Pavlodar, city (1989 pop. 330,748), N Kazakhstan, on the Irtysh River. It is an oil-refining center, and manufactures include heavy machinery, aluminum, and chemicals. It was founded as a fortress in 1720, and remained for many years a quiescent salt manufacturing town.
"Pavlodar." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/pavlodar
"Pavlodar." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved January 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/pavlodar