Nicholas I, Saint (pope)
Saint Nicholas I, c.825–867, pope (858–67), a Roman; successor of Benedict III. He was a vigorous and politically active pope who arbitrated both temporal and religious disputes. His decisions often set important precedents, as when the pope upheld the right of the bishop of Soissons to appeal to Rome against his superior, Archbishop Hincmar. Much of his pontificate was concerned with preventing the proposed divorce of Lothair of Lotharingia, who wished to remarry. Even when Holy Roman Emperor Louis II occupied Rome, the pope refused to yield. In the end he forced Lothair to reinstate his wife. Nicholas challenged the right of Photius to occupy the see of Constantinople and attempted to have St. Ignatius of Constantinople restored to it. St. Nicholas worked with Boris I to introduce Roman ecclesiastical jurisdiction in Bulgaria, which had recently been converted by the Byzantines. A letter from the pope to Boris is extant. He was succeeded by Adrian II. Feast: Nov. 13.
"Nicholas I, Saint (pope)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 21, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/nicholas-i-saint-pope
"Nicholas I, Saint (pope)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/nicholas-i-saint-pope
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.