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Lawyers

LAWYERS

The activities of early modern lawyers had much in common with those of their modern counterparts. They practiced courtroom defense, acted as political and legal counsels to princely houses, municipalities, and religious houses, and held positions in the courts and royal administration. The general economic expansion since the late Middle Ages and the accompanying growth of social and institutional complexity created a growing demand for services that could be performed only by those who possessed technical and specialized legal skills. Just as modern states employ teams of lawyers, a variety of governmental and judicial institutions of early modern states needed legally educated personnel. The functions and organization of lawyers varied over time and space, but the early modern period saw the ever-increasing presence and influence of lawyers throughout Europe.

RISE OF LAWYERS

The legal profession was already vigorous in the Italian towns of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, fostered in part by the revival of jurisprudence in the study of Roman law. The Florentine guild of lawyers and notaries (Arte dei Giudici e Notai) dates from the early thirteenth century. The rise of lawyers in northern Europe coincided with the establishment of the supremacy of the royal courts over seigneurial and ecclesiastical jurisdictions. In France, lawyers for secular courts appeared in the mid-thirteenth century around the same time as the emergence of the sovereign court, the parlement. Feudal procedure, with its reliance on a judicial duel and ordeal, had been gradually transformed in the king's courts into accusatory procedure, where the parties were required to substantiate their claims by calling upon witnesses and producing written proof. The complexity of adversarial procedure required the intervention of legally educated personnel capable of representing the parties involved. The crowns of England and France allowed litigants in royal courts to appoint lawyers to represent them and oversee the convoluted process of trial. A legal world that became increasingly complicated thus gave rise to professional lawyers when a growing number of people depended on royal justice for vindication.

Unlike in Italy, where the legal profession was governed and regulated by the guild, lawyers in northern Europe were closely attached to the state. The French royal ordinance of 1345 set the conditions of admission to the legal profession and its duties. To become a lawyer, the candidate had to prove that he (women were excluded) had studied law at a university for years. After the judges examined candidates' learning and moral rectitude, successful candidates were sworn in and were inscribed on the official roll. Lawyers were expected to abide by certain principles of professional conduct. According to the 1345 French rule, lawyers were prohibited from assuming the defense of causes they knew to be unjust, obliged to expedite the causes they had undertaken as promptly as was possible, and prohibited from withholding evidence from the opposing parties. These injunctions, which have a familiar ring today, were apparently frequently breached. The seventeenth-century writer Bernard de La Roche Flavin deplored the fact that lawyers all too often used surprises and dirty tricks, holding the best evidence back so as to catch the opponents by surprise in front of the judge. Another rule, also repeated time and again, was to plead and write briefly. Irrepressible verbosity of lawyersand the public's exasperation with itgoes back to the profession's formation.

DIVISION OF FUNCTIONS

The lawyers of early modern Europe were a diverse group, ranging from a small elite of learned jurists to obscure practitioners akin to legal artisans. From early on, notaries were considered to form a profession separate from lawyers. In the Italian guild of judge-lawyers and notaries, the two groups were clearly distinguished. Drawing up contracts, deeds, marriage agreements, and wills was for the most part the province of notaries. Within the practice of law a division of function developed, leading to different careers with varying qualifications and reputation. The most fundamental distinction involved the separation between those who handled the procedural aspects of a suit and those who dealt with substantive legal issues. A royal proclamation of 1547 in England restricted the right to plead before the royal courts to students of the Inns of Court. By 1600 a rigid divide had emerged between advocati and procuratores (barristers and attorneys in England, avocats and procureurs in France, abogados and procuradors in Spain). Although the distinctions between the two groups were not as clear as in the modern English or French legal profession (barrister/solicitor in England and avocat /avoué in France until 1971), each group held an exclusive right on a specific activity. Only the advocatus (hereafter 'barrister'), not procurator (hereafter 'attorney'), had the right to plead before the court. In England solicitors (solicitadores in Spain) appeared as an identifiable branch of the legal profession during the sixteenth century.

A barrister was a man formally trained in jurisprudence. He offered legal advice to clients and presented oral or written arguments to the court. Barristers' arguments touched only on questions of law supposedly requiring legal knowledge and reasoning while questions of fact were left to the attorneys. Few French avocats, in fact, spent much time pleading in open court, for the parlements judged most cases on the basis of written evidence. Also, French avocats handled only civil cases; criminal defendants were deprived of their right to counsel by the ordinance of Villers-Cotterets in 1539. The ordinance of Villers-Cotterets required the use of French in both pleadings and court rulings, but lengthy Latin quotations were not easily abandoned by the Renaissance lawyers who were all too proud of their knowledge of the classics. Less prestigious than a barrister was an attorney. His place in society was solid but lowlier. It was an attorney who was most often consulted by a client needing legal representation at the beginning of a suit. His function was to steer cases through the court and take care of the procedural details, filing motions, drawing up writs, assembling facts, and collecting evidence. The attorney handled the formalities of the lawsuits, gave clients advice, and represented their claims in court. Only when a lawsuit involved a question of law that required greater expertise would the services of a barrister be obtained. An attorney was denied the right of audience, which properly belonged to a barrister, a full-fledged jurist. In the sixteenth century there was as yet no sign of the later rule prescribing that clients contact barristers only through attorneys, but usually attorneys procured clients in the marketplace and then chose barristers. Attorneys did not necessarily train at a university, instead learning their law through clerkship or apprenticeship to other practitioners.

In the early modern period French kings openly sold royal offices to the highest bidder. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the kings had forced venality upon nearly all legal occupations, magistracies included. French procureurs needed to purchase a venal office, but avocats did not become venal officers. The reason for this is not clear, but it is possible that the avocats ' powerful clients, prominent nobles and prelates, opposed venality, lest it threaten their interests. At any rate, this exemption of avocats from venality conferred a certain degree of status on the bar, as admission to its ranks was perceived to emphasize learning, not money. The price of the procureur 's offices rose sharply during the sixteenth century when the volume of litigation increased rapidly. Established attorneys opposed creation of additional places, fearing that such expansion would decrease the value of their own offices.

BUSINESS OF LAW

The relative profitability of the legal profession and its respectable status attracted talented young men to legal careers. There are many examples of those who pursued legal studies, often pressured by their ambitious fathers, but eventually failed or abandoned them: Petrarch (13041374), Martin Luther (14831546), John Calvin (15091564), and Voltaire (16941778) were only a few. The best source of lucrative practices for barristers lay in becoming consultants to leading princely houses, ecclesiastical institutions, towns, and corporate bodies. Those who made fortunes depended heavily on the business of aristocrats, managing their vast real estate holdings and providing legal and political advice. Of those lawsuits handled by Florentine lawyers, disputes over dowries were among the most common, followed by cases dealing with the confiscation of private property due to some act of rebellion. Other cases involved litigations between religious houses or between individual clerics over benefices, disputes between local administrations, or litigations between government offices and individuals.

Little is known about legal fees. There were significant differences of income within and between members of the branches of the legal profession. From early on, lawyers claimed that the fees they charged were the result of free agreement with the clients and thus outside any state interference. The kings often attempted to prohibit excessive fees, without much success. The French Ordinance of Blois of 1579 (Art. 161) stipulated that avocats reveal the amount of their fees at the bottom of deliberations and court documents. In 1602 the Parlement of Paris, backed by Henry IV, revived this rule, which had fallen out of observance. Livid over what they regarded as a blow to their honor, the avocats waged a successful two-week boycott of the courts in protest. Faced with the collective resignation of the avocats, the parlement had no choice but to withdraw the measure. In general, lawyers' vested interests in the existing system and its traditions dictated their outlook and attitudes. Lawyers of early modern Europe were a tight-knit corporate group. On the eve of the French Revolution, the king simply could not break the fundamental solidarity of the jurists blocking legal reforms.

Like their modern counterparts, early modern lawyers were targets of sustained hostility. They were criticized for overcharging, fraudulently keeping clients' monies, illegally negotiating contingent fees, maliciously pursuing delays, or lodging endless appeals. Tales of shyster lawyers seem timeless. Luther, never kind to lawyers, observed that a successful jurist was a woeful Christian.

LAWYERS AND CULTURE

Men with legal training were one of the most prominent groups in early modern culture. Renaissance humanism in Italy was largely a creation of lawyers and notaries, such as Coluccio Salutati (13311406), Poggio Bracciolini (13801459), and Lorenzo Valla (c. 14061457). The French Renaissance displayed the close relations between humanism and the law, as represented by Guillaume Budé (14671540), Jean Bodin (15301596), Antoine Loisel (15361617), and Étienne Pasquier (15291615). Thomas More (14781535), Francesco Guicciardini (1483150), Michel de Montaigne (15331592), Francis Bacon (15611626), Giambattista Vico (16681744), and Montesquieu (16891755) were among the many lawyers who were the leading minds of their time. Equipped with humanistic education and style, and endowed with judicial dignity and political influence, lawyers were often at the forefront of intellectual inquiry and challenge in early modern Europe.

SOCIAL BACKGROUND AND CAREERS

There existed a vast social gulf within the legal profession. Historians have confirmed the overall social heterogeneity of early modern European lawyers. The commonplace observation that the law was a quick and assured means of achieving upward social mobility appears exaggerated. Social mobility was indeed possible in the legal profession, but it occurred only at a slow pace over several generations. The great majority of lawyers in Europe came from families that had acquired wealth a few generations before there was a lawyer in the household. One obvious reason that the notion of rags to riches was no more than a myth in a legal career was that education at one of the great law schools was a very expensive affair. Historians have shown that a university education in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was much costlier than in modern times. A doctorate in canon law normally required six years of university and in civil law seven or eight years. A large number of lawyers had doctorates in both civil and canon law, spending a minimum of ten years in study. In most cases an aspiring lawyer either had some direct contact with the profession or had grown up with material means sufficient to set off to a university in order to pursue a dignified legal career.

Recruitment from within the legal professions was common and often involved a step upward. A son of a court clerk or a notary, for example, would become an attorney, and occasionally a shopkeeper's child would enter the career of attorney. The attorney, having made his moderate fortune, was likely to send his own child to law school and to the bar. Many lawyers in the Reichskammergericht (imperial court of justice) in Speyer in the early sixteenth century had been Prokuratoren (attorneys). It was rare for a barrister's or a magistrate's son to become an attorney, moving downward in social hierarchy. Many barristers came from families already established in the law. The bar also attracted the sons of well-off merchants or urban rentiers. Sons of barristers used their law degrees to move even further up the hierarchy of law. In France, positions as magistrates in the inferior courts were readily open to them, and there was a chance, providing they had the money, to purchase an ennobling office in a sovereign court.

From the mid-sixteenth century the legal profession in most European countries tended to become more exclusive. Within the legal field each group was increasingly conscious of its status and took steps to protect it. Separation of attorneys from barristers was not merely a matter of the evolution of distinct procedural functions but of the differentiation of lawyers organized on the lines of education, prestige, self-perception, and family links. A doctorate required of avocats as well as of magistrates in the sovereign courts was one of the means to regulate entry into the higher ranks of the legal profession. Both magistrates and barristers had the strong desire to perpetuate their profession in their families, and there existed a high degree of continuity of career among families involved in the practice of law. The law faculties in early modern Europe increasingly became the preserve of students whose fathers were, in one capacity or another, men of law. Any French magistrate who wished to guard his investment in office and pass it on intact in inheritance saw to it that at least one of his sons attended a faculty of law.

In England, the gentry entered the world of justice in great numbers. In the years 15901640 more than half the barristers were gentry. France witnessed in the sixteenth century the emergence of noble judicial families, a noblesse de robe. The proportion of aristocrats among those attending law faculties in the Holy Roman Empire quadrupled at the beginning of the seventeenth century. Throughout Europe, access to higher-ranking legal offices and occupations was firmly in the possession of tightly interwoven families of lawyers, many of which formed great legal dynasties. It became rarer to rise from the ranks of attorney to barrister. Barristers from outside the close-knit network had difficulty procuring legal business and complained that certain families jealously maintained a virtual monopoly on legal practice.

AN INDEPENDENT PROFESSION

Before 1600 the French avocats did not have a formal bar association. The discipline of the practicing avocats and the protection of their collective interests were largely left to the magistrates of the parlements. Many magistrates, presidents of the parlements, and chancellors were selected from avocats. However, this relationship of the traditional cordiality and mutual respect between the avocats and magistrates began to deteriorate seriously because of venality of offices. By the early seventeenth century, high judicial offices had been made inheritable, practically becoming personal property. Avocats no longer had special access to magistracies; they had to purchase judgeships like others. As prices of offices increased, the prospect of becoming a judge became slim. In terms of training and social profile, barristers did not differ much from magistrates. However, the sale of offices now drew a clear line between the magistrates and avocats, between those who came from families of prominence and inherited wealth and who now enjoyed the title of nobility by virtue of their offices and those who saw themselves relegated into second-class citizens in the world of the law. Charles Dumoulin (15001566), the great French jurist of customary law, blamed his struggling career as an avocat at the Parlement of Paris on venality. He bitterly claimed that he, a brilliant scholar, was being ignored in his own country simply because he did not choose (rather, could not afford) to purchase a judicial office. The kings recruited the members of royal councils and administration in large part from the parlements, and the proportion of lawyers acceding to the highest public offices declined after the mid-sixteenth century. Furthermore, the avocats faced added competition from officeholders who, often in debt after acquiring their position, actively sought business from princely houses as counselors.

The social and moral crisis suffered by the avocats eventually brought about a significant redefinition and redirection of the profession. The emergence of the independent Order of Barristers in France in the 1660s represented a step toward professionalization of the lawyers. The order set down standards of conduct and disciplined its members. Aspiring avocats now needed to complete a two-year internship to obtain practical skills before gaining formal acceptance by the order. Lawyers, responding to a crisis in their profession, embraced a modern sense of professionalism, a concern for high ethical standards and occupational competence.

LITIGATION AND LAWYERS

The changing culture of litigation in early modern Europe overall contributed to the emergence of professional consciousness among lawyers. The favorable economic and demographic climate of the sixteenth century resulted in a marked increase in litigation and an almost explosive rise in the number of lawyers. England saw an enormous increase in central court litigation between 1560 and 1640. Business in King's Bench increased fourfold between 1560 and 1580, and more than doubled between 1580 and 1640. Historians have noted a sharp rise in litigation in Castile beginning in the late fifteenth century and continuing almost uninterrupted until the second quarter of the seventeenth century. In England the years between 1558 and 1640 witnessed a steady increase in the number of admissions to the four Inns of Court, from around fifty per year in the early sixteenth century to about three hundred in the later years of the reign of James I. Matriculations in the law faculties soared during the sixteenth century throughout Europe, more than doubling the number of graduates in less than fifty years. Between five thousand and six thousand students were enrolled each year in the law faculties of Salamanca and Valladolid; in 1617 there were five thousand law students in Naples. In France during the reigns of Louis XIII and Louis XIV, the influx of students into the faculties of law was so copious that many reformers, including Jean-Baptiste Colbert, were concerned that it would hamper the development of a commercial class.

This century-long expansion of lawyers began to recede from the mid-seventeenth century. Recent studies have linked loss of population, a stagnant economy, and rising court costs to contraction in litigation and a corresponding decrease in the number of lawyers in the late seventeenth century. The shrinking number of suits was reflected in the decline of the universities' once prosperous law faculties. From Spain and England to the provinces of the Netherlands and the Holy Roman Empire, the stream of students in law faculties fell steadily during the eighteenth century.

The downturn in legal business brought about a significant change in the legal profession. A negative economic climate and business retrenchment meant that lawyers, in order to carve out a living from the law, needed to reconfigure their activities and recast their relations with society as a whole. Faced with professional uncertainty, shrinking sources of income, and growing competition, lawyers developed a new professional model, one based on occupational competence, competitiveness, self-regulation, a heightened sense of identity, and claims to special knowledge and expertise. The study of law had attracted not only students interested in a professional legal career but also sons of the gentry and the nobility for whom legal training represented a broad preparation for life. In England, fewer than 10 percent of those attending the Inns of Court at the beginning of the seventeenth century truly aimed at practice as a barrister. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries fewer than half of the lawyers in the Netherlands were active in their profession. In France thousands of men held the title of avocat in the seventeenth century, but only a small percentage of them practiced law, many holding the title for purely decorative reasons. In the eighteenth century, however, legal study became a relentlessly practical training of vocational nature. Being a law graduate and becoming a lawyer now meant a profession, not a mere status or ornament.

The legal profession in early modern Europe underwent long-term evolution. By the end of the eighteenth century, lawyers possessed most of the criteria associated with a modern career. The increasing professionalization of this old occupation played an essential role in the development of the law itself and the differentiation of the legal systems of modern Europe.

See also Crime and Punishment .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Primary Sources

La Roche Flavin, Bernard de. Treize livres des parlemens de France. Geneva, 1621.

Loisel, Antoine. Pasquier; ou, Dialogue des advocats du Parlement de Paris. Paris, 1602. Edited by André Dupin. Paris, 1844.

Secondary Sources

Acerra, Martine. "Les avocats du Parlement de Paris (16611715)." Histoire, économie et société 2 (1982): 213225.

Amelang, James S. "Barristers and Judges in Early Modern Barcelona: The Rise of a Legal Elite." The American Historical Review 89 (1984): 12641284.

Bell, David A. Lawyers and Citizens: The Making of a Political Elite in Old Regime France. New York, 1994.

Berlanstein, Lenard R. The Barristers of Toulouse in the Eighteenth Century (17401793). Baltimore, 1975.

Bouwsma, William J. "Lawyers and Early Modern Culture." The American Historical Review 78 (1973): 303327.

Brooks, Christopher W. Lawyers, Litigation and English Society since 1450. London, 1998.

Cipolla, Carlo. "The Professions: The Long View." The Journal of European Economic History 2 (1973): 3752.

Delachenal, Roland. Histoire des avocats au Parlement de Paris, 13001600. Paris, 1885.

Dolan, Claire. "Entre les familles et l'état: Les procureurs et la procédure au XVIe siècle." Journal of the Canadian Historical Association 10 (1999): 1936.

Kagan, Richard L. "Law Students and Legal Careers in Eighteenth-Century France." Past & Present 68 (1975): 3872.

. Lawsuits and Litigants in Castile, 15001700. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1981.

Karpik, Lucien. French Lawyers: A Study in Collective Action, 1274 to 1994. Translated by Nora Scott. Oxford, 1999.

Martines, Lauro. Lawyers and Statecraft in Renaissance Florence. Princeton, 1968.

Prest, Wilfrid, ed. Lawyers in Early Modern Europe and America. New York, 1981.

Ranieri, Filippo. "From Status to Profession: The Professionalisation of Lawyers as a Research Field in Modern European Legal History." The Journal of Legal History 10 (1989): 180190. Translation of "Vom Stand zum Beruf: Die Professionalisierung des Juristenstandes als Forschungsaufgabe der europäischen Rechtsgeschichte der Neuzeit" in Ius Commune 13 (1985): 83105.

Marie Seong-Hak Kim

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Lawyers

Lawyers

Sources

The Profession. Lawyers were few in the early English colonies because their skills were rarely required. In colonies like Massachusetts Bay the generally high level of education of the early inhabitants meant that some had experience in law. Gov. John Winthrop and the Reverend Nathaniel Ward were two such men. But there were no professional, full-time lawyers, and in colonies like early Virginia practically no one had any familiarity with English law. The demand for legal counsel came late in the 1600s and then only in the cities, usually fueled by merchants whose business interests were large enough and complicated enough to warrant seeking such help.

Attitudes. For most people in the 1600s, going to court meant representing oneself. Lawyers were suspect, seen as individuals who profited off other peoples misfortunes and tried to confuse honest folk with legal intricacies. From a modern point of view this meant that legal affairs were terribly amateurish in the seventeenth century. But at the time the prevailing social attitude kept the law from getting too complicated and expensive. A few colonies even attempted to prohibit the use of lawyers or at least to outlaw lawyers fees. All this allowed considerable room for experimentation, sometimes at the expense of innocent people, and it permitted lay peopleboth men and womento handle their own legal affairs.

Brent. One of the most important lawyers of seventeenth-century Maryland was a woman, Margaret Brent, who as attorney for her brothers economic interests and as consultant to Gov. Cecilius Calvert handled more cases than any other lawyer in her lifetime. Brents example reminds us that lawyers were needed, especially by the government and by those with sufficient wealth. New Netherland contained no practicing attorneys, despite much litigation, before English conquest made it New York in 1664. The Dukes Laws promulgated by Gov. Francis Nichols were actually written by a lawyer, Mathias Nichols (no relation), who had studied law in London. The result was that the Dukes Laws exhibited a superior understanding of the common law, which influenced New Yorks legal history more than any other colony.

The Few. By 1700 the major towns like New York, Philadelphia, Boston, and Charleston boasted several successful lawyers, but most of these had other business interests to explain their wealth. The small numbers meant that one wealthy client could retain all the local lawyers. In 1695, for example, New York had to impose restrictions on the number of lawyers available to any one litigant. Although New Yorks ranks of lawyers did grow, the colony licensed only around 170 lawyers between 1709 and 1776. Between 1695 and 1769 only 49 lawyers practiced in New York City. Virginia was slower in developing a qualified corps of legal professionals. A major reason was that the large landowners who dominated the colonys politics in the late 1600s did not want lawyers in their way. But after Virginia regularized its system of courts in 1705, the need for trained lawyers became more apparent. By the end of the colonial period Virginia was home to many distinguished legal minds, including Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall, and George Wythe.

Incomes. Most colonial lawyers did not get wealthy. The better lawyers in New York might earn around £700 per year in the mid 1700s. John Rutledge, lawyer to merchants in Charleston, South Carolina, made several thousand pounds per year, but that was unusual. Lawyers wages were kept low in Virginia by legislation. In the 1760s men like Patrick Henry and Jefferson earned in their peak years less than £600 each and collected only little more than half. Lawyers did make more than doctors, though, and their social and political prominence had risen greatly by the end of the colonial period, as had the professional standards which they attained.

Sources

Anton-Hermann Chroust, The Rise of the Legal Profession in America: The Colonial Experience (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1965);

The Legal Profession, in Encyclopedia of the North American Colonies, edited by Jacob Cooke (New York: Scribners, 1993).

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Lawyer

LAWYER

A person, who through a regular program of study, is learned in legal matters and has been licensed to practice his or her profession. Any qualified person who prosecutes or defends causes in courts of record or other judicial tribunals of the United States, or of any of the states, or who renders legal advice or assistance in relation to any cause or matter. Unless a contrary meaning is plainly indicated this term is synonymous with attorney, attorney at law, or counselor at law.

Each of the 50 states employs admissions committees or boards to review the backgrounds of prospective attorneys before they are admitted to practice. Each state also has adopted codes of conduct or disciplinary rules and has appointed adjudicative boards to address attorney misconduct. But these measures only weed out or discipline those who have violated laws or those who are otherwise unfit to practice law. They have done little to address the day-to-day civility and conduct of attorneys in their practice. In that regard, the behavior and conduct of peers and colleagues within the profession often impose more palpable influences on newly practicing attorneys than any standards or codes of ethics that they may have learned in law school.

A focus of a new movement in several states is not only to crack down on professional misconduct per se, but also to stem borderline conduct before it becomes an ethical violation. U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice william rehnquist, addressing new graduates from the University of Virginia School of Law in June 2001, remarked that incivility remained one of the greatest threats to the ideals of American justice and to the public's trust in the law. The conduct of former president bill clinton was considered to have seriously contributed to the harming of public confidence and trust in the legal profession because of his subjective approach to answering questions under oath and other improprieties associated with the legal aspects of his administration.

The american bar association (ABA) and lawyers' groups in more than a dozen states have joined in the movement to improve not only civility and courtesy among lawyers, but also the public's perception of the profession. Ultimately, the goal of these efforts is to ensure that attorneys have an unequivocal, current, and realistic standard of conduct and ethics to rely upon as a valid guide for their profession.

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lawyer

law·yer / ˈloi-ər; ˈlôyər/ • n. a person who practices or studies law; an attorney or a counselor. • v. [intr.] practice law; work as a lawyer: [as n.] (lawyering) lawyering is a craft that takes a long time to become proficient at. ∎  [tr.] (of a lawyer) work on the legal aspects of (a contract, lawsuit, etc.): there is always a danger that the deal will be lawyered to death. DERIVATIVES: law·yer·ly adj.

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lawyer

lawyer a man who is his own lawyer has a fool for a client it is unwise to believe that self-knowledge and self-interest will equip you to be your own advocate; proverbial saying, early 19th century.

See also barrack-room lawyer, the Devil makes his Christmas pies of lawyers' tongues at devil, Philadelphia lawyer.

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lawyer

lawyer see LAW.

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lawyer

lawyerannoyer, Boyer, destroyer, employer, enjoyer, Goya, hoya, lawyer, Nagoya, paranoia, sequoia, soya

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