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Aerobics

AEROBICS

AEROBICS, meaning "with oxygen," refers to physical exercise to improve cardiorespiratory endurance. Aerobic movement is rhythmic and repetitive, engaging the large muscle groups in the arms and legs for at least twenty minutes at each session. The ensuing demand for a continuous supply of oxygen creates the aerobic training effect, physiological changes that enhance the ability of the lungs, heart, and blood vessels to transport oxygen throughout the body. The most beneficial aerobic exercises include cross-country skiing, swimming, running, cycling, walking, and aerobic dance. Activities that rely on brief or discontinuous bursts of energy, such as weight lifting, are anaerobic ("without oxygen").

An early proponent of aerobics was Kenneth H. Cooper, a medical doctor whose 1968 book Aerobics introduced the first exercise program for cardiorespiratory improvement. Cooper also founded the Institute for Aerobics Research in Dallas, Texas. The Aerobics and Fitness Association of America certifies aerobics instructors and sets equipment and training standards.

Aerobic movement as a formal exercise has been popular since the late 1960s. The correlation between optimum physical activity and lowered incidence of cardiovascular disease gained wide medical acceptance. Exercise also appears to strengthen the immune system and ameliorate depression. Aerobic workout innovations from the 1980s to the early 2000s included such equipment as steps, weights, and elastic bands; cross-training programs, which involve two or more types of exercise; aerobic dances that combine yoga, martial arts, and other forms of movement with music, including African, Caribbean, salsa, hip-hop, rock, and jazz; and adaptations of such traditional activities as bicycling and boxing into aerobic routines such as spinning and cardio-kickboxing.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

White, Timothy P., and the editors of the "University of California at Berkeley Wellness Letter." The Wellness Guide to Lifelong Fitness. New York: Rebus, 1993.

CarolGaskin/d. b.

See alsoRecreation ; Sports .

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aerobics

aerobics (ârō´biks), [Gr.,=with oxygen], system of endurance exercises that promote cardiovascular fitness by producing and sustaining an elevated heart rate for a prolonged period of time, thereby pumping an increased amount of oxygen-rich blood to the muscles being used. Such aerobic activities as running, swimming, and cycling can improve the body's use of oxygen, thereby allowing the heart to work less strenuously. Major Kenneth H. Cooper, a physician, pioneered the field with Aerobics (1968), which outlined fitness programs based on his study of 50,000 U.S. Air Force men and women. Since the 1980s, the term has indicated a specific type of physical fitness routine that involves a fast-paced series of exercises usually performed to the accompaniment of music. Variations include aerobic dance, jazz dance exercise, step aerobics, and low-impact aerobics. Aerobics has become one of the most popular forms of physical exercise in the United States, spawning growing memberships in exercise clubs and creating a large commercial market that includes celebrity exercise videotapes and aerobic gear.

See P. Malfetone and M. Mantell, The High Performance Heart (1991).

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aerobics

aerobics Programmed rhythmic exercises, typically performed to music in sessions lasting the order of 30 min, at an intensity requiring the heart and respiratory rates to be high throughout most of the period but never maximal; original concept defined in numerical terms by Cooper in the 1960s. Contrast the more general physiological adjective ‘aerobic’.

Neil C. Spurway


See exercise.

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"aerobics." The Oxford Companion to the Body. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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aerobics

aer·o·bics / əˈrōbiks; e(ə)ˈrō-/ • pl. n. [often treated as sing.] vigorous exercises, such as swimming or walking, designed to strengthen the heart and lungs.

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"aerobics." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"aerobics." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved December 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/aerobics