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Kyoto

Kyoto (kyō´tō), city (1990 pop. 1,461,140), capital of Kyoto prefecture, S Honshu, Japan, on the Kamo River. Yodo is its port. Kyoto is one of Japan's largest cities and an important cultural and spiritual center. It is a key city in Japan's transportation system, and it is a major center of tourism. Industries, which are mainly traditional, include machines, chemicals, textiles, and food processing. The city is famous for its cloisonné, bronzes, damascene work, porcelain, and lacquer ware, and its renowned silk industry dates from 794. Founded in the 8th cent. as Uda and named Heian-kyo when it became Japan's capital in 794, the city was popularly called Miyako or Kyoto (sometimes Kioto). After 1192 it lost its political power to Tokyo; but since 1868, when the latter became the official capital, Kyoto has often been referred to as Saikyo [western capital]. For centuries it has been the cultural heart of Japan; it contains magnificent art treasures and is the seat of Kyoto Univ., Doshisha Univ. (founded in 1873 as an American mission college), and other higher educational institutions. The Kyoto Municipal Museum of Art, the Kyoto National Museum, and an excellent concert hall are also there. Rich in historic interest, Kyoto is the site of the tombs of many famous Japanese; the old imperial palace as well as Nijo Castle (former palace of the shoguns), with their fine parks and gardens, are also in the city. In addition, Kyoto is a religious center, noted especially for its ancient Buddhist temples, its Heian shrine (a Shinto holy place), and its 59-ft (18-m) statue (daibutsu) of Buddha.

Kyoto prefecture (1990 pop. 2,602,520), 1,784 sq mi (4,621 sq km), is covered predominantly by the Tamba Mountains, and is centered principally in the region of the city of Kyoto. It had the largest industrial production of any prefecture in Japan until World War II. Other important cities include Uji, Fukuchiyama, and Maizuru.

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Kyōto

Kyōto. Japanese city, of particular importance for its Buddhist temples and monasteries. Virtually every school and sect in Buddhism had or has its location in Kyōto. Of particular early importance are the Hosso (Dōshō) temple Kiyomizu, with its elaborate scaffolding construction (to throw oneself from the scaffold of Kiyomizu is to launch oneself into the unknown), and the Byōdō-in, temple of equality, the ‘Phoenix Hall’ of which survived the fire in 1483 which destroyed all else; it was beautifully restored in 1957. The arrival of Zen brought back the simpler style of a single axis leading from a southern entrance, through the triple gate (sammon), the buddha-hall (butsuden), to the dharma-hall (hatto). Among the earliest are Nanzenji (13th cent., see MUKAN FUMON), and the smaller, but related Eikan-do. Of equal importance is Daitoku-ji, whose original 14th-cent. buildings burned down in the 15th cent., but which remains a classic example of a Zen monastery. Pure Land temples are also prominent in Kyōto, especially Chion-in of Jodo-shu, and Honganji where Shinran was buried. Also at Kyōto is the famous rock garden at the Ryoanji temple, fifteen rocks so placed in groups of seven, five, and three, that from any aspect, one rock is hidden.

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Kyōto

Kyōto City on w central Honshū Island, Japan; capital of Kyōto prefecture. Founded in the 6th century, it was the capital of Japan for more than 1,000 years. Industries: porcelain, lacquerware, textiles, precision tools. Pop. (1993) 1,395,000.

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Kyoto

Kyoto City on w central Honshu island, Japan; capital of Kyoto prefecture. Founded in the 6th century, it was the capital of Japan for more than 1000 years. Industries: porcelain, lacquerware, textiles, precision tools. Pop. (2000) 1,468,000.

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Kyoto

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