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hornbeam

hornbeam or ironwood, name in North America for two groups of trees of the family Betulaceae (birch family), native to the eastern half of the continent. Carpinus caroliniana, also called blue beech and water beech, has smooth gray bark. The hop hornbeam, Ostrya virginiana, has thin, narrowly ridged, light-brown bark. The strong, heavy wood of both species is used for tool handles, mallets, and vehicle parts. Many valuable hardwood timber trees of other families are called ironwood, especially in Australia and in the Old World tropics. Hornbeams are classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Fagales, family Betulaceae.

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"hornbeam." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"hornbeam." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hornbeam

Carpinus

Carpinus (hornbeams; family Betulaceae) A genus of monoecious, catkin-bearing trees, in which the male flowers are without bracteoles, and have about 10 forked stamens. The female flowers are borne in terminal, drooping catkins. The fruit is a small nut with a large, 3-lobed, bract-like, or leafy involucre on one side. Hornbeams are smooth-barked trees, with simple leaves, at one time much coppiced in Europe. The wood was also used formerly to make wooden gear wheels, on account of its toughness. There are about 35 species, occurring in the northern temperate zone, and in Central America.

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"Carpinus." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Retrieved August 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/carpinus

hornbeam

hornbeam See CARPINUS and BETULACEAE.

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"hornbeam." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"hornbeam." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Retrieved August 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hornbeam

hornbeam

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"hornbeam." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 23 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"hornbeam." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 23, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hornbeam

"hornbeam." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved August 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hornbeam