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gum (colloidal plant substance)

gum, term commonly applied to any of a wide variety of colloidal substances somewhat similar in appearance and general characteristics, exuded by or extracted from plants. In this classification, however, many substances that are not true gums are included, among them many resins, so-called gum resins, and such substances as frankincense, myrrh, labdanum, copal, amber, chicle, and rubber (gum elastic, India rubber). True gums are complex organic substances mostly obtained from plants, some of which are soluble in water and others of which, although insoluble in water, swell up by absorbing large quantities of it. With water they form thick, gluey fluids. Their chemical nature is complex. In general, they contain in various proportions carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and such metals as calcium, magnesium, and potassium in the form of salts of various organic acids. Gum arabic, or gum acacia, is a typical, water-soluble gum obtained from various plants of the genus Acacia, chiefly those found in Africa. A complex polysaccharide containing metal salts, gum arabic varies in color from white to red and is used extensively in making inks, adhesives, and confections; in the textile industry for filling fabrics; and in medicine as an emollient. Gum senegal is very similar. Among the gum resins (mixtures of gums and resins) are ammoniac, asafetida, bdellium, gamboge, and myrrh. See also tragacanth.

See C. L. Mantell et al., The Technology of Natural Resins (1942); C. L. Mantell, The Water-Soluble Gums (1947, repr. 1965); R. L. Davidson, Handbook of Water-Soluble Gums and Resins (1980).

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"gum (colloidal plant substance)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Gum

GUM

The acronym GUM stands for Main Department Store (Glavnyi universal'nyi magazin), and indeed, from the time it opened in 1953, GUM was the Soviet Union's largest and busiest retail establishment. Located on the northeast corner of Red Square, GUM occupies the historic premises of Moscow's Upper Trading Rows. This enormous glass-roofed complex, completed in 1893, might be considered an early shopping mall; in the late imperial period, it housed between three hundred and one thousand shops at a time. The Upper Trading Rows were nationalized along with other commercial businesses in the aftermath of the Bolshevik Revolution, and were almost immediately converted into office space for the new Soviet bureaucracy. The New Economic Policy of the 1920s brought a brief revival of trade in the building when the municipal government established a five-and-dime emporium there, but it soon reverted to administrative use.

When the premises were refurbished for retailing during the early 1950s, the emphasis was no longer on discounted sales. GUM became the Soviet capital's most prestigious store, with specialized departments for such luxuries as Central Asian rugs, televisions, crystal stemware, and fur coats. Another department, Section 200, sold luxury wares exclusively to the Soviet elite; entry into this department was by permit only.

In 1992 GUM was reorganized as a joint-stock company. According to a 1991 formula, onequarter of the shares went to the Moscow city government and one-quarter to employees, while the balance was sold to private investors.

See also: red square

Julie Hessler

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"Gum." Encyclopedia of Russian History. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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gum

gum1 / gəm/ • n. 1. a viscous secretion of some trees and shrubs that hardens on drying but is soluble in water, and from which adhesives and other products are made. Compare with resin. ∎  glue that is used for sticking paper or other light materials together. ∎ short for chewing gum or bubblegum. ∎  a gum tree, esp. a eucalyptus. See also sweet gum. 2. dated a long rubber boot. • v. (gummed , gum·ming ) [tr.] cover with gum or glue: [as adj.] (gummed) gummed paper. ∎  [tr.] fasten with gum or glue: I was gumming small green leaves to a paper tree. ∎  (gum something up) clog up a mechanism and prevent it from working properly: open and close the valves to make sure they don't get gummed up. | fig. there was no winner and they debated the factors that could have gummed up the works. gum2 • n. the firm area of flesh around the roots of the teeth in the upper or lower jaw: a tooth broken off just above the gum | [as adj.] gum disease. • v. (gummed , gum·ming ) [tr.] chew with toothless gums: some grandmother gumming a meal. gum3 • n. (in phrase by gum!) an exclamation used for emphasis.

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"gum." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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gum

gum
1. Any of a variety of substances obtained from plants. Typically they are insoluble in organic solvents but form gelatinous or sticky solutions with water. Gum resins are mixtures of gums and natural resins. Gums are produced by the young xylem vessels of some plants (mainly trees) in response to wounding or pruning. The exudate hardens when it reaches the plant surface and thus provides a temporary protective seal while the cells below divide to form a permanent repair. Excessive gum formation is a symptom of some plant diseases. See also mucilage.

2. See gingiva.

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"gum." A Dictionary of Biology. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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gum

gum Secretions of plants. Gums are chemically complex, consisting mainly of various saccharides bound to organic acids. Common examples are gum arabic (used as an adhesive on envelopes and postage stamps), agar and tragacanth. Chewing gum is derived from the sapodilla tree. See also eucalyptus; resins

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"gum." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"gum." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 16, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gum

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gum

gum2 viscid secretion from trees. XIV. — (O)F. gomme :- Rom. *gumma, for L. gummi, var. of cummi — Gr. kómmi, of Egyptian orig.
Hence gummy XIV. gum vb. †treat with aromatic gums XV; fasten or stiffen with gum XVI.

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"gum." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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gum

gum1 †inside of mouth or throat OE.; firm flesh in which the teeth are fixed. XIV. OE. gōma corr. to OHG. guomo (MHG. guome) gum. ON. gómr roof or floor of the mouth, finger-tip, rel. to OHG. goumo (G. gaumen).

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"gum." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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GUM

GUM • abbr. genitourinary medicine.

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gum

gum3 XIX. (sl.) alt. of GOD, in by or my gum.

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gum

gum (gum) n. (in anatomy) see gingiva.

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"gum." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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gum (in anatomy)

gum, in anatomy: see teeth.

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gum

gumbecome, benumb, Brum, bum, chum, come, crumb, cum, drum, dumb, glum, gum, ho-hum, hum, Kara Kum, lum, mum, numb, plum, plumb, Rhum, rhumb, rum, scrum, scum, slum, some, strum, stum, succumb, sum, swum, thrum, thumb, tum, yum-yum •natatorium •stumblebum • dumdum • bubblegum •outcome • sugarplum • lanthanum •kettledrum • breadcrumb • humdrum •eardrum

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"gum." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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GUM

GUM genito-urinary medicine
• (gʊm) (Russia) Gosudarstvenni Universalni Magazin (Universal State Store)

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