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Illinois Tool Works Inc.

Illinois Tool Works Inc.

3600 West Lake Avenue
Glenview, Illinois 60026-1215
U.S.A.
Telephone: (847) 724-7500
Fax: (847) 657-4261
Web site: http://www.itw.com

Public Company
Founded:
1912
Incorporated: 1915
Employees: 50,000
Sales: $12.92 billion (2005)
Stock Exchanges: New York Chicago
Ticker Symbol: ITW
NAIC: 325510 Paint and Coating Manufacturing; 325520 Adhesive and Sealant Manufacturing; 325998 All Other Miscellaneous Chemical Product and Preparation Manufacturing; 326112 Unsupported Plastics Packaging Film and Sheet Manufacturing; 326113 Unsupported Plastics Film and Sheet (Except Packaging) Manufacturing; 326199 All Other Plastics Product Manufacturing; 333319 Other Commercial and Service Industry Machinery Manufacturing; 333512 Machine Tool (Metal Cutting Types) Manufacturing; 333991 Power-Driven Handtool Manufacturing; 333992 Welding and Soldering Equipment Manufacturing; 333993 Packaging Machinery Manufacturing; 334519 Other Measuring and Controlling Device Manufacturing; 339943 Marking Device Manufacturing; 339993 Fastener, Button, Needle, and Pin Manufacturing

In 1912 four Smith brothers advertised for experienced manufacturing workers to help them set up a new business producing metal-cutting tools to serve expanding midwestern industry. With the backing of their wealthy and influential father, Byron Laflin Smith, the brothers formed what would later be called Illinois Tool Works Inc. The Chicago-based company prospered. Under Smith family management through much of its his-torythe family still owned about 16 percent of the company in the early 2000sIllinois Tool Works became known as a company with conservative management and innovative products that made big profits on small items. By the 1990s the company was somewhat changed with management placing a greater emphasis on acquisitions, even if it meant going into debt. ITW, as the company is generally called, operates approximately 700 decentralized businesses in 48 countries that manufacture a wide variety of highly engineered products and specialty systems. Approximately 44 percent of revenues are generated outside the United States.

EARLY HISTORY

In 1857, just 20 years after the city of Chicago was incorporated, Byron Laflin Smith's father set up Merchants' Loan & Trust to help fledgling businesses get off the ground, becoming the first Chicago resident to own a Chicago banking institution. The city's population was approximately trebling each decade as railroads and the Great Lakes made it a transportation and manufacturing center. As the city grew, the cor-responding real estate boom made rich men richer. The elder Smith took advantage of all these opportunities to make his family one of the wealthiest and most influential in the Midwest.

After graduating from the University of Chicago, Byron Smith went to work for his father at Merchants' Loan & Trust. Working in the family business did not last long, however. When he was 25 years old, Smith struck out on his own, founding the Northern Trust Company in 1879, which was to become one of the city's premier banking institutions.

A successful man in his own right by the early years of the 20th century, Smith saw other opportunities in the growing city. Through his business connections, Smith realized that there was an increasing need for large-scale production of machine tools for the growing transportation and communication industries. These emerging industries needed more parts than small machine shops could provide, and Smith thought he and his sons Solomon, Harold C., Walter, and Bruce were just the men to fill the need.

In 1912 the Smiths placed an advertisement for experienced manufacturing workers. They chose Frank W. England, Paul B. Goddard, Oscar T. Hogg, and Carl G. Olson to help get Illinois Tool Works off the ground, and Harold and Walter Smith managed the new company. Solomon Smith continued to work at Northern Trusthe succeeded his father as president when Byron died two years laterand Bruce went to work in New York.

In 1915, the same year that the company was incorporated, Harold C. Smith became president of Illinois Tool Works, and Walter and Solomon Smith continued to serve on the board of directors. Harold built on the company's initial success in selling tools to manufacturers and soon expanded the company's product line into truck transmissions, pumps, compressors, and automobile steering assemblies. While investing heavily in modern plants and equipment, Smith insisted on the conservative financial approach that ITW became known for, maintaining cash reserves and eschewing debt. Under Smith, ITW also became known for producing high-quality products. Smith's strategy served the growing company well when World War I broke out; the war years boosted company profits handsomely.

EXPANSION INTO FASTENERS

In 1923 ITW engineered a new product that brought it into a different industry niche. The Shakeproof fastener, the first twisted-tooth lock washer, was to lead ITW into the profitable area of industrial fasteners. Shakeproof became a separate operating division offering a full line of related items, including preassembled washers and screws and thread-cutting screws. Each item in the Shakeproof division's product line sold for an average of less than one cent apiece, but ITW took the leadership position in the industry and its sales volume produced strong profits.

Harold C. Smith died in 1936. He had built ITW into an industry leader in metal-cutting tools, manufacturing components, and industrial fasteners. Smith had been an industry leader as well, serving as director of both the Illinois Manufacturers Association and the National Association of Manufacturers. After Smith's death, his son, Harold Byron Smith, became president of ITW. The oldest of four boys, Harold B. Smith had joined the company in 1931. Harold B. Smith followed his father's successful, conservative management practices, but he introduced some innovations as well. Smith emphasized research and development, encouraging engineers to develop new products, even outside of ITW's traditional product areas. He also decentralized the company, setting up separate divisions to pursue specific markets. This philosophy, followed by Smith's successors, meant forming individual operating units that concentrate only on their own product niche.

Under Harold B. Smith, ITW became known as a problem solver. Its salesforce developed new products to answer customers' specific needs, even when customers had not requested a solution, a practice that led to increased sales.

World War II, like World War I, produced a boom for the company, which by this time manufactured components for almost every type of equipment needed for the war effort. Even the wartime labor shortage could not prevent ITW from increasing its cash reserves.

COMPANY PERSPECTIVES

Founded in 1912, ITW's recipe for success has been consistent: value added products and outstanding service win the day with customers. We place a high premium on the development of highly engineered products and systems, most of which are developed in tandem with our customers. And we continue to ensure that our customers receive timely, cost-effective service for the innovative products we provide.

CONTINUING GROWTH

Smith put some of the company's wartime profit into research and development, leading directly to expansion in the 1950s. One new and profitable area was plastic and combination metal-plastic fasteners. The company already had extensive expertise in the fastener industry with its Shakeproof division. Successful plastics manufacture and marketing led to the formation of another new operating unit, Fastex, in 1955.

Another area of expansion after the war, based in part on ITW's experience with plastics, was into the production of electrical controls and instruments. ITW's Licon division was formed in 1959 to produce electric switches and electromechanical products. ITW became a leader in miniaturizing these components. Its solid-state switches and preassembled switch panels brought the company into the computer and defense industries in addition to increasing sales in its traditional industrial base.

It was clear by this time that Illinois Tool Works was outgrowing its name; it no longer manufactured just tools. Smith set up a separate Illinois Tools division during the 1950s to concentrate on the original cutting-tool business and the company's initials, ITW, became the more frequently used, although unofficial, name for the business as a whole.

ITW's special expertise in gears led to two other developments during the 1950s. The company set up the Illinois Tools Division Gear School in 1958 to train engineers, especially those of customer firms, in the intricacies of gearing. ITW's development of the Spiroid right-angle gear led Smith to found the Spiroid operating unit in 1959 to produce specialty gearing for defense and general industries.

INTRODUCTION OF PLASTIC SIX-PACK HOLDERS

A new opportunity emerged from ITW research and development in the early 1960s. Company engineers had been looking for less bulky, lower-cost packaging than the traditional cardboard boxing used for six-packs of beverages. Metal holders cut both the fingers of the customers and, occasionally, the cans they were meant to hold. ITW's increasing familiarity with plastics led to the invention of a flexible plastic collar to hold the cans. This simple patented invention generated substantial savings for beverage makers, from 40 percent to 60 percent according to ITW estimates. It led to the formation of another new operating unit, Hi-Cone, in 1962. In the decades since, plastic drink packaging has virtually replaced cardboard packaging for six-packs. The six-pack holder became one of ITW's most important moneymakers, and earnings from the Hi-Cone division offset fluctuations in profits from the company's products that served heavy industry.

In 1970 Harold B. Smith stepped down from the chairmanship of ITW. By this time ITW was an internationally recognized name. The Smith family's emphasis on decentralized operation meant that many of the company's production facilities were near large overseas customers, often under the control of local subsidiaries in the country where they were located. ITW components supplied heavy industries, the food and beverage industries, and the packaging industries in West Germany, Belgium, Australia, Spain, Italy, France, Great Britain, and New Zealand. The company's performance, however, suffered from the inflation that plagued the economy of the 1970s.

KEY DATES

1912:
Byron Laflin Smith and sons form Illinois Tool Works to begin producing machine tools.
1915:
Company is incorporated.
1923:
Company enters the industrial fastener market.
1936:
Harold Byron Smith becomes president of ITW and later introduces the firm's trademark decentralized structure.
1955:
Fastex, a unit focused on plastic products, is formed.
1962:
ITW forms Hi-Cone, specializing in plastic drink packaging.
1975:
Company enters adhesives industry through purchase of Devcon Corporation.
1986:
Signode Industries, Inc., is acquired.
1999:
Acquisition of Premark International, Inc. brings to the fold Hobart, Vulcan, Traulsen, and Wittco commercial food equipment and Wilsonart decorative laminates.
2003:
Revenues surpass $10 billion, while profitssurge past $1 billion.

With Harold B. Smith's retirement, the first non-Smith, Silas S. Cathcart, became the chairman of ITW. Smith's son, Harold B. Smith, Jr., served as president and chief operating officer from 1972 through 1981, and Smith family members continued to serve on the board of directors. Under this leadership, the 1970s saw some new developments despite the sluggish economy. Most notable was ITW's entry into the adhesives industry with the 1975 purchase of Devcon Corporation. Devcon was a leader in specialty chemicals and manufactured adhesives and sealants.

ACQUISITIONS AT CENTER STAGE

When John D. Nichols took over as CEO in 1982, he was determined to keep ITW growing by investing more cash into the development of new product lines and in acquisitions, while cutting costs elsewhere to maintain profitability. He kept production costs low, for example, by developing what he termed "focus factories," where a single product was produced in a highly automated setting.

Nichols expanded ITW's industrial tools and systems businesses by purchasing Heartland Components, a maker of customized replacement industrial parts, in 1982; Southern Gage, a manufacturer of industrial gages, and N.A. Woodworth, a maker of tool-holding equipment, in 1984; and Magnaflux, a maker of nondestructive testing equipment and supplies, in 1985. Nichols formed a separate operating unit for automotive controls in 1983, and a division for producing equipment for offshore geophysical exploration, Linac, in 1984.

In 1986 Nichols made another significant acquisition when he purchased closely held Signode Industries, Inc., for $524 million. The Glenview, Illinois, manufacturer of plastic and steel strapping for bundling items, sketch film, and industrial tape fit in well with ITW's own plastics line. Nichols followed company tradition by breaking Signode down into smaller units, and within a year and a half over 20 new products had been developed as a result of the acquisition, which nearly doubled ITW's revenues. Also in 1986, Cathcart retired as chairman, with Nichols replacing him, while retaining the position of CEO.

Under Nichols, ITW acquired 27 companies in related product lines in the 1980s, whereas only three firms had been purchased before Nichols's tenure. These acquisitions meant that company debt reached higher levels than in the past, but these levels were not out of line with other industrial firms. More importantly, revenues surpassed the $2 billion mark for the first time in 1989 and earnings continued to increase steadily, reaching $182.4 million that year.

Acquisitions continued to fuel spectacular growth in the 1990s for ITW, growth that was only partially slowed by the recession of the early years of the decade. The largest of 15 acquisitions in 1990 was that of the $200 million revenue DeVilbiss spray painting equipment business of Eagle Industries Inc., which built on the prior year's purchase of Ransburg Corporation, also a maker of spray painting equipment. In 1993 ITW added the Miller Group Ltd., a maker of arc welding equipment which had $250 million in revenues. As usual, Miller's operations were soon broken apart, with seven separate units emerging.

The years 1995 and 1996 were transitional ones for ITW, as Nichols handpicked a successor and then stepped aside. W. James Farrell, a 30-year ITW veteran who had served as president, moved into the CEO position in September 1995, replacing the retiring Nichols as chairman in May 1996. During his 14 years as CEO, Nichols oversaw an amazing period of growth, from $450 million in revenues in 1981 to $4.18 billion in 1995 when earnings reached $387.6 million. Revenues were growing at a rate of about 20 percent per year, and profits were increasing even faster-40 percent in 1995 alone. Through Nichols's aggressive acquisition program and his commitment to a decentralized organizational structure, ITW boasted of 365 separate operating units by 1996. During his tenure, Nichols also increased the company's presence outside the United States such that by 1996 about 35 percent of revenues were derived overseas, primarily from European operations.

The Farrell-led ITW essentially picked up where Nichols left off. The company made 19 acquisitions in 1996, including Hobart Brothers Company, a maker of welding products, and the Australian-based Azon Limited, a manufacturer of strapping and other industrial products. The possibility that Farrell would be even more aggressive than Nichols was raised in late 1995 when ITW made its first hostile takeover bid in the company's history, a $134 million offer for fastener maker Elco Industries Inc., a venture that failed after ITW was outbid for Elco by Textron Inc.

One hallmark of the Farrell era of leadership was the greater prominence given to an ITW management philosophy known as 80/20. Managers of the numerous company units were encouraged to focus most of their efforts on the 20 percent of their customers who accounted for 80 percent of their business. ITW viewed this approach as a way to spark improvements in numerous areas, including product quality, productivity, market share, and customer satisfaction.

In the meantime, the acquisition pace picked up under Farrell in the late 1990s, as ITW completed 30 deals in 1997, 46 in 1998, and 31 in 1999. The vast majority of these were smaller purchases of companies with annual sales of less than $50 million. However, in November 1999 the company completed the biggest acquisition in its history, a $3.4 billion deal for Premark International, Inc. of Deerfield, Illinois. Premark, onetime parent of the Tupperware food-storage product business, produced commercial food equipment for restaurants, hotels, and hospitals under the Hobart, Vulcan, Traulsen, and Wittco brands and the Wilsonart line of decorative laminates for countertops, furniture, and flooring. These were the two main Premark product lines that ITW sought to add for the long haul, and they represented annual revenues of approximately $2.5 billion. Broken apart into more than two dozen smaller autonomous businesses, they also helped increase the number of ITW units to nearly 600 by the end of 2000. Premark was involved as well in the production of consumer products, including West Bend appliances, Precor fitness equipment, and Florida Tile ceramic tiles. These operations fell outside ITW's traditional industrial focus, and they were earmarked for divestiture in December 2001. Consequently, Precor and West Bend were sold in October 2002, and Florida Tile followed in November 2003.

A NEW CENTURY

The economic downturn of the early 2000s interrupted Illinois Tool Works' consistent pattern of growth. Profits fell in both 2001 and 2002, while revenues dropped 2 percent in 2001 before rebounding slightly the following year. As the economy rebounded, ITW resumed its growth trajectory in 2003 when revenues surpassed the $10 billion mark for the first time, and net income surged past $1 billion, also a record. The pace of acquisitions slowed during this period because ITW management felt that business owners were placing excessively high price tags on their companies considering the state of the economy. After spending some $800 million to complete 45 acquisitions in 2000, ITW completed 29 deals for a total of $556 million in 2001 and then 21 deals for just $188 million and 28 deals for $204 million in 2002 and 2003, respectively.

In 2004 the profit figure of $1.34 billion and the revenue total of $11.73 billion both represented sharp jumps from the preceding year. This stellar year was the last with Farrell at the helm, as the executive stepped down from the CEO spot in August 2005. Succeeding him was 27-year company veteran David Speer, who had been an executive vice-president since 1995. Speer became chairman as well in August 2006 upon Farrell's retirement.

Under Speer's guidance, Illinois Tool Works remained on its acquisition-led growth track. During 2005 the company purchased 22 companies for a net total of more than $625 million. While most of these acquisitions continued to be of companies with annual sales of between $30 million and $50 million, two larger purchases were completed that year. In the spring ITW bought Permatex, Inc., a Hartford, Connecticut-based maker of sealants, adhesives, and other products for the automotive aftermarket and industrial markets with an nual sales of $125 million. ITW paid about $240 mil-lion in the fall for Instron Corporation, a Norwood, Massachusetts, manufacturer of materials and structural testing machinery and software. In February 2006 ITW acquired Alpine Engineered Products, Inc., a manufacturer of metal connectors, design software, and related machinery for the design and assembly of trusses for the residential and commercial construction markets. Based in Pompano Beach, Florida, Alpine had 2005 revenues of $201 million.

The ongoing dealmaking brought the number of ITW business units to around 700 by early 2006. Moving forward, Illinois Tool Works planned to continue its expansion through acquisitions, joint ventures, and organic moves into new markets. Speer aimed to boost the share of overall revenues generated overseas from the 2005 level of 44 percent to 50 percent. The Asia-Pacific region was identified as the area with the greatest growth potential. While about 10 percent of revenues originated in that region in 2005, ITW envisioned boosting that figure to 25 percent by 2009.

                             Ginger G. Rodriguez

                                   Updated, David E. Salamie

PRINCIPAL SUBSIDIARIES

Acme Packaging Corporation; Alpine Engineered Products, Inc.; The DeVilbiss Company Limited (U.K.); Elga AB (Sweden); Foster Refrigerator (U.K.); Hobart Brothers Company; Hobart Corporation; Instron Corporation; ITW Bailly Comte S.A.S. (France); James Briggs (U.K.); Krafft, S.L. (Spain); Mertiex Technology (Suzhou) Co. Ltd. (China); Miller Electric Mfg. Co.; Novadan AS (Norway); Orgapack GmbH (Switzerland); Permatex, Inc.; Pryda (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd; Resopal G.m.b.H. (Germany); Rocol (U.K.); SPIT S.A.S. (France); Strapex GmbH (Switzerland); Tien Tai Electrode Co., Ltd. (Taiwan; 98.73%); Truswal Systems Corporation; Unipac Corporation (Canada); Wilsonart International, Inc.

PRINCIPAL OPERATING UNITS

DeVilbiss; Fibre Glass-Evercoat; Ispra (Italy); ITW Angleboard; ITW Brands; ITW Buildex; ITW CIP; ITW Deltar; ITW Devcon; ITW Drawform; ITW Fas-tex; ITW Foils; ITW Gema; ITW Hi-Cone; ITW Tek-Fast; ITW Ramset/Red Head; ITW Shakeproof Assembly Components; ITW Stretch Packaging Systems; ITW TACC; ITW Texwipe; Minigrip/Zip-Pak; Paslode; Signode Packaging Systems; Simco; Valeron Strength Films; Vulcan-Hart; Wynn's.

PRINCIPAL COMPETITORS

General Electric Company; Cooper Industries, Ltd.; Eaton Corporation; The Marmon Group, Inc.; Dover Corporation; Enodis plc.

FURTHER READING

Borden, Jeff, "ITW Tightens Its Belt to Ride Out Recession," Crain's Chicago Business, June 3, 1991, pp. 36+.

Byrne, Harlan S., "Illinois Tool Works: It's Still Shopping, but Not for Real Big Deals," Barron's, May 1, 1989, pp. 39+.

, "Illinois Tool Works: Satisfying Customers and Investors," Barron's, November 16, 1992, pp. 51-52.

, "A New Chapter," Barron's, December 11, 1995, p. 18.

, "A Patent Success," Barron's, May 23, 1994, p. 23.

, "Still a Growth Machine," Barron's, November 6, 2000, p. 32.

Conlin, Michelle, "The Most Decentralized Company in the World," Forbes, January 11, 1999, p. 142.

Dubashi, Jagannath, "Illinois Tool: Buy This Global Niche Meister on Weakness?," Financial World, December 24, 1991, pp. 16-17.

, "Illinois Tool Works, Really!," Financial World, July 26, 1988, pp. 12, 14.

Friedman, Dorian, and Paul Glastris, "Tougher Than Nails: Illinois Tool Works Is a Profit Machine," U.S. News & World Report, June 10, 1991, pp. 49-51.

Goff, Lisa, "Recent Acquisitions to Bolster ITW," Crain's Chicago Business, May 12, 1986, p. 45.

Henkoff, Ronald, "The Ultimate Nuts & Bolts Co.," Fortune, July 16, 1990, pp. 70-73.

Lashinsky, Adam, "Blue Bloods Go for Jugular: Why ITW Has Turned Hostile," Crain's Chicago Business, September 11, 1995, pp. 3, 54.

Loeffelholz, Suzanne, "Illinois Tool Works: Waiting for Godot," Financial World, April 18, 1989, p. 15.

Murphy, H. Lee, "As ITW Names New No. 2, Firm Goes Shopping Again," Crain's Chicago Business, August 30, 2004, p. 12.

, "ITWs CEO Shows Up Critics with Results of Buying Spree," Crain's Chicago Business, May 29, 1989, p. 67.

"No Need for Economies of Scale: Illinois Tool Works Revs Up Innovation by Keeping Its 665 Units Separate and Focused," Business Week, October 31, 2005, p. MTL6.

Quintanilla, Carl, "Illinois Tool Sets Accord for Premark," Wall Street Journal September 10, 1999, p. A3.

Stevens, Tim, "Breaking Up Is Profitable to Do," Industry Week, June 21, 1999, pp. 28-29, 32, 34.

"Strength in Diversity: Illinois Tool Works Prospers in Many Fields," Barron's, September 5, 1983, p. 40.

Tatge, Mark, "Conquer and Divide," Forbes, April 16, 2001, p. 80.

"Tooling Along: ITW Records Handsome Gains from Array of New Lines," Barron's, October 29, 1984, pp. 58+.

Wolf, Carol (Bloomberg News), "Why ITW Is the Smallest $5 Billion Company in U.S.," Chicago Sun-Times, October 10, 1999, p. 53.

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Illinois Tool Works Inc.

Illinois Tool Works Inc.

3600 West Lake Road
Glenview, Illinois 60025-5811
U.S.A.
(847) 724-7500
Fax: (847) 657-4392
Web site: http://www.itwinc.com

Public Company
Incorporated: 1915
Employees: 24,400
Sales: $4.99 billion (1996)
Stock Exchanges: New York Midwest
SICs: 2891 Adhesives & Sealants; 3089 Plastic Products, Not Elsewhere Classified; 3548 Electric & Gas Welding & Soldering Equipment; 3564 Industrial & Commercial Fans, Blowers & Air Purification Equipment; 3643 Current-Carrying Wiring Devices; 3953 Marking Devices; 3965 Fasteners, Buttons, Needles & Pins

In 1912, four Smith brothers advertised for experienced manufacturing workers to help them set up a new business producing metal-cutting tools to serve expanding midwestern industry. With the backing of their wealthy and influential father, Byron Laflin Smith, the brothers formed Illinois Tool Works Inc. in Chicago. The company prospered. Under Smith family management through much of its historythe family still owned about 28 percent of the company in the late 1990s Illinois Tool Works became known as a company with conservative management and innovative products that made big profits on small items. By the 1990s the company was somewhat changed with management placing a greater emphasis on acquisitions, even if it meant going into debt. ITW, as the company is generally called, operates 365 decentralized businesses that are organized into two main business segmentsEngineered Components, and Industrial Systems and Consumables.

Early History

In 1857, just 20 years after the city of Chicago was incorporated, Byron Laflin Smiths father set up Merchants Loan & Trust to help fledgling businesses get off the ground, becoming the first Chicago resident to own a Chicago banking institution. The citys population was approximately trebling each decade as railroads and the Great Lakes made it a transportation and manufacturing center. As the city grew, the corresponding real estate boom made rich men richer. The elder Smith took advantage of all these opportunities to make his family one of the wealthiest and most influential in the Midwest.

After graduating from the University of Chicago, Byron Smith went to work for his father at Merchants Loan & Trust. Working in the family business did not last long, however. When he was 25 years old, Smith struck out on his own, founding the Northern Trust Company in 1879, which was to become one of the citys premier banking institutions.

A successful man in his own right by the early years of the 20th century, Smith saw other opportunities in the growing city. Through his business connections, Smith realized that there was an increasing need for large-scale production of machine tools for the growing transportation and communication industries. These emerging industries needed more parts than small machine shops could provide, and Smith thought he and his sons Solomon, Harold C., Walter, and Bruce were just the men to fill the need.

In 1912 the Smiths placed an advertisement for experienced manufacturing workers. They chose Frank W. England, Paul B. Goddard, Oscar T. Hegg, and Carl G. Olson to help get Illinois Tool Works off the ground, and Harold and Walter Smith managed the new company. Solomon Smith continued to work at Northern Trusthe succeeded his father as president when Byron died two years laterand Bruce went to work in New York.

In 1915 Harold C. Smith became president of Illinois Tool Works, and Walter and Solomon Smith continued to serve on the board of directors. Harold built on the companys initial success in selling tools to manufacturers and soon expanded the companys product line into truck transmissions, pumps, compressors, and automobile steering assemblies. While investing heavily in modern plants and equipment, Smith insisted on the conservative financial approach that ITW became known for, maintaining cash reserves and eschewing debt. Under Smith, ITW also became known for producing high-quality products. Smiths strategy served the growing company well when World War I broke out; the war years boosted company profits handsomely.

Expansion into Fasteners in the 1920s

In 1923 ITW engineered a new product that brought it into a different industry niche. The Shakeproof fastener, the first twisted-tooth lock washer, was to lead ITW into the profitable area of industrial fasteners. Shakeproof became a separate operating division offering a full line of related items, including preassembled washers and screws and thread-cutting screws. Each item in the Shakeproof divisions product line sold for an average of less than one cent a piece, but ITW took the leadership position in the industry and its sales volume produced strong profits.

Harold C. Smith died in 1936. He had built ITW into an industry leader in metal-cutting tools, manufacturing components, and industrial fasteners. Smith had been an industry leader as well, serving as director of both the Illinois Manufacturers Association and the National Association of Manufacturers. After Smiths death, his son, Harold Byron Smith, became president of ITW. The oldest of four boys, Harold B. Smith had joined the company in 1931. Harold B. Smith followed his fathers successful, conservative management practices, but he introduced some innovations as well. Smith emphasized research and development, encouraging engineers to develop new products, even outside of ITWs traditional product areas. He also decentralized the company, setting up separate divisions to pursue specific markets. This philosophy, followed by Smiths successors, meant forming individual operating units that concentrate only on their own product niche.

Under Harold B. Smith, ITW became known as a problem solver. Its salesforce developed new products to answer customers specific needseven when customers had not requested a solutiona practice that led to increased sales.

World War II, like World War I, produced a boom for the company, which by this time manufactured components for almost every type of equipment needed for the war effort. Even the wartime labor shortage could not prevent ITW from increasing its cash reserves.

Continued Expansion in the 1950s

Smith put some of the companys wartime profit into research and development, leading directly to expansion in the 1950s. One new and profitable area was plastic and combination metal-plastic fasteners. The company already had extensive expertise in the fastener industry with its Shakeproof division. Successful plastics manufacture and marketing led to the formation of another new operating unit, Fastex, in 1955.

Another area of expansion after the war, based in part on ITWs experience with plastics, was into the production of electrical controls and instruments. ITWs Licon division was formed in 1959 to produce electric switches and electromechanical products. ITW became a leader in miniaturizing these components. Its solid-state switches and preassembled switch panels brought the company into the computer and defense industries in addition to increasing sales in its traditional industrial base.

It was clear by this time that Illinois Tool Works was outgrowing its name; it no longer manufactured just tools. Smith set up a separate Illinois Tools division during the 1950s to concentrate on the original cutting-tool business and the companys initials, ITW, became the more frequently used, although unofficial, name for the business as a whole.

ITWs special expertise in gears led to two other developments during the 1950s. The company set up the Illinois Tools Division Gear School in 1958 to train engineersespecially those of customer firmsin the intricacies of gearing. ITWs development of the Spiroid right-angle gear led Smith to found the Spiroid operating unit in 1959 to produce specialty gearing for defense and general industries.

Company Perspectives:

ITW strives to improve our customers competitive positions by increasing productivity and quality while reducing manufacturing and assembly costs. ITW achieves this goal through its decentralized operations in 34 countries. These units respond to customers needs by establishing production facilities in proximity to the markets served and create close working relationships with our customers. ITWs many businesses around the world are focused on serving their customers and industries diverse requirements. Despite the variety of markets served, the underlying goals that drive all ITW businesses are common: to create value and improve operating efficiencies for every customer.

Introduction of Plastic Six-Pack Holders in the Early 1960s

A new opportunity emerged from ITW research and development in the early 1960s. Company engineers had been looking for less bulky, lower-cost packaging than the traditional cardboard boxing used for six-packs of beverages. Metal holders cut both the fingers of the customers and, occasionally, the cans they were meant to hold. ITWs increasing familiarity with plastics led to the invention of a flexible plastic collar to hold the cans. This simple patented invention generated substantial savings for beverage makers, from 40 percent to 60 percent according to ITW estimates. It led to the formation of another new operating unit, Hi-Cone, in 1962. In the decades since, plastic drink packaging has virtually replaced cardboard packaging for six-packs. The six-pack holder became one of ITWs most important moneymakers, and earnings from the Hi-Cone division offset fluctuations in profits from the companys products that served heavy industry.

In 1970 Harold B. Smith stepped down from the chairmanship of ITW. By this time ITW was an internationally recognized name. The Smith familys emphasis on decentralized operation meant that many of the companys production facilities were near large overseas customers, often under the control of local subsidiaries in the country where they were located. ITW components supplied heavy industries, the food and beverage industries, and the packaging industries in West Germany, Belgium, Australia, Spain, Italy, France, Great Britain, and New Zealand. The companys performance, however, suffered from the inflation that plagued the economy of the 1970s.

With Harold B. Smiths retirement, the first non-Smith, Silas S. Cathcart, became the chairman of ITW. Smiths son, Harold B. Smith, Jr., served as president and chief operating officer from 1972 through 1981, and Smith family members continued to serve on the board of directors. Under this leadership, the 1970s saw some new developments despite the sluggish economy. Most notable was ITWs entry into the adhesives industry with the purchase of Devcon Corporation. Devcon was a leader in specialty chemicals and manufactured adhesives and sealants.

Acquisitions at Center Stage in the 1980s and 1990s

When John D. Nichols took over as CEO in 1982, he was determined to keep ITW growing by investing more cash into the development of new product lines and in acquisitions, while cutting costs elsewhere to maintain profitability. He kept production costs low, for example, by developing what he termed focus factories, where a single product was produced in a highly automated setting.

Nichols expanded ITWs industrial tools and systems businesses by purchasing Heartland Components, a maker of customized replacement industrial parts, in 1982; Southern Gage, a manufacturer of industrial gages, and N.A. Woodworth, a maker of tool-holding equipment, in 1984; and Magnaflux, a maker of nondestructive testing equipment and supplies, in 1985. Nichols formed a separate operating unit for automotive controls in 1983, and a division for producing equipment for offshore geophysical exploration, Linac, in 1984.

In 1986 Nichols made another significant acquisition when he purchased Signode Industries for $524 million. The Glen-view, Illinois, manufacturer of plastic and steel strapping for bundling items, sketch film, and industrial tape fit in well with ITWs own plastics line. Nichols followed company tradition by breaking Signode down into smaller units, and within a year and a half over 20 new products had been developed as a result of the acquisition, which nearly doubled ITWs revenues. Also in 1986, Cathcart retired as chairman, with Nichols replacing him, while retaining the position of CEO.

Under Nichols, ITW acquired 27 companies in related product lines in the 1980s, while only 3 firms had been purchased before Nicholss tenure. These acquisitions meant that company debt reached higher levels than in the past, but these levels were not out of line with other industrial firms. More importantly, revenues surpassed the $2 billion mark for the first time in 1989 and earnings continued to increase steadily, reaching $182.4 million that year.

Acquisitions continued to fuel spectacular growth in the 1990s for ITW, growth that was only partially slowed down by the recession of the early years of the decade. The largest of 15 acquisitions in 1990 was that of the $200 million revenue DeVilbiss spray painting equipment business of Eagle Industries Inc. which built on the prior years purchase of Ransburg Corporation, also a maker of spray painting equipment. In 1993 ITW added the Miller Group Ltd., a maker of arc welding equipment which had $250 million in revenues. As usual, Millers operations were soon broken apart, with seven separate units emerging.

The years 1995 and 1996 were transitional ones for ITW, as Nichols handpicked a successor and then stepped aside. W. James Farrell, a 30-year ITW veteran who had served as president, moved into the CEO position in September 1995, replacing the retiring Nichols as chairman in May 1996. During his 14 years as CEO, Nichols oversaw an amazing period of growth from $450 million in 1981 to $4.18 billion in 1995 when earnings reached $387.6 million. Through Nicholss aggressive acquisition program and his commitment to a decentralized organizational structure, ITW boasted of 365 separate operating units by 1996. During his tenure, Nichols also increased the companys presence outside the United States such that by 1996 about 35 percent of revenues were derived overseas, primarily from European operations.

The Farrell-led ITW essentially picked up where Nichols left off. The company made 19 acquisitions in 1996, including Hobart Brothers Company, a maker of welding products, and the Australian-based Azon Limited, a manufacturer of strapping and other industrial products. The possibility that Farrell would be even more aggressive than Nichols was raised in late 1995 when ITW made its first hostile takeover bid in the companys history, a $134 million offer for fastener maker Elco Industries Inc., a venture that failed after ITW was outbid for Elco by Textron.

Soon after taking over, Farrell hinted that some organizational changes might be needed at ITW as he raised doubts about the wisdom of a nearly $5 billion company being divided into 365 operating units. Nonetheless, with company revenue growing 20 percent per year and profits increasing even faster (40 percent in 1995 and 25 percent in 1996), it was hard to argue with the proven ITW formula. ITW was certainly likely, however, to look more to overseas markets for growth than it had in the past.

Principal Subsidiaries

Azon Limited (Australia); Buell Industries, Inc.; Burseryds Bruk AB (Sweden); Coding Products Inc.; Cumberland Leasing Co.; Elettro GiBi S.p.A. (Italy); Gema Volstatic AG (Switzerland); Gerrard Strapping Systems Ltd. (New Zealand); Gerrard Strapping Systems Pty Ltd. (Australia); Hobart Brothers Company; Hobart Brothers of Canada, Inc.; ITW Austria Vertriebs Ges.m.b.H. (Austria); ITW Ateco GmbH (Germany); ITW Befestigungssyteme GmbH (Germany); ITW Canada Inc.; ITW de France S.A.; ITW (Deutschland) GmbH (Germany); ITW España S.A. (Spain); ITW Fastex Italia S.p.A. (Italy); ITW Gunther (France); ITW Holding S.A. (France); ITW Holdings Proprietary (Australia); ITW Holdings U.K.; ITW International Finance S.A.S. (France); ITW International Holdings Inc.; ITW Ireland; ITW Leasing & Investments Inc.; ITW Limited (U.K.); ITW Meritex Sdn Bhd (Malaysia); ITW Mortgage Investments I, Inc.; ITW Mortgage Investments II, Inc.; ITW Mortgage Investments III, Inc.; ITW Oberflachentechnik GmbH (Germany); ITW Overseas Investments Corp.; ITW Real Estate L.L.C.; ITW Residuals Inc.; ITW Tech Co. Inc.; Illinois Tool Works FSC Inc. (Barbados); IspraControl s.r.l. (Italy); Liljen-dals Bruk Ab (Finland); The Loveshaw Corporation; Lys Fusion S.p.A. (Italy); Medalist Industries, Inc.; Miller Electric Mfg. Co.; Miller Europe, S.p.A. (Italy); Miller Thermal, Inc.; Mima, Inc.; Minigrip Inc.; N. A. Woodworth Company; Orga-pack AG (Switzerland); Orgapack Holding AG (Switzerland); Paslode Corporation; Pro/Mark Corporation; Ransburg Corporation; Ransburg Industrial Finishing KK (Japan); Shippers Paper Products Company; Signode France; Signode Kabushiki Kaisha (Japan); Signode Systems GmbH (Germany); Societe de Prospection et dInvention Techniques (France); W. A. Deutsher Pty. Ltd. (Australia).

Principal Operating Units

Engineered Components Segment; Industrial Systems and Consumables Segment; Leasing and Investments Segment.

Further Reading

Boorstin, Daniel J., The Americans: The National Experience, New York: Vintage Books, 1965.

Byrne, Harian S., Illinois Tool Works: Satisfying Customers . .. and Investors, Barran s, November 16, 1992, pp. 51-52.

_____, A New Chapter, Barrons, December 11, 1995, p. 18.

_____, A Patent Success, Barrons, May 23, 1994, p. 23.

Dubashi, Jagannath, Illinois Tool: Buy This Global Niche Meister on Weakness? Financial World, December 24, 1991, pp. 16-17.

_____, Illinois Tool Works, Really! Financial World, July 26, 1988, pp. 12, 14.

Friedman, Dorian, and Paul Glastris, Tougher than Nails: Illinois Tool Works Is a Profit Machine, U.S. News & World Report, June 10, 1991, pp. 49-51.

Henkoff, Ronald, The Ultimate Nuts & Bolts Co., Fortune, July 16, 1990, pp. 70-73.

Lashinsky, Adam, Blue Bloods Go for Jugular: Why ITW Has Turned Hostile, Grains Chicago Business, September 11, 1995, pp. 3, 54.

Loeffelholz, Suzanne, Illinois Tool Works: Waiting for Godot, Financial World, April 18, 1989, p. 15.

Ginger G. Rodriguez

updated by David E. Salamie

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Illinois Tool Works Inc.

Illinois Tool Works Inc.

8501 West Higgins Road
Chicago, Illinois 60631
U.S.A.
(312) 693-3040
Fax: (312) 399-0324

Public Company
Incorporated:
1915
Employees: 15,700
Sales: $2.17 billion
Stock Exchanges: New York Midwest

In 1912, four Smith brothers advertised for experienced manufacturing workers to help them set up a new business producing metal-cutting tools to serve expanding midwestern industry. With the backing of their wealthy and influential fatherByron Laflin Smith, the founder and president of the Northern Trust Companythe brothers formed Illinois Tool Works in Chicago. The company prospered, especially when World War I and World War II increased demand for its automobile and truck components. Under Smith-family management throughout its historythe family still owns about 40% Illinois Tool Works (ITW) became known as a company with conservative management and innovative products that made big profits on small items.

Today the company is somewhat changed. ITW management emphasizes acquisitions, even if it means going into debt, more than it did previously. The company remains well managed, and its emphasis on research and development puts it in a good position to take advantage of future opportunities.

In 1857, just 20 years after the city of Chicago was incorporated, Byron Laflin Smiths father set up Merchants Loan & Trust to help fledgling businesses get off the ground, becoming the first Chicago resident to own a Chicago banking institution. The citys population was approximately trebling each decade as railroads and the Great Lakes made it a transportation and manufacturing center. As the city grew, the corresponding real estate boom made rich men richer. The elder Smith took advantage of all these opportunities to make his family one of the wealthiest and most influential in the Midwest.

After graduating from the University of Chicago, Byron Smith went to work for his father at Merchants Loan & Trust. Working in the family business did not last long, however; when he was 25 Smith struck out on his own, founding the Northern Trust Company in 1879, which was to become one of the citys premier banking institutions.

A successful man in his own right by the early years of the 20th century, Smith saw other opportunities in the growing city. Through his business connections, Smith realized that there was an increasing need for large-scale production of machine tools for the growing transportation and communication industries. These emerging industries needed more parts than small machine shops could provide, and Smith thought he and his sons Solomon, Harold C., Walter, and Bruce were just the men to fill the need.

In 1912 the Smiths placed their advertisement for experienced manufacturing workers. They chose Frank W. England, Paul B. Goddard, Oscar T. Hegg, and Carl G. Olson to help get Illinois Tool Works off the ground, and Harold and Walter Smith managed the new company. Solomon Smith continued to work at Northern Trusthe succeeded his father as president when Byron died two years laterand Bruce went to work in New York.

In 1915, Harold C. Smith became president of Illinois Tool Works, and Walter and Solomon Smith continued to serve on the board of directorsas did Harold Smith on the board of Northern Trust. Harold built on the companys initial success selling tools to manufacturers, and soon expanded the companys product line into truck transmissions, pumps, compressors, and automobile steering assemblies. While investing heavily in modern plants and equipment, Smith insisted on the conservative financial approach that ITW became known for, maintaining cash reserves and eschewing debt. Under Smith, ITW also became known for producing high-quality products. Smiths strategy served the growing company well when World War I broke out; the war years boosted company profits handsomely.

In 1923 ITW engineered a new product that brought it into a different industry niche. The Shakeproof fastener, the first twisted-tooth lock washer, was to lead ITW into the profitable area of industrial fasteners. Shakeproof became a separate operating division offering a full line of related items, including preassembled washers and screws and threadcutting screws. Each item in the Shakeproof divisions product line sold for an average of less than 1¢ a piece, but ITW took the leadership position in the industry, and its sales volume produced strong profits.

Harold C. Smith died in 1936. He had built ITW into an industry leader in metal-cutting tools, manufacturing components, and industrial fasteners. Smith had also been an industry leader as well, serving as director of both the Illinois Manufacturers Association and the National Association of Manufacturers. After Smiths death, his son, Harold Byron Smith, became president of ITW. The oldest of four boys, Harold B. Smith had joined the company in 1931. Harold B. Smith followed his fathers successful, conservative management practices, but he introduced some innovations as well. Smith emphasized research and development, encouraging engineers to develop new products, even outside of ITWs traditional product areas. He also decentralized the company, setting up separate divisions to pursue specific markets. This philosophy, followed by Smiths successors, means forming individual operating units that concentrate only on their own product niche.

Under Harold B. Smith, ITW became known as a problem solver. Its salesmen developed new products to answer customers specific needseven when customers had not requested a solution. That practice also led to increased sales.

World War II, like World War I, produced a boom for the company, which by this time manufactured components for almost every type of equipment needed for the war effort. Even the wartime labor shortage could not prevent ITW from increasing its cash reserves.

Smith put some of the companys wartime profit into research and development, leading directly to expansion in the 1950s. One new and profitable area was plastic and combination metal-plastic fasteners. The company already had extensive expertise in the fastener industry with its Shakeproof division. Successful plastics manufacture and marketing led to the formation of another new operating unit, Fastex, in 1955.

Another area of expansion after the war, based in part on ITWs experience with plastics, was into the production of electrical controls and instruments. ITWs Licon division was formed in 1959 to produce electric switches and electromechanical products. ITW became a leader in miniaturizing these components. Its solid-state switches and preassembled switch panels brought the company into the computer and defense industries in addition to increasing sales in its traditional industrial base.

It was clear by this time that Illinois Tool Works was outgrowing its name; it no longer manufactured just tools. Smith set up a separate Illinois Tools division during the 1950s to concentrate on the original cutting-tool business and the companys initials, ITW, became the more frequently used, but unofficial, name for the business as a whole.

ITWs special expertise in gears led to two other developments during the 1950s. The company set up the Illinois Tools Division Gear School in 1958 to train engineersespecially those of customer firmsin the intricacies of gearing. ITWs development of the Spiroid right-angle gear led Smith to found the Spiroid operating unit in 1959 to produce specialty gearing for defense and general industries.

A new opportunity emerged from ITW research and development in the early 1960s. Company engineers had been looking for less bulky, lower-cost packaging for six-packs of beverages than the traditional cardboard boxing. Metal holders cut both the fingers of the customers and, occasionally, the cans they were meant to hold. ITWs increasing familiarity with plastics led to the invention of a flexible plastic collar to hold the cans. This simple patented invention generated substantial savings for beverage makers, from 40% to 60%, according to ITW estimates. It led to the formation of another new operating unit, Hi-Cone, in 1962. In the decades since, plastic drink packaging has virtually replaced cardboard packaging for six-packs. The companys development of a 12-pack holder with a carrying handle promises to be as successful. The six-pack holder has become one of ITWs most important moneymakers, and earnings from the Hi-Cone division offset fluctuations in profits from the companys products that serve heavy industry.

In 1970 Harold B. Smith stepped down from the chairmanship of ITW. By this time ITW was an internationally recognized name. The Smith familys emphasis on decentralized operation meant that many of the companys production facilities were near large overseas customers, often under the control of local subsidiaries in the country where they were located. ITW components supplied heavy industries, the food and beverage industries, and the packaging industries in West Germany, Belgium, Australia, Spain, Italy, France, Great Britain, and New Zealand. The companys performance, however, mirrored the economy and suffered from inflation during decade.

With Smiths retirement, the first non-Smith took the top spot at ITW. Silas S. Cathcart became chairman. Smiths son, Harold B. Smith Jr., was president and chief operating officer from 1972 through 1981, and Smiths continued to serve on the board of directors. Under this leadership, the 1970s saw some new developments despite the sluggish economy. Most notable was ITWs entry into the adhesives industry with the purchase of Devcon Corporation. Devcon was a leader in specialty chemicals and manufactured adhesives and sealants.

When John D. Nichols took over as CEO in 1982, he was determined to keep ITW growing by investing more excess cash in developing new product lines and in making acquisitions, while cutting costs elsewhere to maintain profitability. He kept production costs low, for example, by developing what he termed focus factories, where a single product is produced in a highly automated setting.

Nichols expanded ITWs industrial tools and systems businesses by purchasing Heartland Components, which makes customized replacement industrial parts, in 1982; Southern Gage, which makes industrial gages and N.A. Woodworth, which makes tool-holding equipment, in 1984; and Magnaflux, which makes nondestructive testing equipment and supplies, in 1985. Nichols formed a separate operating unit for automotive controls in 1983, and a division for producing equipment for offshore geophysical exploration, Linac, in 1984.

In 1986 Nichols made another significant acquisition when he purchased Signode Industries for $524 million. The Glenview, Illinois, company makes plastic and steel strapping for bundling items, as well as sketch film, industrial tape, and other related items. The company fit in well with ITWs own plastics line. Nichols followed tradition by breaking the company down into smaller units, and within a year and a half over 20 new products had been developed as a result of the merger. The Signode acquisition nearly doubled ITWs revenues.

Nichols acquired 27 companies in related product lines for ITW in the 1980s. Only three firms had been purchased before Nicholss tenure. His acquisitions mean that company debt has reached higher levels than in the past. Nevertheless, ITWs earnings have also grown, and analysts expect them to continue to grow.

Principal Subsidiaries

Astermann Pty. Ltd. (Australia); B&L Plastics Inc.; B-Flute Co., Ltd. (Japan); Better Formed Metals Corporation; Cumberland Leasing Co.; Delta Strepping Industries Inc.; Devcon Limited (Ireland); Devcon de Mexico, S.A.; Fixlock A.B. (Sweden); ITW Belgium S.A.; ITW Canada Inc.; ITW Limited (U.K.); ITW-Ateco G.m.b.H. (Germany); ITW de France S.A.; ITW Enterprises Corp.; ITW Fastex Italia S.p.A. (Italy); ITW New Zealand; ITW Asia (Pte.) Limited (Singapore); ITW International Inc.; ITW Espana S.A. (Spain); ITW Overseas Holdings Inc.; ITW Overseas Investments Corp.; ITW Hi-Cone Holdings (Ireland); ITW Hi-Cone (Ireland); ITW Real Estate II Corp.; ITW SPIT S.p.A. (Italy); ITW Switches Asia Ltd. (Taiwan); Lakeville Corp.; Meritex Plastic Industries; Meritex (PENANG) Sdn. Bhd. (Malaysia); Mima, Inc.; Minigrip, Inc.; N.A. Woodworth Co.; Plastiglide Mfg. Corp.; Paslode GmbH (Germany); Paslode Corp.; Societe de Prospection et DInvention Techniques (France); Spezial-Produkte Fur Industrie Und TechMik Haandels GmbH (Germany); ITW do Brasil Participacoes Ltda. (Brazil); Ramset Japan; Scanilec B.V. (Netherlands); Shippers Paper Products Co.; Signode B.V. (Netherlands); Signode Bernpak GmbH (Germany); Signode Canada Inc.; Signode Corporation; Signode do Brasil Commercio e Services Ltda. (Brazil); Signode Europa G.m.b.H. (Germany); Signode Fasteners Inc. (Canada); Signode Foreign Sales Corp. (Virgin Islands); Signode Hong Kong Ltd.; Signode International Corporation; Signode International Trading Corporation; Signode K.K. (Japan); Signode Overseas Inc. of Illinois; Signode System GmbH (Germany); W.A. Deutsher Pty. Ltd. (Australia); Waterbury Burkle Co.; Waterbury Tag Co.; Industra Products (UK), Ltd.; Micro-Poise Holdings U.S., Inc.; Milhab Road Facility, Inc.; Rans Service, Inc.; Rans Service Ltd. (Japan, 66.5%); Ransburg-Gema Pty. Limited (Australia); Ransburg Automation Limited (Japan); Ransburg Canada Limited; Ransburg Electropainters (Hong Kong) Limited; Ransburg Equipamentos Industriais Ltda. (Brazil, 50%); Ransburg-Gema, Inc.; Ransburg-Gema Limited; Ransburg-Gema AG (Switzerland); Ransburg-Gema GmbH (Germany); Ransburg-Gema KK (Japan, 66.5%); Ransburg-Gema SA (Spain); Ransburg-Gema SA (France); Ransburg-Gema s.r.l. (Italy); Ransburg-Gema Pumpen GmbH (Germany); Ransburg-Gema UK Limited; Ransburg Industrial (Hong Kong) Limited; Ransburg International Corporation; Ransburg Leasing Corporation; Ransburg Manufacturing Corp.; The Simco Company, Inc.; Simco (Europe) B.V. (Netherlands); Simco Japan, Inc. (50%); Simco Nederland BV (Netherlands); Wabash Comercial Ltda (Brazil).

Further Reading

Boorstin, Daniel J., The Americans: The National Experience, New York, Vintage Books, 1965; ITW History, Illinois Tool Works corporate typescript, [1981].

Ginger G. Rodriguez

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