CAB decision, but the timing was inauspicious. The time was June 1950, and the president was focused on the war in Korea. A few weeks later, after the Korean situation stabilized, Truman did finally rule in favor of the airlines and American was allowed the sale. Thus the company avoided a debilitating financial crisis.

American made the first scheduled non-stop transcontinental flights in 1953 with the 80-passenger DC-7. In 1955 American ordered its first jetliners, Boeing 707s, which were delivered in 1959. With larger and faster aircraft on the drawing boards, American became interested in, and eventually purchased, jumbo B-747s in the late 1960s. The company also ordered a number of supersonic transports, but was forced to cancel these orders when Congress halted funding to Boeing for their development.

C. R. Smith left American in 1968 for a position in the Lyndon B. Johnson Administration, serving the president as secretary of commerce. Smith was succeeded at American by a lawyer named George A. Spater, who changed the companys marketing strategy and attempted to make the airline more attractive to vacationers instead of to the traditional business traveler, a plan that ultimately failed. Spaters presidency lasted only until 1973, when he admitted to making an illegal $55,000 corporate contribution to the former President Richard Nixons re-election campaign. Some believe the gift was intended to procure favorable treatment from the Civil Aeronautics Board for American. As a result, Americans board of directors decided to fire Spater and draft Smith out of retirement at the age of 74 to head the company again.

Smith retired after only seven months when the board of directors persuaded Albert V. Casey to leave the Times-Mirror Company in Los Angeles to join American. As the new chief executive officer, Casey reversed the companys fortunes from a deficit of $20 million in 1975 to a record profit of $134 million in 1978. To everyones surprise Casey decided to move the airlines headquarters from New York City to Dallas/Fort Worth. Though some said Casey was unhappy with his inability to gain acceptance in New Yorks social circles, Casey reasoned that a domestic airline should be based between the coasts. Believing the company needed to be shaken out of its lethargy, he felt that American would benefit from the relocation.

Soon afterward, American introduced Super Saver fares during 1977 in an innovative attempt to fill passenger seats on coast-to-coast flights. TWA and United followed suit after they failed to persuade the CAB to intervene.

Also in 1977 American was forced to rehire 300 flight attendants who were fired between 1965 and 1970 because they had become pregnant. The award also included $2.7 million in back pay. Compounding these setbacks, on May 25, 1979, an American DC-10 crashed at Chicagos OHare airport. Later blamed on inadequate maintenance procedures, the crash resulted in 273 deaths and a fine of $500,000 by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Although the company collected $24.3 million in insurance benefits, it has been forced to pay wrongful death settlements averaging $475,000 per passenger.

The Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 had the effect of making the airline industry suddenly volatile and competitive. American could adjust to deregulation in one of several ways. First, it could sell its jetliners once they were written down, and move into other, more promising businesses. Second, it could scale down only partially, leaving a more efficient operation to compete with new airlines like New York Air and People Express. A third option was to ask employees to accept salary reductions and other concessions as Frank Borman did at Eastern. In the end, American was not forced to take any of these measures. The company secured a two-tier wage contract with its employees and this new agreement reduced labor costs by as much as $10,000 a year per new employee. In addition, workers were given a profit sharing interest in the company.

Robert Crandall, formerly with Eastman Kodak, Hallmark, TWA, and Bloomingdales, joined American in 1973 and became its president in 1980. On October 1, 1982, Crandall oversaw the creation of a holding company, the AMR Corporation. According to the companys 1982 annual report, this move would not affect daily business, but would provide the company with access to sources of financing that otherwise might be unavailable. Known for his impatient and aggressive manner, Crandall may be credited with Americans successful, but not completely painless, readjustment to the post-deregulation era. Crandall fired approximately 7000 employees in an austerity drive, a decision that severely damaged his standing with the unions.

American updated its jetliner fleet to meet the new conditions in the industry during the 1980s by phasing in B-767s and MD-80s. The MD-80s have two major advantages over other aircraft: a two-person cockpit crew and high fuel efficiency. Crandall noted that American was developing a new, inexpensive airline inside the old one.

In addition, the Sabre computer reservations system dominates the business and is widely regarded as the best in the industry. The Sabre system allows agents to assign seats, reserve tickets for Broadway plays, book lodgings, and even arrange to send flowers to passengers. Extremely successful in filling space on American flights efficiently and inexpensively, the Sabre system eventually expanded by beginning operations in Europe.

American runs a major hub at Dallas/Fort Worth and OHare in Chicago. Secondary hubs in Nashville and Raleigh-Durham are intended to more firmly establish the airline in the Southeast. In addition to a multi-hub system and the reservations database, American contracts with smaller regional carriers.

American owned a number of subsidiaries when it created the AMR holding company. An airline catering business called Sky Chefs was started in 1942 and served American and several other air carriers. In 1977 American created AA Development Corporation and AA Energy Corporation. These subsidiariesmerged in 1984 to create AMR Energy Corporationparticipated in the exploration and development of oil and natural gas resources, many of which were successful. The American Airlines Training Corporation, created in 1979, serviced military and commercial contracts that provided training for pilots and mechanics. All three subsidiaries were sold in 1986.

In 1985 American surpassed United in passenger traffic and regained after twenty years the title of number one airline in the United States. Although the company has dealt reasonably well with disruptions in the industry, and despite its stated intention to grow internally, American announced in November 1986 that it would acquire ACI Holdings, Inc., the parent company of AirCal, for $225 million in response to announcements by Americans competitors Delta and Northwest, which had entered into cooperation agreements with western air carriers. The addition of AirCaPs western routes significantly increased Americans exposure on the West Coast and would possibly lead to American services across the Pacific Ocean.

As the decade of the 1980s ended, the airline industry was challenged by a weakening economy and such costly arises as the fuel price spike caused by the Persian Gulf war, which contributed to industry losses of $2.4 billion in 1990. American pursued a strategy of acquiring key overseas routes from troubled or failed airlines, cutting costs, and using its leading position to harry its opponents in price wars. In 1989 it purchased TWAs Chicago operations and London routes, to which it added, in 1991, six more TWA London routes at a price of $445 million. Also that year, American purchased from failed Eastern Airlines the routes to 20 Latin American sites. By the close of the 1980s American was purchasing planes at a rate of one every five days; its fleet stands among the worlds newest. At the same time, Crandall has cut executive perks and flight expenses in a general program of internal belt-tightening. The chief executive officer once ordered the removal of olives from all salads served on American planes, saving $100,000 a year.

Throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, Crandalls ruthlessand effectivecompetitive strategies have been the focus of industry controversy. Smaller airlines, as well as such larger and financially troubled airlines as TWA, have accused Crandall of using unfair, cannibalistic tactics to create a situation in which a few major carriers, having eliminated their competition, can agree to maintain high prices without fear of being undercut. Crandall has countered, however, according to Business Week, that Americans strategies are perfectly within reason in an intensely, vigorously, bitterly, savagely competitive industry. Any shifts within the industry, including the elimination of some weaker companies, he has argued, are a necessary if painful part of restructuring an industry with a surplus of carriers. Further, he contends, many of Americans ailing competitors have brought their woes upon themselves by initiating fare wars, which force all carriers to sell seats at losses that the smaller carriers ultimately cannot afford. The airline industry, Crandall commented in an interview with Time, is always in the grip of its dumbest competitors.

In April 1992, American introduced a new air fare system, designed to r implify rates that had been made complicated over the years by myriad restricted, cut-rate fare specials. The new system includes only four fares: first-class, coach, 7-day advance purchase, and 21-day advance purchase. Each price represented a cut in the fare for that categoryup to 50 percent for first-class ticketsbut the new system also eliminated the promotions that enabled vacation travelers to buy coach tickets at bargain rates. American held that the old discount fares were damaging the industry and that the new rates would be fairer to consumers. Detractors charged that the fares would benefit business travelers far more than tourists, and that the pricing system was designed to drive financially weak carriers out of business by forcing them to make fare cuts they could not afford. Americans competitors soon matched its prices, then countered with a new wave of restricted, reduced fares. In October of 1992, however, Crandall speculated that the company might drop the program due to industry price cuts.

American has entered the uncertain airline market of the 1990s with a reputation for innovation and fierce and effective competitiveness. Having pioneered such now-widespread business and marketing practices as two-tiered wage systems, frequent flyer programs, and computerized reservation services, American is recognized as a pace-setter in a volatile industry. As deregulation appears increasingly to favor the consolidation of domesticand possibly even internationalairline business into the hands of a few major airlines, American is poised to retain a position of prominence.

Principal Subsidiaries

AMR Information Services (AMRIS); AMR Decision Technologies; AMR Consulting Group; AMR Services; AMR Investment Services.

Further Reading

Serling, Robert, Eagle: The Story of American Airlines, New York, Dial, 1980; Jackson, Robert, The Sky Their Frontier: The Story of the Worlds Pioneer Airlines and Routes, 1920-1940, Shrewsbury, England, Air-life, 1983; Tiburzi, Bonnie, Takeoff! The Story of Americas First Woman Pilot for a Major Airline, New York, Crown, 1984; Woodbury, Richard, How the New No. 1 Got There, Time, May 15, 1989; Laibioh, Kenneth, American Takes on the World, Fortune, September 24, 1990; AMR Corporation annual report, 1991; Baumohl, Bernard, Deborah Fowler, and William McWhirter, Fasten Your Seat Belts for the Fare War, Time, April 27, 1992; Castro, Janice, This Industry Is Always in the Grip of Its Dumbest Competitors, Time, May 4, 1992; The Airline Mess, Business Week, July 6, 1992.

John Simley

updated by James Poniewozik

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"American Airlines." International Directory of Company Histories. 1992. Encyclopedia.com. 25 May. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"American Airlines." International Directory of Company Histories. 1992. Retrieved May 25, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-2841000036.html

American Airlines

American Airlines

P.O. Box 619616
Dallas/Fort Worth Airport, Texas 75261
U.S.A.
(817) 355-1234

Wholly-owned subsidiary of AMR Corporation
Incorporated: April 11, 1934
Employees: 37,500
Sales: $6.018 billion
Market Value: $3.304 billion
Stock Index: New York

Given the difficult conditions created for the airline industry by deregulation, the success of many airline companies is difficult to assess. American Airlines, however, has mastered the new deregulation market and has grown to become the United States number one airline. As large as the company is, it is able to maintain a highly flexible and responsive attitude toward the changing conditions of the airline market.

American Airlines is a product of the conglomeration of a number of small airline companies. One of these founding companies was the Robertson Aircraft Company of Missouri, which employed Charles Lindbergh on the first mail run in 1926. In April of 1927 another of these small companies, Juan Trippes Colonial Air Transport, made the first passenger run between Boston and New York. The nucleus of these and the 82 other companies that eventually merged to form American Airlines was a company called Embry-Riddle. It later organized the Aviation Corporation of the Americas, one of Americas first airline conglomerates. The conglomerate was run by a Wall Street group who were not very conversant with the new airline business. This group was led by Avrell Harri-man and Robert Lehman.

In 1930 Charles Coburn formally merged the various airlines into one concern named the American Airways Company. American flew a varied assortment of planes, including the Pilgrim 10A. In 1930 American was awarded the Southern airmail corridor from the East Coast to California. In 1934 the government suspended all private airmail contracts only to reinstate them a few months later. American resumed its airmail business but, due to the damage already caused by this interruption, was unable to maintain a profit.

The company was soon in financial trouble. It was rather easily acquired by a corporate raider named E. L. Cord who changed the name of the company to American Airlines. Harriman and Lehman resigned in protest when Cord installed an ineffective man named Lester Seymour as president. Both men returned to Wall Street, and Harriman later served as the wartime ambassador to the Soviet Union.

During this period of time, a Texan named Cyrus Rowlett Smith was quickly becoming a popular figure at American. Smith was originally the head of Southern Air Transport, a division later acquired by American. Cord recognized Smiths ability and later made him vice-president of American, despite the fact that they didnt like each other personally.

In the early 1930s Smith persuaded Donald Douglas to develop a new airplane to replace the popular but obsolete DC-2. Douglas airplane company developed a larger 21 passenger airplane, designated the DC-3. Cooperation between the manufacturer and the airline throughout the project set an example for similar joint ventures in the future. American was flying the DC-3s by 1936. It became the number one airline by the close of the decade, largely as a result of the successful new plane. The DC-3, called the flying whore because it had no visible means of support, proved to be a very popular airplane; its innovative and simple design made it durable and easy to service. Smith said the DC-3 was the first airplane that could make money just by hauling passengers.

During 1937, in reaction to a public scare over airline safety, American ran a printed advertisement which directly asked, Afraid to Fly? Citing the statistical impossibility of dying in a crash, the copy discussed the problem in a straightforward and reassuring way. People are afraid of things they do not know about, the advertisement read, there is only one way to overcome the fearand that is, to fly. The promotion succeeded in allaying passenger fears and increasing the airlines business.

When World War II started American Airlines devoted over half of its resources to the army. American DC-3s shuttled the Signal Corps and supplies to Brazil for the transatlantic ferry. Smith himself volunteered his services to the Air Transport Command. Americans president, Ralph Damon, went to the Republic Aircraft Company to supervise the building of fighter airplanes.

After the war American returned to its normal operations, and Smith set out to completely retool the company with modern equipment. The modernization went smoothly and quickly. In 1949 Smith had a good laugh, so to speak, when arch-rival United was still flying DC-3s and American had already donated its last DC-3 to a museum.

American Airlines acquired a fleet of flying boats when it purchased Amex Airlines from American Export Steamship Lines. The steamship company was forced to sell Amex when the U.S. Congress decreed that transportation companies could not conduct business in more than one mode. It was an attempt to prevent industrial vertical monopolies from forming. Pan Am, until then the only airline with flying boats, began to experience competition from American on its overseas routes.

In the late 1940s American suffered another financial crisis, in large part caused by the grounding of the DC-6. The airplanes were experiencing operational problems which led to their crashing, and the federal government wanted all of them thoroughly inspected. Six weeks later they were back in service, but the interruption cost American a large amount of money. When banks restricted Americans line of credit, Smith joined representatives of TWA and United on Capitol Hill to lobby for fare increases. Subsequently, as part of a compromise, American was awarded an airmail subsidy.

Still experiencing financial difficulties, company management attempted to raise cash by selling the overseas routes served by the Amex flying boats. The sale was blocked by the Civil Aeronautics Board. American needed the cash and Juan Trippe at Pan Am actually wanted to purchase the overseas routes. As a result, they jointly lobbied the Truman administration to overturn the CAB decision, but the timing was inauspicious. The time was June of 1950 and the Presidents mind was on the war in Korea. A few weeks later, after the Korean situation stabilized, Truman did finally rule in favor of the airlines and American was allowed the sale. In this way the company avoided a debilitating financial crisis.

American made the first scheduled non-stop transcontinental flights in 1953 with the 80-passenger DC-7. In 1955 American ordered its first jetlines, Boeing 707s. The 707s were delivered in 1959 and entered service at American with several new Lockheed Electras. With larger and faster aircraft on the drawing boards, American became interested in, and eventually purchased, jumbo B-747s in the late 1960s. The company also ordered a number of supersonic transports, but was forced to cancel these orders when congress halted funding to Boeing for their development.

C.R. Smith left the airline in 1968 for a position in the Johnson Administration, serving the President as Secretary of Commerce. Smith was succeeded at American by a lawyer named George A. Spater. After taking command, Spater changed the marketing strategy and attempted to make the airline more attractive to vacation-goers instead of to the traditional business traveler. The strategy failed. His presidency lasted only until 1973, when he admitted to making an illegal $55,000 corporate contribution to the Nixon re-election campaign. Some believe the gift was intended to procure favorable treatment from the Civil Aeronautics Board for American. As a result, the board fired Spater and drafted Smith out of retirement at the age of 74 to head the company again.

Smith retired after only seven months when the board of directors persuaded Albert V. Casey to leave the Times-Mirror Company in Los Angeles and join American. As the new chief executive officer Casey reversed the companys fortunes from a deficit of $20 million in 1975 to a record profit of $134 million in 1978. To everyones surprise Casey decided to move the airlines headquarters from New York to Dallas/Fort Worth. Interestingly enough Caseys brother, John, was a vice chairman of Braniff International, which was also based in Dallas. Some said Casey was unhappy with his inability to gain acceptance in New Yorks social circles. Caseys response was that a domestic airline belongs in Mid-America. Believing the company needed to be shaken out of its lethargy he said, the company had to get repotted, replanted.

Soon afterwards, American introduced Super Saver fares during 1977 in an innovative attempt to fill passenger seats on coast-to-coast flights. TWA and United followed suit after they failed to persuade the CAB to intervene.

During that year American was also forced to rehire 300 flight attendants who were fired between 1965 and 1970 because they had become pregnant. The award also included $2.7 million in back pay. Compounding these setbacks, on May 25, 1979, American lost a DC-10 at Chicagos OHare airport. 273 people died in the crash, which was later blamed on inadequate maintenance procedures. As a result, American was fined a half million dollars by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Although the company collected $24.3 million from insurance, it has been forced to pay wrongful death settlements averaging $475,000 per passenger.

To better protect itself from crises in the industry, Casey set up a holding company for the airline and a number of its other businesses. The new parent company was called the AMR Corporation. Many airlines created holding companies to diversify their resources in the event of serious hardship in the industry.

The Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 had the effect of making the airline industry suddenly volatile and competitive. AMR had several options with which to deal with deregulation. First, it could divest itself of the airline, selling its jetliners once they were written down, and moving into other more promising businesses. Second, it could scale down only partially, leaving a more efficient operation to compete with new airlines like New York Air and People Express. A third option was to ask employees to accept salary reductions and other concessions as Frank Borman did at Eastern. In the end, American was not forced to take any of these measures. The company secured a two-tier wage contract with its employees and this new agreement reduced labor costs by as much as $10,000 a year per new employee. In addition, workers were given a profit sharing interest in the company.

Robert Crandall, formerly with Eastman Kodak, Hallmark, TWA and Bloomingdales, joined American in 1973 and became its president in 1980. Known for his impatient and aggressive manner, Crandall may be credited with Americans successful, but not completely painless, readjustment to the post-deregulation era. Crandall fired approximately 7000 employees in an austerity drive, a decision that severely damaged his standing with the unions.

American updated its jetliner fleet to meet the new conditions in the industry during the 1980s by phasing in B-767s and MD-80s. The MD-80s have two major advantages over other aircraft: a two-person cockpit crew and high fuel efficiency. American is relying heavily on the success of the MD-80, having already received 67 of them with the option to purchase up to 100 more. Crandall says, American is growing a new, low-cost airline inside the old one. With an interest in purchasing the MD-80s and the stretched MD-82, American is relying on McDonnell Douglas to provide much of its planned fleet of over 330 jetliners by 1990.

Americans Sabre computer reservations system dominates the business, and it is widely regarded as the best in the industry. The Sabre system allows agents to assign seats, book Broadway plays or lodging, and can even arrange to send flowers to passengers. Naturally, the system is biased toward American, listing the airline ahead of all the others. The system has proved extremely successful in filling space on American efficiently and at low cost. Recently, the Sabre system has expanded by beginning operation in Europe.

American runs a major hub at Dallas/Fort Worth and at Chicago. Secondary hubs in Nashville and Raleigh/Durham are intended to more firmly establish the airline in the Southeast. In addition to a multi-hub system and the reservations database, American contracts with smaller regional carriers, called American Eagle Partners, to feed traffic into the American system.

American owned a number of subsidiaries when it created the AMR holding company. An airline catering business called Sky Chefs was started in 1942, and serves American and a number of other air carriers. In 1977 American created AA Development Corporation and AA Energy Corporation. These subsidiaries participated in the exploration and development of oil and natural gas resources, many of which were successful. The American Airlines Training Corporation, created in 1979, services military and commerical contracts that provide for pilot and mechanic training.

In 1985 American surpassed United in passenger traffic and regained after twenty years the title of number one airline in the United States. Although the company has dealt reasonable well with disruptions in the industry, and despite its stated intention to grow internally, American announced in November of 1986 that it would acquire ACI Holdings, Incorporated, the parent company of AirCal, for $225 million. Americans competitors, Delta and Northwest, recently announced cooperation agreements with western air carriers. Management at American was afraid that the company would be eliminated from the West Coast market if it did not move quickly. The addition of AirCals western routes significantly increases Americans exposure on the West Coast, and would possible lead to American services across the Pacific.

Principal Subsidiaries of AMR Corporation

American Airlines, Inc.; Flagship International, Inc.; A A Development Corp.; A A Energy Corp.; A A Training Corp.; AMR Services Corp.

Further Reading

Eagle: The Story of American Airlines by Robert Serling, New York, Dial, 1980; The Sky Their Frontier: The Story of the Worlds Pioneer Airlines and Routes 1920-1940 by Robert Jackson, Shrewsbury, England, Airlife, 1983; Takeoff! The Story of Americas First Woman Pilot for a Major Airline by Bonnie Tiburzi, New York, Crown, 1984.

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"American Airlines." International Directory of Company Histories. 1988. Encyclopedia.com. 25 May. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"American Airlines." International Directory of Company Histories. 1988. Encyclopedia.com. (May 25, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-2840500038.html

"American Airlines." International Directory of Company Histories. 1988. Retrieved May 25, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-2840500038.html

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