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Western Australia

Western Australia, state (1991 pop. 1,409,965), 975,920 sq mi (2,527,633 sq km), Australia, comprising the entire western part of the continent. It is bounded on the N, W, and S by the Indian Ocean. Perth is the capital. Other important cities are Kalgoorlie, a gold-mining center; Fremantle, the chief port; and Bunbury, a port S of Perth. Western Australia is the largest state of the commonwealth, but only its southwest corner is fertile and substantially settled; the rest is arid and scarcely habitable. Half the population lives in the Perth metropolitan area. Western Australia's population of Australian aborigines numbers about 25,000. State-owned goldfields cover much of Western Australia, and there is a vast central desert. The King Leopold, Hamersley, and Stirling ranges are actually high plateaus. The large lakes in the interior are usually dry, and the northern rivers (the Fortescue, Fitzroy, and Ashburton) are intermittent; the only important river is the Swan in the southwest. The climate is tropical in the north and temperate in the southwest.

Agriculture is confined primarily to the southwest and around Perth. About one half of the cultivated land is in wheat. Sheep graze in the north and southwest, and wool is a major product. Meat, dairy products, and timber are also important. The mining of iron, gold, and bauxite has played a major role in the state's economy for many years. Industry expanded significantly during the 1960s; industrial metals, machinery, and transportation equipment are the main manufactures.

Dirck Hartog, a Dutchman who arrived in 1616, was the first European known to have visited the coast. A penal colony was founded at Albany in 1826, and the first free settlement was established in the Perth-Fremantle area in 1829. During the 1850s, Britain sent some 10,000 convicts to aid the settlers, most of whom had migrated from E Australia. In the 1860s the first livestock farmers arrived in the northwest. Gold was discovered in the 1880s. Governed at first by New South Wales, Western Australia received its own governor in 1831 and a full constitution as a separate colony in 1890. In 1901 it became a state of the newly formed Commonwealth of Australia. The state government consists of a premier, a cabinet, and a bicameral parliament. The nominal chief executive is the governor, appointed by the British crown on advice of the cabinet.

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Western Australia

Western Australia Largest state in Australia, bordered by the Timor Sea (n), the Indian Ocean (w and s), South Australia state and the Northern Territory (e); the capital is Perth. Other major cities are Mandurah, Kalgoorlie, Bunbury, and Fremantle – Perth's main port. The climate is mainly tropical or sub-tropical and more than 90% of the land is desert or semi-desert. Most settlements are in the sw, which has a temperate climate. The Swan River, the only significant water source, drains this sw region. In 1616 Dirck Hartog became the first European to visit Western Australia, but settlement did not begin until 1826, when a penal colony was founded. The first free settlement was in 1829. New South Wales governed Western Australia until 1831. In 1901 it became a state of the Commonwealth of Australia. The raising of sheep and cattle is the main agricultural activity, but the production of cereals, fishing and forestry are also important. Western Australia is the country's major gold-producing state; there is also mining for iron ore, coal, nickel, uranium, bauxite, phosphates, mineral sands, oil, and natural gas. Winemaking is also important. Area: 2,525,500sq km (975,095sq mi). Pop. (2000 est.) 1,897,400.

http://www.wa.gov.au

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