Hincmar (hĬngk´mär), 806–82, Frankish canonist and theologian, archbishop of Reims (from 845). He was a supporter of Carolingian Emperor Louis I and a counselor of his son Charles II (Charles the Bald). As a metropolitan he tried to depose the bishop of Soissons in 862 and brought on himself the censure of Pope St. Nicholas I. Later (876), in a different contention, he upheld the rights of metropolitans. Hincmar vigorously opposed Gottschalk and urged (850) Erigena to write on predestination. Dissatisfied with Erigena's tract, Hincmar wrote three treatises on the subject himself. He strongly opposed the divorce of Lothair, king of Lotharingia, and he spent much of his time in defending the claims of Charles in various dynastic struggles, particularly against Louis the German. Hincmar openly challenged the authenticity of portions of the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals [see False Decretals]. As a strong upholder of tradition, Hincmar defended the practice of public penance and initiated a reform in the French clerical life of the period.
"Hincmar." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hincmar
"Hincmar." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved October 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hincmar
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.